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The legacy of Greek culture has outlived the history of Ancient Greece itself. More than any other nation, the Greeks have influenced western society in many spheres, from literature, philosophy, science, and aesthetics to art, architecture, and language. Ancient Greece: Introductory Notes (pp.320-332). Complete the following outline: I.Historical Background A. The Early Aegean's (1600 BC) 1. The most influential through trade were______________ who lived on the island of ___________. 2. Their culture was of one of comfort, ____________ and ______________. 3. Most were sophisticated _____________ dwellers. B. Mycenean Civilizaion 1. The Myceneans were ______________ from the north who settled the Greek mainland. 2. By ___________________, the sophisticated culture of the Mycenean empire had disappeared. C. The Dark Ages 1. The Dark Ages lasted for____________ years; no records of life at that time have survived. 2. During the Dark Ages, the _____________(primitive invaders) inhabited the region. 3. In the 8th Century BC, major colonies were founded throughout the Mediterranean from ____________,_______________, and ___________ to what is now_______________ and ________________. 4. To facilitate trading, the Greeks established the first ________________. 5. There is evidence of literacy ___________ in Greece by 750 BC. Literacy was not restricted to a select class. D. The Orientalization Period J. Greece emerged from the Dark Age not only with widespread literacy but with ____________ _____________ that represented a culmination of a long and rich oral tradition. K. Independent cities, _______________ L. They were constantly at war with each other due to the difference in customs, _______________, and _________________. E. The Persian War. 1. By the beginning of the 5th Century BC, ________________ and __________________ had emerged as the two most powerful city-states. 2. Together they resisted the _______________ invasion of Europe from 490-479 BC. 3. Athens' decisive role in resisting Persia gave rise to the _____________. 4. During this "Golden Age of Athens", citizens lived under a ____________ that encouraged them to develop _______________. 5. Sparta , on the other hand, was _______________state in which individuals were _______________ to the state. 6. As a result, the _______________ army was superior and controlled most of the city-states in Peloponnese. F. Look at the time line give on page 324-325 for the years 800 - 300 BC of Ancient Greece. What are your general observations of the Greeks accomplishments in literature, human progress, and history? G. Who was the statesman associated with Athenian democracy? __________ What seemed to be his flaw which brought on the Peloponnesian War? H. A civil war between ______________ and ______________ broke out in 432 BC. _______________ was defeated in 404 BC. I. However, _______________, not Sparta, emerged as a world power. Macedon's King Philip's son, _______________ eventually conquered parts of Egypt, Turkey, _______________, _______________, and parts of _______________ forming part of Alexander's empire. J. The eastern Mediterranean was such a strong Greek empire that it survived the rise and fall of ______________________________. II. RELIGION A. How did the Greeks conceive of their gods? B. Why was BLANCE so important to the ancient Greeks? C. How did the Greek gods' hierarchy reflect the "cosmos"? D. If all the gods were related to Zeus in some way, what did all legenary heroes claim as well? E. Define FATE (or destiny) in the eyes of ancient Greeks. III. LITERATURE A. What is the function of the hero in Homer's epics? B. What did "lyric" originally mean?_________ Why would "lyric qualities" be lost over time as your text tells you? C. Philosophy: 1. With the "____________ Enlightenment" came the first scientist philosophers. 2. Famous early philsophers: a. Socrates (died by being forced to drink hemlock) b. Plato ("platonic" philosophies = there is a realm of immutable, perfect forms of which this world is a flawed reflection--- those concepts were drawn upon by some of the finest minds of later generations, including many _____________ _______________. c. Aristotle (Plato's disciple) = teacher of ___________ the Great. d. For the Greek, the nature and nurture of the soul must be examined in connection with civilized life in a _________________. D. Tragedy: The dramatic form of Greek Tragedy peaked in the 5 th Century BC. 1. Tragedies + dealt with universal issues and with contemporary politics. (Their story lines were taken from legends by ___________ with themes of ____________ , ___________ , and _____________.) 2. Tragedies were performed during festivals ( usually festivals to the gods) explored fundamental _______________ _______________. 3. Citizens left the tragedies feeling __________________. 4. Comedies were also written at the time. E. History: 1. Tragedians of 5th Century BC examined the human ______________ And reflected on the human's place in the _____________________. 2. The "father of history" is __________________________. He saw a tragic pattern in the rise and fall of empires. What was the pattern? 3. Herodotus warned that people should never forget _______________. 4. Tucydides (as well as other Greek historians) was their roles as teachers with the purpose of perventing future gernations from ____________. F. "Greek Voices", page 329 DIRECTIONS: Choose one or two of the quotes by the ancients with which you agree. Explain why you agree with the "truism". IV HOMER: A. Homer wrote the _____________and the _______________. B. You read the ________________ your freshman year. It is basically the story of __________________ journey (odyssey) home C. Homer was often called the "Ionian Bard", so more than likely he was from __________________ (a Greek island). D. Why might he have been called the "blind" poet? (symbolically and realistically) E. F. G. H. I. The Iliad was composed during what years? ________________ However, both the Iliad and the Odyssey are set in that era? From where did Homer get 500 year stories of his epics? When was the war against Troy? To the ancient Greeks, their heroes were descendants of ______________. IV. J. Homer's epics carried much influence because they were the first to ________________________________. BACKGROUND: THE ILIAD A. Form and Structure: 1. Epic verse had a formula a. begins in medias res (which means? _____________________) b. uses stock epithets(which are? ________________________) c. has fixed metrical formulas (which means? __________________ 2. Homer began his epics with an invocation to a muse" Explain: 3. Why were epithets used? 3. The Greek epic line is made up of _______ units (feet) composed of one ___________ and two ________(such as the word "dangerous")-one foot of dactyl rhythm. OR the lines were "spondees" which are two ________________ syllables (hyphenated words, or two strong, emphasized words side-by-side, such as the epithets.) B. Historical Context: 1. The Trojan War took __________ years. 2. The Odyssey is the ___________years after that Odysseus took trying to get back home to Penelope in Ithaca. ( a Greek city-state) 3. The Iliad takes place n the ____________ year of the Trojan War. 4. Was Greece a united nation of time of the Iliad? 5. The Iliad is the story of a prince named __________________ who abducted another king's wife. Her name was _________________ ("The face that launched a thousand ships.") 6. Look up and define: Ethos = Pathos = Logos = 7. Greeks fought for their ____________ and to ensure a reputation that would _____________ them. 8. Honor was expressed by the quantity of __________________ from victory at war, a symbol of the hero's merit. 9. A hero's honor depended on how the ____________saw him, not how He __________________. Attitudes toward war and death (and suicide) are quite different from ours. 10. Homer would have _________________ the Iliad to his audiences. He would have followed the conventions of the day and of the epic style, but also included his own vision of human ________________.