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2013 Writing and Grammar Exam Review Answers pg. 300 Pronouns and Antecedents Definition of a pronoun: Takes the place of a noun Definition of an antecedent: The noun that is replaced by a pronoun. Underline the pronoun and draw an arrow to its antecedent. Mary bought the newspaper and read it. The reporter made sure he got the facts correct. pg. 304 Demonstrative Pronouns Definition of a demonstrative pronoun: A pronoun that points out a person, place, or thing. What are the 4 demonstrative pronouns? This, that, these, those Circle the demonstrative pronoun and draw an arrow to what it refers to. This is a new invention. That is newsprint. Those are her books. pg. 315 Action Verbs: Visible / Invisible Definition of a visible action verb: This indicates the action of a person or thing that can be seen or heard. Definition of an invisible (mental) action verb: An action that is happening, but you can’t see or hear it. Circle visible action verbs. Underline invisible action verbs. The audience applauded the performers. He seized control of the government. She understood the assignment. Jack’s hopes soared. pg. 316 Linking Verbs Definition of a linking verb: A verb that connects a noun or pronoun to a word that identifies or describes it. Underline the linking verb and circle the words being linked. The philosophers were thoughtful. The girl remained calm. She was a historian. pg. 320 Helping Verbs / Main Verbs Definition of a helping verb: A verb that comes before the main verb and adds to its meaning. Definition of a main verb: the last verb in a verb phrase Circle the helping verbs and underline the main verbs: He had conquered many territories. He should have been leading the soldiers. pg. 330 Adjectives Definition of an adjective: A word that describes a noun or pronoun. What are the two parts of speech an adjective may modify? Noun or pronoun Circle all the adjectives: Table tennis is played on green tables. Large, colorful graphics covered the screen. pg. 332 Articles Definition of an article: Articles indicate that a noun will soon follow. Which article is a definite article? “the” and it points to a specific person, place, or thing. Which two articles are indefinite, and how do you know when to use each one? “A” is used with words starting with consonant sounds, or sounds where your lips and tongue have to move to form it. “An” is used with words starting with softer vowel sounds, or “airy, breathy” types of sounds. They both point to any member of a group of similar people, places, or things. Circle all the articles in the sentences: A puppy is the silliest baby! An elephant is huge and strong! All of the girls are going. pg. 334 Proper Adjectives Definition of a proper adjective: An adjective that is made from a proper noun, or is a proper noun used to describe another noun. It is always capitalized. Underline all the proper adjectives in the sentences: The Baltimore newspaper is in Baltimore, Maryland. Table soccer began as a German game. pg. 336 Pronouns as Adjectives (Possessive Adjectives) Definition of a possessive adjective: A personal pronoun can be used as an adjective if it modifies a noun. Underline the possessive adjectives and draw a line to its antecedents. All students can leave their books here. Mike broke his record in tennis. pg. 338 Demonstrative Adjectives Definition of a demonstrative adjective: When the four demonstrative pronouns are used as adjectives. What are the 4 demonstrative adjectives? This, that, these, those Circle all the demonstrative adjectives: That game of darts looks like fun. This boat belongs to me. All of those books are going. pg. 340 Adverbs Definition of an adverb: A word that modifies, or describes, a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Underline all the adverbs in the sentences: The mother tenderly moved the pup. Yesterday, the males hunted extremely well. A very kind and quite nice woman helped me. She quickly left for Paris today. pg. 352 Prepositions and Prepositional phrases Definition of a preposition: A preposition relates a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. What does a prepositional phrase have to have? Preposition and object of a preposition Write the 55 common prepositions: about above across after against along among around at before according to instead of behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but by down during except for from in inside into like near of in addition to on account of off on onto opposite out outside over past since through to toward under underneath until up upon with within without next to Underline all the prepositions and put parenthesis around the prepositional phrases: The ball was hit (over the fence), (through the window), and (into the front living room). The boy (in the white shirt) gave the teacher a book (from the shelf). I walked (into the room) and began to read. The little puppy (in the yard) barked (at the man) (on the street). pg. 354 Distinguishing Between Prepositions and Adverbs Circle prepositions and underline adverbs. The ball rolled outside the infield. He played past his sixtieth birthday. The game is played outside. He had played for many years before. pg. 364 Coordinating Conjunctions Definition of a coordinating conjunction: It joins words, phrases, or sentences together. “FANBOYS” What are the 7 coordinating conjunctions? For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Underline the coordinating conjunctions in the sentences and circle the words it joins together: The seals and sea lions live there. He works quickly yet carefully. He or I will lead the nature talk. The hikers walked the trail over the hill and to the beach. pg. 370 Interjections Underline the interjections in the sentences: Wow! What a great play! Oh, I wish I could find it. Ooops, I dropped it. pg. 380 The Basic Sentence - Simple Subjects Definition of a simple subject: The who or what the sentence is about. Underline the simple subjects of the sentences: He asked me for help. All of us are going. China was where the abacus was invented. Mary, Jack, and John are sleeping quietly. pg. 382 Simple Predicates Definition of a simple predicate: The verb of the sentence Underline the simple predicates of the sentences: Connie drew the graphic for the cover. Marvin must be ready. The programs were changed. Jack ran, jumped, and leaped over the hurdles. pg. 386 Complete Subjects/Predicates Definition of a complete subject: It includes the simple subject and all the words related to it. Definition of a complete predicate: It includes the simple predicate and all the words related to it. Underline the complete subject of each sentence once and the complete predicate twice. My old friend returned my computer disk today. An expensive model of the computer sits in the store window. Do you like chocolate chip cookies? pg. 390 Compound Subjects/Predicates Underline compound (simple) subjects once and compound (simple) predicates twice: Bob or Sue will go. Hockey and football are my favorite sports. Sandy and Marie called and asked for help. Words, pictures, and sounds are changed easily. Silly puppies and smart kitties played, slept and snored throughout the day. pg. 398 Direct Objects Definition of a direct object: A noun or pronoun that appears with an action verb and directly receives the action of the verb. Underline the direct objects of the sentences: I dropped the pen on the floor. Fred asked Mary a question. She picked up the books, paper, and pens. He gave her a minute to respond. pg. 400 Indirect Objects Definition of an indirect object: A noun or pronoun which tells which person or thing something is being given or done for. Underline the indirect objects of the sentences: Mike gave Sam the hunting knife. Jeff asked Mary a question. Tom sold Jack, Eric, and Mike the tickets to the concert. pg. 404 Predicate Nouns (Nominatives) Definition of a predicate nominative: A noun or pronoun that appears behind a linking verb and renames or identifies the subject. Circle the predicate nouns in the sentences: Mike is the captain of our team. The bridge was a very old structure. My puppy is a Labrador. The speakers today are Jim and Rebecca. pg. 407 Predicate Adjectives Definition of a predicate adjective: An adjective that appears behind a linking verb and describes the subject. Underline the predicate adjectives in the sentences: The river appears deep. Your hand feels cold. I am tired. The room grew crowded and stuffy. She was prepared but excited. pg. 421 Using Appositive Phrases Definition of an appositive / appositive phrase: An appositive / appositive phrase is a noun or pronoun, sometimes with modifiers, that comes after another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain it. Underline the appositive phrase and draw an arrow to the word(s) it modifies: Mrs. Smith, my teacher, is going on a trip to China. Jack, my brother, is in her class. Cumulative paragraph: Read the paragraph below and answer the questions. All of the students brought their workbooks to class one Friday. After writing down their homework, the students knew to look at the daily agenda written on the board and get ready for class. The first thing to do was give their teacher their homework. Now the teacher, Mr. Smith, is really nice, so if they didn’t have it, they knew they could turn it in the next day. However, the person standing before them was a substitute – their teacher was absent! Mike and Jack panicked and glanced at each other. The two boys were now worried about their homework grades. a. predicate noun/nominative b. predicate adjective e. simple subject f. simple predicate i. complete subject j. compound predicates All is used as a __E___ c. indirect object d. direct object g. appositive h. compound subjects k. complete predicate homework is used as a__D___ brought is used as a _F____ nice is used as a__B___ teacher is used as a __C___ substitute is used as a __A____ Mr. Smith is used as a___G__ Mike and Jack are____H___ and _i____ panicked and glanced are ___J____ were now worried about their homework grades is the __K______. pg. 426 – 429 Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentences Definition of a simple sentence: A sentence that consists of a single independent clause. Definition of a compound sentence: A sentence that consists of two or more independent clauses. Definition of a complex sentence: A sentence that consists of one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Write what type of sentence each is: simple, compound, or complex. The bell rang.______simple______________ She rode up the path to school.______simple___________ I planned to go to the hockey game, but I could not get tickets._____compound________________ The kittens and puppies jumped, tumbled, and played all day in the yard.___simple_____________ Because Kayla has so much climbing experience, we asked her to lead our group.____complex______ My mother and father wished me luck and drove me to the race.____simple________________ This is the event that he describes in the book.____complex___________________ A rider uses high gears to keep the bike at speed during level riding.___simple_________________ Allen is stronger than we realized._____complex____________________ Cumulative paragraph: Read the paragraph below and answer the questions. 1. During my nature walk I saw several beautiful birds. 2. They were perched on several branches of the swaying birch tree, and many had nests. 3. Often, if I was quiet, I could stand very close to the lower branches and see them very easily. 4. Many ignored me. 5. Some flew away. 6. While I was standing there. Which groups of words are examples of a simple sentence?__1, 4, 5_____ Which group of words is an example of a compound sentence?__2___ Which group of words is an example of a subordinate/dependent clause?__6___ Which group of words is an example of a complex sentence?_3____ Subordinating conjunctions: Write what AAAWWUBBIS stands for: after, although, as, when./whenever, while, until, because, before, if, since pg. 508 Using Subject/Nominative Pronouns What are the subject/nominative pronouns? These pronouns can be the subject or predicate nominative of a sentence. I, you, he, she, it, we, they Choose the correct pronoun to finish the sentence. The kids down the street and (us,we) often play football. Our team members and (them, they) are the same age. Derrick and (her, she) will be the team captains. Julie and (I, me) run faster than anyone else. (Him, He) and (I, me) celebrated. pg. 509 Using Objective Pronouns What are the objective pronouns? These pronouns can be direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of a preposition. Me, you, him, her, it, us, them Choose the correct pronoun to finish the sentence. Write down how it is being used in the sentence: IO, DO, or Obj. of Prep. Tim invited (I, me) to a soccer game.___DO______________ Just above (he and I, him and me) were some rowdy fans. ___Obj. of Prep.____ Zoe visited (we, us) before the game started.________DO______________ She brought Todd and (I, me) a game program.___IO_________________ Between you and (I, me), it was a fantastic day.__Obj. of Prep._______ Our team captain voted for (he, him)._Obj. of Prep.______________________ My friend gave (I, me) highlights of the game.___IO__________________ The player asked the coach and (he, him) for help.__DO___________________ pg. 510 Using Possessive Pronouns What are the possessive pronouns (adjectives)? The possessive adjectives show ownership and come before a noun. My, your, his, her, its, our, their. The possessive pronouns show ownership but do not come before a noun. Mine, yours, his, hers, its ours, theirs. Choose the correct pronoun/adjective to finish each sentence. I left ____ sneakers at home. my, mine The trophy will be ____. theirs, their’s I know ___ owner will be glad to get this backpack back! its, it’s pg. 511 Using Different Pronoun Cases Underline the pronoun in the sentence. Tell what case it is in: Nominative Objective Possessive You are holding up traffic.__________n_____________ Ours is the best school in the district._____p_______________ The vacation had its great moments.______p________________ I told her a secret._______o_______________ Roger asked me.________o_____________ Did they practice this afternoon?____n_____________ The person to ask is he.____n_____________________ Michelle and we went to the park._____n__________________ I have known Bert and him since first grade._____o_____________________ The auditorium is ours for the afternoon.______p_________________ pg. 528 Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement Choose the correct pronoun to finish the sentence correctly. Melissa planned (she, her) trip to Canada’s Yukon last month. Tom will lend Melissa (him, his) suitcase. Hikers will have (his, their) pick of trails in the Yukon. The boys have all brought (his, their) hiking boots. The girls knew (she, they) had to bring coats and hats. Andrew or Keith gives (his, their) report about the Gold Rush today. Joyce and Robert showed (their, his) father the drawing of the Yukon River. The gold prospectors packed up (his, their) supplies and headed toward the Yukon. A man and wife kept a journal of (her, their) travels. Either Claude or his brother hopes to make (his, their) fortune prospecting in the Yukon. Claude’s wife and daughter looked sad as (she, they) watched him leave. The Yukon is noted for (its, their) harsh winters. Rescue workers carried (her, their) equipment to where Ben had fallen.