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Transcript
Name ________________
Psychology
Semester Review
**Note: This review will be extra credit due the day of the exam.
UNIT 1 The Science of Psychology Chapter 1
1. Early methods/History: Identify each of the following:
Introspection
Wilhelm Wundt
Definition of psychology
2. Modern perspectives: Explain and be able to apply each of the following schools of
thought:
Biological
Behavioral
Psychoanalytic
Cognitive
Socio-cultural
Humanistic
Ecclecticism
3. Methods of research:
disadvantages for each
Case study
Survey
Observation
Correlation
Experiment
Define each of the following and give advantages and
4. Experimental method: Define each of the following terms relating to experimental
Design:
Hypothesis
Dependent variable
Independent variable
Control group
Experimental group
Confounding variables
Placebo
What are the requirements for good experimental design?
What are some considerations in experimental ethics?
5. A psychologist believes lithium can be effective in treating depression. To study this,
he puts all of his depressed patients into two groups. One group gets lithium to treat their
depression, and the other group does not. He then follows the progress of each group to
see how many people in each group recover. Identify each of the following parts in this
experiment:
Hypothesis:
Control group:
Experimental group:
Independent variable:
Dependent variable:
2 confounding variables:
Unit 2 The Brain, Sensation and Perception Chapters 3 & 4
Neural and Hormonal Systems (Module7)
6. Define:
a. Neuron
b. Synapse
c. Neurotransmitter
d. Dendrite
7. What are endorphins?
8. Describe the difference between the Central and Peripheral Nervous systems. What 2
parts is each divided into?
9. Define endocrine system.
10. Describe the functions of the pituitary and adrenal glands
The Brain (Module 8)
11. Describe the functions of each of the following brain parts:
a. cerebellum
b. hypothalamus
c. frontal lobe
d. reticular formation
e. corpus callosum
12. Where in the brain is the visual area located?
13. What is the difference between right and left brain dominant?
14. Which side of the brain controls which side of the body?
Sensation (Module 9)
15. What is the difference between sensation and perception?
16. Explain the functions of the rods and cones
17. Define selective attention
Perception (Module 10)
18. Define illusion
19. Name and describe 4 other cues that create depth perception.
UNIT 3 Theories of Learning, Memory, and Intelligence Chapters 7, 8, & 10
Memory (Module 18)
20. Define sensory, short term, and long term memory
21. Name the 3 steps in the Memory process (hint: NOT the same as above)
22. Define chunking, mnemonic device
Intelligence (Module 24)
23. Would it be more accurate to describe intelligence as knowledge or ability?
24. Describe Howard Gardner’s Multiple intelligence theory
25. What is the formula for figuring IQ? What is average IQ?
26. What is the relationship between intelligence and heredity?
Classical Conditioning (Module 15)
27. Define learning
28. Explain the difference between Classical and Operant conditioning
29. Who was the scientist associated with classical conditioning? Describe his famous
experiment and be able to label the parts.
30. It is natural for students to gather notebooks, folders,etc. when the bell rings to end a
class. Students with 2nd period class often become conditioned to respond to a different
signal that class is over. At 8:59 the clocks buzz a minute before the bell rings. Since
this happens everyday, it doesn’t take long before students begin gathering their materials
when the clock buzzes.
This is an example of __________ conditioning.
Identify:
UCS:
CS:
UCR:
CR:
31. Define generalization, discrimination, extinction
Operant conditioning (Module 16)
32. Ed is an autistic child. He seldom will look at anyone. In an attempt to get him
to look at them, his parents will say loudly, “Ed look at me!” If Ed looks at them, the
parents give him a cookie and praise.
This is an example of ___________ conditioning.
If Ed looks only at the mother, and doesn’t respond to the father, then what process
has occurred?
If Ed eventually looks at everyone, what process has occurred?
If Ed’s parents stopped giving him cookies, and after awhile, he stopped looking at
them, what process has occurred?
33. Define operant conditioning. Who was the scientist associated with this theory?
34. Define reinforcement and punishment
35. Define positive and negative reinforcement
36. Describe each of the following reinforcement schedules, and the strength of their
effect on behavior:
Variable ratio
Variable interval
Fixed ratio
Fixed interval
Other types of learning (Module 17)
37. Define observational learning and describe Bandura’s famous experiment.
UNIT 4 Personality Chapter 11
38. Define Personality
39. Who was responsible for Psychoanalytic theory?
40. Describe Freud’s theory of the Id, Ego, and Superego
41. Describe Freud’s childhood stages and the problems he associated with each
42. Who were the 2 main humanists and what were their theories?
43. Describe each of the following personality theories and give examples:
Trait theory
Psychoanalytic theory
Social Cognitive
44. Define the following defense mechanisms:
Rationalization
Regression
Displacement
Projection
Repression
UNIT 5 Psychological disorders and treatment Chapters 12 & 13
Psychological Disorders (module 27)
45. What are the 4 criteria psychologist use to determine if a person’s behavior is
disorder? Be able to define and apply.
46. What is the DSM-IV?
Anxiety and Mood Disorders (Module28)
47. Define each of the following:
Agoraphobia
Panic disorder
Specific phobia
Social phobia
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder
48. Know the difference between obsessions and compulsions, be able to give examples
49. Name and define the 4 types of mood disorders
50. Name at least 3 symptoms of depression
51. Name at least 3 symptoms of mania
52. Name the chemical neurotransmitter linked to depression
53. Depressed people tend to explain bad events as __________, __________, and
___________?
Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders (Module 29)
54. Name and define the 4 types of Dissociative disorders.
55. What are the 3 symptoms dissociative disorders share in common? (Loss of……)
56. What is probably the main cause of dissociative identity disorder?
57. What are the 4 positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
58. What are the 4 negative symptoms?
59. What is the chemical neurotransmitter linked to Schizophrenia?
60. Define:
Flat affect
Hallucination
Delusion
61. Define Personality disorder
62. Define each of the following personality disorders:
Antisocial
Borderline
Therapy (Module 30)
63. What would be the focus of psychoanalytic therapy?
64. What is systematic desensitization and what would it be used to treat? Which
perspective does this treatment fall under?
65. Describe cognitive therapy for depression.
66. Name some biological treatments.