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Transcript
International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE)
www.ijrde.com
ISSN: 2279-0500
Special Issue: pp- 120-124
Speed Control of PMBLDC Motor Using PFC Cuk
Converter for Air-Conditioner
1
K.Barathi1, S.Suganthi2
PG Scholar in Power Electronics and Drives, Mailam Engineering College, India
Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mailam Engineering College, India
2
ABSTRACT
The diode bridge rectifier incorporating DC –
DC cuk converter fed from single phase AC
mains is designed to drive a permanent magnet
brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM). The cuk
converter power switch is driven with the aid of
single stage power factor correction (PFC)
converter control. The closed loop operation of
sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed
within the power factor correction (PFC)
converter circuit. The permanent magnet
brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) is controlled
with the help of DC – DC cuk converter input
fed to the three phase voltage – source inverter
(VSI) bridge circuit which in–turn to regulate
the motor. The electronic commutator is used to
operate the three phase voltage – source inverter
(VSI) bridge rectifier which is used to run
PMBLDC and it drives an air – conditioning
compressor. Thus the speed of the permanent
magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) is
controlled with the help of the controller and
produce better output performance with the
reduction in total harmonic distortion (THD).
The output performance characteristic of the
SMC controller is compared with the
conventional (PI) controller. Thus in this
proposed work SMC controller is designed to
provide reduction in total harmonic distortion
and the better speed control over a wide range
of variation of the input ac mains of the
PMBLDC system. This proposed work is
constructed for the main application of air –
conditioner. The power quality is improved as
the total harmonic distortion (THD) is reduced
for this system and their corresponding
simulation results are developed with the help of
MATLAB – SIMULINK software.
Keywords: Power factor correction (PFC),
Permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC)
motor, Sliding Mode controller (SMC), Cuk
converter, Voltage – Source Inverter (VSI).
I. INTRODUCTION
The main features of permanent magnet brushless
DC (PMBLDC) motor as wide speed range with
high efficiency and low maintenance leads to their
vast use of applications in low power appliances [2]
– [5]. The 3ø synchronous motor has rugged
construction with the permanent magnet rotor. The
electrical commutation in permanent magnet
brushless DC motor is achieved by power switches
of 3ø VSI. With the maintenance of air –
conditioner temperature at the reference set value,
the PMBLDC motor in the application of air –
conditioning compressor provides better efficiency.
When PMBLDC motor is operated under speed
controlled, the air – conditioner leads to constant
torque operation. The air – conditioner with
PMBLDC motor used for low power appliances
due to their advantages as reduced running rate,
extended life and reduction of mechanical stress
and electrical stress.
Among different converter configuration, power
factor correction (PFC) converter is more expected
for a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC)
motor [5], [6]. The IEC 61000 – 3 – 2 standards of
power quality for low power appliances [8], give
attention on nearer to unity pf and low harmonic
contents which is drawn by these drives from ac
mains.
Though there are many works describing about
permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor
with PFC converter topologies such as battery
charging applications and PFC converter with
switched mode power supplies. This proposed
work deals with the speed control of permanent
magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor
integrating with power factor correction (PFC)
converter. In this work, the DC – DC Cuk
converter is employed as a power factor correction
(PFC) converter. Since DC – DC Cuk converter has
advantageous such as small output filter and wide
range of output voltage with the continuous input
and output currents than other converter topologies
[9] – [10].
Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED) 2014
120 | P a g e
International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE)
www.ijrde.com
ISSN: 2279-0500
Special Issue: pp- 120-124
II. SPEED CONTROL METHOD OF
PROPOSED SYSTEM
The speed control method of permanent magnet
brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor for air –
conditioner compressor with the aid of sliding
mode controller which drives DC – DC cuk
converter is designed and shown in block diagram
representation in Fig.1.
input to the voltage source inverter (VSI). The
power semiconductor switches of metal – oxide
semiconductor field – effect transistor (MOSFET)
and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) are
used for the proposed power factor correction
(PFC) converter and voltage source inverter (VSI)
circuit for the high and low frequency operation
respectively. The electronic commutator output is
generated based upon the Hall Effect sensor
signals. The switching sequence of the power
semiconductor switching sequence and the hall
effect signals are tabulated and shown in TABLE I
[6], [11].
TABLE I
ELECTRONIC COMMUTATOR OUTPUT
BASED UPON HALL EFFECT SENSOR
SIGNALS
Fig.1.Speed Control Method of Proposed System
The proposed system block diagram explains the
control operation and speed control of permanent
magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor. The
single stage AC source is used for the generation of
reference current which also has the input Ic from
SMC controller output. This reference current
generator is used to produce the output of current
Id*. The current Id* act as the input to PWM current
controller which compares with current Id obtained
from the output of diode bridge rectifier. The error
output from the PWM current controller act as
pulse generating signal for the power
semiconductor switches of DC – DC cuk converter.
From the TABLE I show that the values of “0” and
“1” as the operation of ON and OFF condition of
power semiconductor switches IGBTs of the
voltage source inverter (VSI). The upper switches
are named in order as Sa1, Sb1, Sc1 and the lower
switches as Sa2, Sb2, Sc2.
III. SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER
The input for sliding mode controller is generated
from the output error signal of DC – DC cuk
converter voltage Vdc comparison with reference
voltage Vdc*. The permanent magnet brushless DC
(PMBLDC) used for the application air –
conditioner compressor is fed from three voltage
source inverter (VSI). The voltage source inverter
(VSI) get the driving signals with the aid of
electronic commutator.
Thus the cuk converter is mainly used to control
the speed of permanent magnet brushless DC
(PMBLDC) motor with the aid of dc link voltage
The sliding mode controller is mainly an adaptive
control which generates the robust characteristics
of a system with the load torque TL disturbance and
also parameter variation. The drive response is used
to slide along a path or reference trajectory with the
help of switching algorithm. The sliding mode
controller is used for the various applications as
drive applications, machine tool control and also
for converter applications. The sliding mode
controller is generally a variable structure
controller.
Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED) 2014
121 | P a g e
International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE)
www.ijrde.com
ISSN: 2279-0500
Special Issue: pp- 120-124
The sliding surface of the system is considered as
trajectory or path along the switching sequence
waveform is shown in Fig.2. The sliding surface
“s” with the time control switching conditio
condition of “1”
or “0” is represented in this figure as s>0 or s<0
respectively. The chattering effect in the system is
reduced with the help of developing any one of the
piece – wise linear functions as shown in Fig.3.
Fig.4.Sliding Mode Controller of the Closed Loop
Control System.
The voltage loop generates voltage
tage error due to the
disturbances if the DC – DC cuk converter is under
open loop control. The PI controller is used to
eliminate this error and produce the current ic. The
voltage loop of the system is given by the equation
representation as,
I* = I1d + Ic
Fig.2. General sliding mode surface along the switches
waveforms
The current loop for the switching manifold of
sliding mode current controller is represented by
the equation as:
S= I1 – I*
The control signal for the cuk converter power
switches with the aid of piece – wise linear
function characteristics of “sign” as:
U = 0.5 (1 – sign(s)) = 1if S<0 or if S>0
The condition of sliding mode existence can be
derived with a candidate Lyapunov function can be
P = 0.5S2 >0 if S ≠ 0
Fig.3.Piece – Wise Linear Functions
The sliding mode controller for the closed loop
control of the system is shown in Fig.4.
Differentiating this equation as:
S’ = - (1 – u) ∗ With Eq. (3.2.15), the derivative of P is
P’ = ss’ ≤
│
││2 21 ∗ 1│ 1
The sufficient condition for P’ < 0 is
│2E – 2L1i*’ – V1│- V1 < 0
Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development ((MEPED) 2014
122 | P a g e
International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE)
www.ijrde.com
ISSN: 2279-0500
Special Issue: pp- 120-124
In the steady state, one has L1I* = 0 due to constant
I*, V2 = Vd, V1d = V1, and V2 = E – V1 < 0 due
to Eq.(3.2.10). The inequality 12 leads to
0 < E – L1I* < E – V2
And also, V2 is negative and |V2| can be greater
than or less than E.
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
The simulation result of the proposed system is
shown in following figures. The Fig.5.1. shows
response of the pulse generated to the cuk converter
power switches. The Fig.5.2. shows the output
voltage response of cuk converter with the
reference set point of 298V. The Fig.5.3. shows
the response of speed control characteristics for the
reference set point of 298V. The Fig.5.4. shows the
response of THD analysis of proposed system with
SMC controller. The TABLE II shows the
performance of the proposed system result with the
representation of THD%, rate of speed, DC link
voltage Vdc, the supply current Is.
Fig.5.2. Output voltage of Cuk converter with the
reference set point of 298V.
Fig.5.3. Output speed waveform for the reference set
point of 298V.
Fig.5.1. Pulse Generated to Cuk Converter
Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED) 2014
123 | P a g e
International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE)
www.ijrde.com
ISSN: 2279-0500
Special Issue: pp- 120-124
Fig.5.4.THD analysis for proposed system using SMC
controller.
TABLE II
PERFORMANCE
FORMANCE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
RESULT
V. CONCLUSION
In this proposed work, the better speed control of
the system was obtained with the help of sliding
mode controller (SMC) and the reference value of
DC link voltage Vdc which is referred as reference
speed. The simulation result performance was also
obtained
ed for this proposed work with the reduction
in the total harmonic distortion (THD) value due to
SMC controller, which is less than the result
obtained with conventional (PI) controller. Thus
one of the power quality (PQ) problem (reduced
THD value) is limited
ited in this proposed system.
REFERENCES
[1] T. Kenjo and S. Nagamori, Permanent Magnet
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[2] T. J. Sokira and W. Jaffe,Brushless DC Motors:
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[3] J. R. Hendershort and T. J. E. Miller, Design of
Brushless PermanentMagnet Motors. Oxford, U.K.:
Clarendon, 1994.
[4] J. F. Gieras and M. Wing,Permanent Magnet Motor
Technology—Design
Design and Application. New York:
Marcel Dekker, 2002.
[5] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al
Al-Haddad,
A. Pandey, and D. P. Kothari, “A review of singlesingle
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ac
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[6] N. Mohan, M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins,Power
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[7] R. A. Kordkheili, M. Yazdani-Asrami,
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[8] T. F. Wu and S. A. Liang, “A systematic approach
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[9] H. T. moon, H. S. Kim and M. J. Youn, “A
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Vdc
THD
Speed
Is
298
1.15%
1501
7.003
265
1.29%
1327
8.025
233
1.25%
1159
6.721
200
1.24%
999.37
5.23
183
1.26%
899.3
4.875
151
1.15%
731.1
3.794
135
1.27%
648.9
3.289
104
1.28%
490.3
2.355
[10] B.BOSSOUFI,
M.KARIM,
S.IONITA,
A.LAGRIOUI, “The Optimal Direct Torque
Control
ntrol of a PMSM drive: FPGA
FPGA-Based
Implementation with Matlab & Simulink
Simulation” Journal of Theoretical and Applied
Information Technology JATIT, pp63-72,
pp63
Vol. 28
No.2, 30th June 2011.
Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED)
(
2014
124 | P a g e