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The Māori Governance Qualification Titles
He Whakamārama:
Ko te manu e kai ana te miro, nōna te ngāhere
Ko te manu e kai ana te mātauranga, nōna te ao
The bird who eats from the miro tree, owns the forest
The bird who eats of the tree of knowledge will gain the world.
The whakaaro around the two Governance Māori qualification titles;
Manu Taiko – Toro Parirau (Level 4)
Manu Taiko – Hoka Rangi (Level 5)
The titles refer to Te Ao o Ngā Manu as a way to view the acquisition of skills, knowledge, and
understanding in the unique realm of Māori Governance. Manu were used metaphorically
throughout the review in the whakataukī that were expressed in various documents (Review Plan,
Terms of Reference), and this theme has continued into the naming of the qualifications.
Manu Taiko is used as the general term for Māori Governance. It focuses on the lead bird in a flock
that takes the responsibility of the leader to coordinate and enhance the orientation,
communication, and safety of the flock, to follow a direct route to their goal.
Toro Parirau refers to the new skill, and thus the anticipation of future skills and knowledge to be
acquired, of newly spread wings about to take flight. It exemplifies a readiness, preparation, and
acceptance of duty when venturing into this journey.
Hoka Rangi refers to the bird who has ascended through the intricacies of learning flight to soar the
skies; and from those achieved vantages, has a clarity, breadth of vision, and acceptance of the
inherent responsibility to develop, enhance, and protect `taonga’ for future generations.
Ko au te moemoeā o te iwi
te tawhiti o tāku rere ka rite tonu ki te hōhonu, me te mārama
o ā koutou whakariterite
I am the dreams of the people.
The length of my flight will depend upon the wisdom
of your decisions.
(Inscription from the sculpture Te Wero, Fred Graham, Ngāti Korokī Kahukura)
He Whakamāramatanga – Explanatory Notes
The Strategic Purpose Statement and the Graduate Profile set out in each Qualification Details
document for the proposed level 4 certificate and the level 6 diploma bring together the work of
both the Governance Group and the Working Group established to implement the targeted review
of Māori Governance qualifications. The language in the documents also reflects relevant NZQA
criteria for the level of each qualification. An example of this is that the proposed level 4
qualification enables a graduate to understand and explain financial statements, whereas at level 6,
a graduate is able to critically analyse and interpret financial statements.
The following notes explain some of the thinking behind kaupapa, tikanga and Māori language terms
applied in the documents, particularly in relation to headings in the graduate profile.
Strategic Purpose Statement
The strategic purpose statement refers to developing skills ‘from a Mātauranga Māori base’. This
sends a strong signal from the outset that this qualification is distinctively Māori. While the skills
and knowledge will be transferable, the qualifications are designed specifically for application in
Māori governance contexts. These are not governance qualifications with Māori issues dealt with at
the margins. The term Mātauranga Māori includes te reo me ngā tikanga Māori. The strategic
purpose of developing the skills and knowledge in these qualifications is ultimately to protect and
enhance taonga and other resources for current and future generations. To enhance reflects the
importance of aiming to grow and improve taonga, not just in a monetary sense. The concept
demonstrates a fundamental Māori approach of long-term visioning, and recognises that some
resources and assets might be described best as taonga and treated accordingly, but not necessarily
Graduate Profile
To be transferable across organisations and to enable custom-designing qualifications to suit specific
learner needs for different target markets (e.g. ahuwhenua trusts, post-settlement governance
entities, school boards of trustees), programme developers will be tasked with fleshing out each of
the essential requirements listed. For example, whakawhanaungatanga (understanding and
managing relationships) is a critical element of Māori governance, and permeates all aspects of
learning - in addition to the block dedicated to this kaupapa. We would expect that programme
developers would require successful graduates to be able to complete a stakeholder management
plan upon completion of this block. Note: credit values do not reflect perceived importance.
The needs analysis conducted as part of the review process showed a clear preference for these
types of qualification to be taught in blocks. Accordingly the graduate profile is divided into blocks
which have headings that describe relevant skills and processes from a Mātauranga Māori point of
view. Each heading will be familiar, and be open to interpretation. Discussions to understand each
heading demands consideration of different interpretations and will result in discussion and healthy
debate around te reo and tikanga concepts. These notes explain the Governance Group's intentions
as to interpretation.
The heading denotes that it is the first block. It also signals the need for graduates to have an overall
understanding of all aspects of each qualification before they delve into details. So, this block brings
together an overview of all aspects of each qualification. Specifically this block also requires an
understanding of the key concept of interconnectedness from an holistic Māori world view. An
example of this might be that governance decisions made to commercially fish in a particular area
might adversely impact other important species that get caught up in commercial nets. Another key
feature of this block is gaining an understanding that what might commonly be considered as
principles of 'good governance' might not be appropriate for all entities – that one size does not fit
all. Programme developers are likely to require an understanding of the need for effective
processes, including meeting processes, and the need to work together as a governance team.
This heading is chosen to embrace those skills and strategies that relate to communications and
relationships, such as being able to understand different types of relationships and stakeholders,
and knowing how to establish, maintain and enhance relationships, both internally and externally.
At an advanced level a graduate is able to identify and manage politically or commercially sensitive
relationships and identify and manage high-risk and crisis situations.
This well-known term is applied broadly for the purposes of these qualifications. In this context,
kaitiakitanga refers to the skills and knowledge needed to protect and enhance taonga and other
resources. The term taonga and other resources could include lands, commercial properties,
geothermal resources, forests, fisheries, intellectual property rights and so on. It specifically
includes financial resources. Graduates will be expected to understand how such taonga and
resources can be protected and enhanced (grown, commercially managed, developed) in a way that
aligns with the principles and values of an entity, which will often (but not necessarily always)
include long-term sustainability. A key component of this block is being able to understand and
explain financial statements, and at an advanced level, being able to critically analyse and interpret
financial statements. Whilst each block will involve some aspect of identifying and managing risk,
another key component of this is the ability to identify potential asset management and financial
risks and then be able to manage those risks.
Te Pono me te Tika
This heading encompasses important aspects that relate to legal obligations and compliance issues,
including planning processes, systems and procedures (such as meeting procedures and dispute
resolution processes) and ethics, and acting in a way that is socially and culturally responsible.
This critical Kaupapa encompasses skills and processes for strategic planning, understanding the
roles and responsibilities of different types of governors (e.g. trustees, directors) and understanding
the different (and often unique) principles and approaches to Māori leadership.