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Academy of Economic Studies
Doctoral School of Finance and Banking
Dating The Euro Area Business Cycle.
Case of Romania
MSc Student: Filiuţă Simon
Supervisor: PhD. Moisă Altăr
Optimal currency area and the business cycle
synchronization approach
Paper’s objectives
Literature review
Models and estimation methodology
Data analysis
Optimal currency area theory
theoretical foundation of optimum currency area (OCA) was
pioneered by Mundell (1961) and further developed by McKinnon
(1963), Kenen (1969), Tavlas (1993), Bayoumi and Eichengreen
(1996) and others;
Frankel and Rose (1996), found a strong positive relationship
between business cycles correlation and trade integration as the
participation to a currency union increases the integration of
collateral trade which lead to greater business cycles
beside the nominal convergence criteria, the states who want to
join a monetary union have to take into consideration also the real
convergence criteria: business cycle synchronization, demand
and supply shocks correlation, market flexibility, etc;
among OCA’s properties business cycle synchronization features
to assess the current degree of business cycle
synchronization in CEECs vis-à-vis the euro area
to compare the current and earlier levels of
synchronization in the euro area countries;
we study also the endogeneity of the OCA’s
to identify the demand and supply shocks using the
structural vector autoregressive model (SVAR) and the
symmetry between shocks of the Euro Area and
Literature review
Synchronization of Business Cycles: Artis and Zhang
(1997,1999), Artis (2003), Darvas and Szapary
(2004),Massmann and Mitchell (2003), Fidrmuc and
Korhonen (2006);
Demand and supply shocks correlation: Blanchard and
Quah (1989) and further Bayoumi and Eichengreen
(1992), Frenkel and Nickel (2002), etc;
Models and estimation methodology
For the measurement of the business cycles we used the cyclical
component of the real GDP extracted with two univariate
methods: Hodrick-Prescott filter (HP, 1997) and Band-Pass filter
(BP)-approximation of Christiano-Fitzgerald (2003);
for the second part of the paper we used a bivariate BlanchardQuah type SVAR decomposition of supply and demand shocks
based on output and inflation data;
we imposed the long run restrictions identified by Bayoumi and
Eichengreen (aggregate demand disturbances have a temporary
effect on output and a permanent impact on prices while
aggregate supply disturbances affect permanently both output
and price indices)
The bivariate VAR representation
BX t  0  1 X t 1  ...   p X t  p   t
yt 
Xt   
pt 
 we assume that B is invertible (1-b12b21 is not null) and the
representation of VAR is:
X t  B 10  B 11 X t 1  ...  B 1p X t  p  B 1 t
and εt is a vector of the two structural errors (demand and
The bivariate VAR representation
the standard form of the VAR:
X t  A( L) LX t  et
the bivariate moving average VAR representation:
 yt   i  a11i
p    L a
 t  i 0  21i
 e1t  b11( 0)
e   b
 2t   21( 0)
a12i   dt 
a22i   st 
b12( 0)   dt 
b22( 0)   st 
Data Analysis
-quarterly GDP series in current prices (Eurostat)
-price index: GDP deflator (2000=100)
Countries included in analysis: we used 15 countries from eurozone
(excluding Malta from lack of data), 5 CEECs (Romania, Bulgaria, Czech
Republic, Hungary and Poland), 3 Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania) and the Euro Area Aggregate;
The series were seasonally adjusted using Demetra (Tramo/seats)
Correlation of CEECs business
cycles with euro zone
Correlation of business cycles of
Euro zone members with Euro zone
Correlation of CEECs business
cycles with Euro Area
Correlation of Euro area members
with Euro zone
SVAR estimations
In order to correctly define the SVAR models we should cover
the following steps:
Unit root test- all variables are I(1), first differences in real GDP
and GDP deflator;
Choose the optimal number of lags using Sequential LR,
Akaike, Schwartz and Hannan-Quinn;
VAR stability condition – no root lies outside the unit circle;
Residual tests: LM autocorrelation test, normality (Jarqueberra), heteroskedasticity test (White);
Impose long run restrictions (Bayoumi and Eichengreen)
obtaining the aggregate demand and supply shocks;
Impulse-response functions and variance decomposition;
Results of supply and demand
disturbances correlations
The correlation of demand shocks is negative for most of the analyzed
countries (except France and Poland) due to different policies, change in
exchange rate regimes and liberalization of the capital account.
Instead, the correlation of the supply disturbances, for the entire period, is
positive and strong for Romania, France and even Poland, while
Germany and Italy has negative correlation with the Euro Area.
France, one of the largest members of the Euro zone has the highest
correlation as it was expected.
Supply and demand shocks for Romania and Euro zone:
Response of output and prices to demand shock
Response of output and prices to supply shocks
the paper confirms some previous results in the literature, concerning the
quantitative and qualitative properties of the business cycles which vary
across detrending techniques by extracting different types of information
from the initial data (Canova, 1998);
most of the CEECs showed a certain tendency to move toward higher
synchronization level, especially during 2004-2008, however Romania,
Hungary and Bulgaria still register the most reduced business cycle
correlations among CEECs;
strong correlations between the GDP cyclical component of the Baltic
States and Euro zone after 2004, explained by the collapse of trade with
Russia and reorientation toward Western countries;
this study support also the endogeneity hypothesis of the optimum
currency area criteria which tells that a common market intensifies the
bilateral trade with impact on higher business cycle synchronization
however, we observe the clear impact of the financial crisis on the last
analyzed subperiod, where all the correlation coefficients increased
significantly as most of the countries faced strong GDP contractions;
demand shocks for most of the countries included in the study,
are negatively correlated with few exceptions (France and
Poland), while supply shocks are positive and strong for France
and Poland, while for Germany and Italy is negative and seems
relatively week;
In Romania’s case, demand disturbances are negatively
correlated with the Euro zone and are quite significant for the
analyzed period; supply disturbances are important and positive
due to the different policies and exchange rate regimes in time;
the major result of our paper is that, Romania as well as others
CEECs countries still need time to progress and to real converge
toward Euro zone, in order to reduce the costs of loosing the
monetary and the exchange rate policy independence;
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