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International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE) www.ijrde.com ISSN: 2279-0500 Special Issue: pp- 120-124 Speed Control of PMBLDC Motor Using PFC Cuk Converter for Air-Conditioner 1 K.Barathi1, S.Suganthi2 PG Scholar in Power Electronics and Drives, Mailam Engineering College, India Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mailam Engineering College, India 2 ABSTRACT The diode bridge rectifier incorporating DC – DC cuk converter fed from single phase AC mains is designed to drive a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM). The cuk converter power switch is driven with the aid of single stage power factor correction (PFC) converter control. The closed loop operation of sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed within the power factor correction (PFC) converter circuit. The permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) is controlled with the help of DC – DC cuk converter input fed to the three phase voltage – source inverter (VSI) bridge circuit which in–turn to regulate the motor. The electronic commutator is used to operate the three phase voltage – source inverter (VSI) bridge rectifier which is used to run PMBLDC and it drives an air – conditioning compressor. Thus the speed of the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) is controlled with the help of the controller and produce better output performance with the reduction in total harmonic distortion (THD). The output performance characteristic of the SMC controller is compared with the conventional (PI) controller. Thus in this proposed work SMC controller is designed to provide reduction in total harmonic distortion and the better speed control over a wide range of variation of the input ac mains of the PMBLDC system. This proposed work is constructed for the main application of air – conditioner. The power quality is improved as the total harmonic distortion (THD) is reduced for this system and their corresponding simulation results are developed with the help of MATLAB – SIMULINK software. Keywords: Power factor correction (PFC), Permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor, Sliding Mode controller (SMC), Cuk converter, Voltage – Source Inverter (VSI). I. INTRODUCTION The main features of permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor as wide speed range with high efficiency and low maintenance leads to their vast use of applications in low power appliances [2] – [5]. The 3ø synchronous motor has rugged construction with the permanent magnet rotor. The electrical commutation in permanent magnet brushless DC motor is achieved by power switches of 3ø VSI. With the maintenance of air – conditioner temperature at the reference set value, the PMBLDC motor in the application of air – conditioning compressor provides better efficiency. When PMBLDC motor is operated under speed controlled, the air – conditioner leads to constant torque operation. The air – conditioner with PMBLDC motor used for low power appliances due to their advantages as reduced running rate, extended life and reduction of mechanical stress and electrical stress. Among different converter configuration, power factor correction (PFC) converter is more expected for a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor [5], [6]. The IEC 61000 – 3 – 2 standards of power quality for low power appliances [8], give attention on nearer to unity pf and low harmonic contents which is drawn by these drives from ac mains. Though there are many works describing about permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor with PFC converter topologies such as battery charging applications and PFC converter with switched mode power supplies. This proposed work deals with the speed control of permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor integrating with power factor correction (PFC) converter. In this work, the DC – DC Cuk converter is employed as a power factor correction (PFC) converter. Since DC – DC Cuk converter has advantageous such as small output filter and wide range of output voltage with the continuous input and output currents than other converter topologies [9] – [10]. Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED) 2014 120 | P a g e International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE) www.ijrde.com ISSN: 2279-0500 Special Issue: pp- 120-124 II. SPEED CONTROL METHOD OF PROPOSED SYSTEM The speed control method of permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor for air – conditioner compressor with the aid of sliding mode controller which drives DC – DC cuk converter is designed and shown in block diagram representation in Fig.1. input to the voltage source inverter (VSI). The power semiconductor switches of metal – oxide semiconductor field – effect transistor (MOSFET) and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) are used for the proposed power factor correction (PFC) converter and voltage source inverter (VSI) circuit for the high and low frequency operation respectively. The electronic commutator output is generated based upon the Hall Effect sensor signals. The switching sequence of the power semiconductor switching sequence and the hall effect signals are tabulated and shown in TABLE I [6], [11]. TABLE I ELECTRONIC COMMUTATOR OUTPUT BASED UPON HALL EFFECT SENSOR SIGNALS Fig.1.Speed Control Method of Proposed System The proposed system block diagram explains the control operation and speed control of permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor. The single stage AC source is used for the generation of reference current which also has the input Ic from SMC controller output. This reference current generator is used to produce the output of current Id*. The current Id* act as the input to PWM current controller which compares with current Id obtained from the output of diode bridge rectifier. The error output from the PWM current controller act as pulse generating signal for the power semiconductor switches of DC – DC cuk converter. From the TABLE I show that the values of “0” and “1” as the operation of ON and OFF condition of power semiconductor switches IGBTs of the voltage source inverter (VSI). The upper switches are named in order as Sa1, Sb1, Sc1 and the lower switches as Sa2, Sb2, Sc2. III. SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER The input for sliding mode controller is generated from the output error signal of DC – DC cuk converter voltage Vdc comparison with reference voltage Vdc*. The permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) used for the application air – conditioner compressor is fed from three voltage source inverter (VSI). The voltage source inverter (VSI) get the driving signals with the aid of electronic commutator. Thus the cuk converter is mainly used to control the speed of permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor with the aid of dc link voltage The sliding mode controller is mainly an adaptive control which generates the robust characteristics of a system with the load torque TL disturbance and also parameter variation. The drive response is used to slide along a path or reference trajectory with the help of switching algorithm. The sliding mode controller is used for the various applications as drive applications, machine tool control and also for converter applications. The sliding mode controller is generally a variable structure controller. Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED) 2014 121 | P a g e International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE) www.ijrde.com ISSN: 2279-0500 Special Issue: pp- 120-124 The sliding surface of the system is considered as trajectory or path along the switching sequence waveform is shown in Fig.2. The sliding surface “s” with the time control switching conditio condition of “1” or “0” is represented in this figure as s>0 or s<0 respectively. The chattering effect in the system is reduced with the help of developing any one of the piece – wise linear functions as shown in Fig.3. Fig.4.Sliding Mode Controller of the Closed Loop Control System. The voltage loop generates voltage tage error due to the disturbances if the DC – DC cuk converter is under open loop control. The PI controller is used to eliminate this error and produce the current ic. The voltage loop of the system is given by the equation representation as, I* = I1d + Ic Fig.2. General sliding mode surface along the switches waveforms The current loop for the switching manifold of sliding mode current controller is represented by the equation as: S= I1 – I* The control signal for the cuk converter power switches with the aid of piece – wise linear function characteristics of “sign” as: U = 0.5 (1 – sign(s)) = 1if S<0 or if S>0 The condition of sliding mode existence can be derived with a candidate Lyapunov function can be P = 0.5S2 >0 if S ≠ 0 Fig.3.Piece – Wise Linear Functions The sliding mode controller for the closed loop control of the system is shown in Fig.4. Differentiating this equation as: S’ = - (1 – u) ∗ With Eq. (3.2.15), the derivative of P is P’ = ss’ ≤ │ ││2 21 ∗ 1│ 1 The sufficient condition for P’ < 0 is │2E – 2L1i*’ – V1│- V1 < 0 Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development ((MEPED) 2014 122 | P a g e International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE) www.ijrde.com ISSN: 2279-0500 Special Issue: pp- 120-124 In the steady state, one has L1I* = 0 due to constant I*, V2 = Vd, V1d = V1, and V2 = E – V1 < 0 due to Eq.(3.2.10). The inequality 12 leads to 0 < E – L1I* < E – V2 And also, V2 is negative and |V2| can be greater than or less than E. IV. SIMULATION RESULTS The simulation result of the proposed system is shown in following figures. The Fig.5.1. shows response of the pulse generated to the cuk converter power switches. The Fig.5.2. shows the output voltage response of cuk converter with the reference set point of 298V. The Fig.5.3. shows the response of speed control characteristics for the reference set point of 298V. The Fig.5.4. shows the response of THD analysis of proposed system with SMC controller. The TABLE II shows the performance of the proposed system result with the representation of THD%, rate of speed, DC link voltage Vdc, the supply current Is. Fig.5.2. Output voltage of Cuk converter with the reference set point of 298V. Fig.5.3. Output speed waveform for the reference set point of 298V. Fig.5.1. Pulse Generated to Cuk Converter Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED) 2014 123 | P a g e International Journal for Research and Development in Engineering (IJRDE) www.ijrde.com ISSN: 2279-0500 Special Issue: pp- 120-124 Fig.5.4.THD analysis for proposed system using SMC controller. TABLE II PERFORMANCE FORMANCE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM RESULT V. CONCLUSION In this proposed work, the better speed control of the system was obtained with the help of sliding mode controller (SMC) and the reference value of DC link voltage Vdc which is referred as reference speed. The simulation result performance was also obtained ed for this proposed work with the reduction in the total harmonic distortion (THD) value due to SMC controller, which is less than the result obtained with conventional (PI) controller. Thus one of the power quality (PQ) problem (reduced THD value) is limited ited in this proposed system. REFERENCES [1] T. Kenjo and S. Nagamori, Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors.Oxford, U.K.: clarendon, 1985. [2] T. J. Sokira and W. Jaffe,Brushless DC Motors: Electronic Commutation and Control. New York: Tab, 1989. [3] J. R. Hendershort and T. J. E. Miller, Design of Brushless PermanentMagnet Motors. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon, 1994. [4] J. F. Gieras and M. Wing,Permanent Magnet Motor Technology—Design Design and Application. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2002. [5] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al Al-Haddad, A. Pandey, and D. P. Kothari, “A review of singlesingle phase improved power quality ac–dc ac converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962– 962 981, Oct. 2003. [6] N. Mohan, M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins,Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and a Design. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1995. Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (Equipment Input Current≤16 Current A Per Phase), Int. Std. IEC 61000-3-2, 2, 2000 [7] R. A. Kordkheili, M. Yazdani-Asrami, Asrami, and A. M. Sayidi., “Making DC-DC DC converters easy to understand for undergraduate graduate students,”in 2010 IEEE Conf. on Open Systems, Dec. 2010, pp. 28 2833. [8] T. F. Wu and S. A. Liang, “A systematic approach to developing single-stage stage soft switching PWM sonverters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 581-593, Feb. 2001. [9] H. T. moon, H. S. Kim and M. J. Youn, “A Discret Time Predictive Current Control for PMSM” IEEE Trans. Power Electronic., vol.18, no.1, pp. 464-472, Janvier. 2003. Vdc THD Speed Is 298 1.15% 1501 7.003 265 1.29% 1327 8.025 233 1.25% 1159 6.721 200 1.24% 999.37 5.23 183 1.26% 899.3 4.875 151 1.15% 731.1 3.794 135 1.27% 648.9 3.289 104 1.28% 490.3 2.355 [10] B.BOSSOUFI, M.KARIM, S.IONITA, A.LAGRIOUI, “The Optimal Direct Torque Control ntrol of a PMSM drive: FPGA FPGA-Based Implementation with Matlab & Simulink Simulation” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology JATIT, pp63-72, pp63 Vol. 28 No.2, 30th June 2011. Methods Enriching Power and Energy Development (MEPED) ( 2014 124 | P a g e