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Transcript
Music is a Language
Activity Guide
KWS School Concerts
Grades 4 - 6
March 9/10, 2011
Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony
Daniel Warren, Resident Conductor
Season Sponsor
School Concert Sponsor
Education Sponsor
Dear Teachers
We are so pleased that your students are taking part in this program. This program has evolved to give students the best educational experience an orchestra
can offer.
This concert, Music is a Language, will demonstrate the relationship of music to
language in various cultures. This subject matter touches on several areas in the
Ontario Ministry of Education curriculum for grades 4—6. Not only will the students see and hear our amazing 52-member orchestra in the acoustically superb
Centre in the Square, they will also make connections to their classroom studies
and explore new ideas.
To enhance the concert experience the KWS sends some of its musicians into
the schools to meet the students, give some
instrument demonstrations, talk about the concert and answer questions. Please encourage
your students to be inquisitive—we love talking
about what we do and the music we perform.
The materials in this booklet are designed by a
team that includes our KWS Educator in Residence, Nancy Kidd, high school interns and our
Education Department staff. Please contact me
with any feedback you wish to offer.
Christopher Sharpe
Director of Education and Community Programs
Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony
[email protected]
2
519.745.4711 ext. 276
Daniel Warren, Resident Conductor
Daniel Warren is the Resident Conductor
(1999-present) of the Kitchener-Waterloo
Symphony in Ontario, Canada. He is in frequent demand as a guest conductor and
has done so with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the National Arts Centre Orchestra,
the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra, Symphony Nova Scotia, Orchestra London Canada, the Windsor Symphony, Symphony
New Brunswick, The ERGO and Continuum
ensembles and the Canadian Chamber Ensemble.
He is heard conducting regularly on the CBC. For the past five years he has
been the conductor for the "Westben Arts Festival Theatre" in Campbellford, Ontario, performing repertoire with orchestra and full chorus with soloists both operatic and instrumental, all in a wide variety of orchestral and operatic programs. Recently released is a CD of selections from the Nutcracker with the KW
Symphony that Daniel conducted.
Daniel resides in his owner-built home in a rural setting with his wife and two children.
3
A Brief History of Symphony Orchestras
The history of the modern orchestra that we are familiar with today goes all the way back to
Ancient Egypt. The first orchestras were made up of small groups of musicians that gathered
for festivals, holidays or funerals. During the time of the Roman Empire, the government suppressed the musicians and informal ensembles were banned, but they reappeared after the
collapse of the Empire. It was not until the 11th century that families of instruments started to
appear with differences in tones and octaves.
True modern orchestras started in the late 16th century when composers started writing music
for instrumental groups. In the 15th and 16th centuries in Italy the households of nobles had
musicians to provide music for dancing and the court, however with the emergence of the
theatre, particularly opera, in the early 17th century, music was increasingly written for groups
of players in combination, which is the origin of orchestral playing. Opera originated in Italy,
and Germany eagerly followed. Dresden, Munich and Hamburg successively built opera
houses. At the end of the 17th century opera flourished in England under Henry Purcell, and in
France under Lully, who with the collaboration of Molière also greatly raised the status of the
entertainments known as ballets, interspersed with instrumental and vocal music.
In the 17th century and early 18th century, instrumental groups were taken from all of the available talent. A composer such as Johann Sebastian Bach had control over almost all of the musical resources of a town, whereas Handel would hire the best musicians available. This
placed a premium on being able to rewrite music for whichever singers or musicians were best
suited for a performance—Handel produced different versions of the Messiah oratorio almost
every year.
As nobility began to build retreats away from towns, they began to hire musicians to form permanent ensembles. A composer would then have a fixed body of instrumentalists to work with.
At the same time, travelling virtuoso performers would write concerti that showed off their
skills, and they would travel from town to town, arranging concerts along the way. The aristocratic orchestras worked together over long periods, making it possible for ensemble playing to
improve with practice.
The invention of the piston and rotary valve led to improvements in woodwind and brass instruments. The orchestra expanded as more of these instruments were added to orchestras and
composers wrote for the increasing number of musicians. The orchestra size reached a peak
around the time of Wagner, who’s operas sometimes required 6 harps in the orchestra.
As the early 20th century dawned, symphony orchestras were larger, better funded, and better
trained than ever before; consequently, composers could compose larger and more ambitious
works. With the recording era beginning, the standard of performance reached a pinnacle. As
sound was added to silent film, the virtuoso orchestra became a key component of the establishment of motion pictures as mass-market entertainment.
The late 20th century saw a crisis of funding and support for orchestras. However, many orchestras flourish today and a large percentage of mp3 downloads are classical music.
4
The Instruments of the Orchestra
String family
Percussion family
Violin
Viola [vee-OH-lah]
Cello (violoncello) [CHEL-low]
Bass (double bass, contra bass)
[rhymes
with “face’]
Flute, Piccolo
Oboe, English horn
Clarinet, Bass clarinet
Bassoon, Contrabassoon
Saxophones
Timpani (kettledrums) [TIM-pa-nee]
Snare drum
Bass drum
Cymbals
Tambourine
Triangle
Xylophone
Glockenspiel
Chimes
Marimba
Vibraphone (vibes)
plus other things to hit, scrape, and
shake
Brass family
Source: Naxos.ca
Woodwind family
Trumpet
Horn (aka French horn)
Trombone
Tuba
Keyboards and Harp
Celesta [cheh-LESS-tah]
Piano
Harpsichord
Organ
Synthesizer
Harp
5
How to Listen to a Concert
There are lots of things to enjoy at a concert, lots of things to pay attention to.
Your job is to be affected by the music, but you can be affected by whatever most
appeals to you, or by whatever grabs your interest. Here are a few choices for
what to listen to. Choose whatever you like, switch as often as you want, and feel
free to add to the list.
Some things to enjoy in classical music
 Loudness and softness
 Changes and transformations
 Recognition of something heard earlier
 Different speeds
 Instrument sounds
 Melodies
 Rhythms
 Patterns
 Terrific performing
 Ebb and flow of energy
 Musical conversation
 Moods and feelings
 Memories that get triggered
 Visual images that come to mind
What to Watch
A concert is an event for the ears, but there is plenty for the eyes, too. Watch the
players and feel their energy and intensity; watch what they do to make their instruments sound in different ways. Watch as the music moves between players,
or between groups of players. Watch the way the conductor controls events, or
how he or she gives control to the musicians.
Source: Naxos.ca
6
Childhood Hearing...
Childhood Hearing Overview
Studies have suggested that some population groups are at greater risk for harmful effects of noise. These groups include young children. There is sufficient scientific evidence that excessive noise exposure can induce hearing impairment,
as well as psycho-social effects such as annoyance, stress-related health effects
such as cardiovascular disorders, sleep disturbance and decreased school performance.
Health Effects of Noise, Dr. Sheela Basrur, Medical Officer of Health, Toronto,
Ontario, 2001.
As children move towards adolescence, developing healthy hearing habits is crucial to protecting their future hearing. THFC's award-winning elementary school
program: Sound Sense: Save Your Hearing for the Music! / Oui à l’ouie: ménagez vos oreilles pour la musique!, is presented to students in grades five and
six.
7
History of Classical Music
Medieval (c.1150 - c.1400)
This is the first period where we can begin to be
fairly certain as to how a great deal of the music
which has survived actually sounded. The earliest
written secular music dates from the 12th century
troubadours (in the form of virelais, estampies, ballades, etc.), but most notated manuscripts emanate
from places of learning usually connected with the
church, and therefore inevitably have a religious basis.
Gregorian chant and plainsong which are monodic
(i.e. written as one musical line) gradually developed
during the 11th to 13th centuries into organum (i.e.
two or three lines moving simultaneously but independently, therefore almost inadvertently representing the beginnings of harmony). Organum was, however, initially rather stifled by rigid rules governing
melody and rhythm, which led ultimately to the socalled Ars Nova period of the 14th century, principally represented by the composers de Vitry,
Machaut, and Landini.
8
History of Classical Music
Renaissance (c.1400 - c.1600)
The fifteenth century witnessed vastly increased freedoms, most particularly in terms of what is actually
perceived as 'harmony' and 'polyphony' (the simultaneous movement of two or three interrelated parts).
Composers (although they were barely perceived as
such) were still almost entirely devoted to choral writing, and the few instrumental compositions which
have survived often create the impression (in many
cases entirely accurately) of being vocal works in disguise, but minus the words.
There is obvious new delight in textural variety and
contrast, so that, for example, a particular section of
text might be enhanced by a vocal part dropping out
momentarily, only to return again at a special moment of emphasis. The four most influential composers of the fifteenth century were Dunstable,
Ockeghem, Despres and Dufay.
The second half of the 16th century witnessed the
beginnings of the tradition which many music lovers
readily associate with the normal feel of 'classical'
music. Gradually, composers moved away from the modal system of harmony
which had predominated for over 300 years (and still sounds somewhat archaic
to some modern ears), towards the organisation of their work into major and minor scales, thereby imparting the strong sensation of each piece having a definite
tonal centre or 'key'.
This was also something of a golden period for choral composition as a seemingly endless flow of a capella (unaccompanied) masses, motets, anthems,
psalms and madrigals flowed from the pens of the masters of the age. In addition, instrumental music came into its own for the first time, especially keyboard
music in the form of fantasias, variations, and dance movements (galliards, pavanes etc.). Composers of particular note include Dowland, Tallis, Byrd, Gibbons,
Frescobaldi, Palestrina, Victoria, Lassus, Alonso Lobo, Duarte Lobo, Cardoso
and Gesualdo.
9
History of Classical Music
Baroque (c.1600 - c.1750)
During the Baroque period, the foundations were laid
for the following 300 or so years of musical expression: the idea of the modern orchestra was born,
along with opera (including the overture, prelude,
aria, recitative and chorus), the concerto, sonata, and
modern cantata. The rather soft-grained viol string
family of the Renaissance was gradually replaced by
the bolder violin, viola and cello, the harpsichord was
invented, and important advances were made in all
instrumental groups.
Until about 1700, the old modes still exerted themselves from time to time by colouring certain melodic
lines or chord progressions, but from the beginning of
the 18th century the modern harmonic system based
upon the major and minor scales was effectively panEuropean. Choral music no longer dominated, and
as composers turned more and more to writing idiomatic instrumental works for ensembles of increasing
colour and variety, so 'classical' music (as opposed
to 'popular') gradually began to work its way into the
very fabric of society, being played outdoors at dinner
parties or special functions (e.g. Handel's Water Music), or as a spectacle in the
form of opera. On a purely domestic level, every wealthy lady would have a
spinet to play, and at meal-times the large and rich houses would employ musicians to play what was popularly called Tafelmusik in Germany, of which Telemann was perhaps the most famous composer.
Of the many 17th century composers who paved the way for this popular explosion of 'classical' music, the following were outstanding: Monteverdi, Corelli, Alessandro Scarlatti, Schutz, Buxtehude, Purcell and Lully. Yet, the most popular
composers of the period, indeed those who seem to define by their very names
the sound of Baroque music at its most colourful and sophisticated are Johann
Sebastian Bach, Handel, Telemann, Rameau, François Couperin, Domenico
Scarlatti, and Vivaldi, all of them at their creative peak during the first half of the
18th century.
10
History of Classical Music
Classical (c.1750 - c.1830)
The Baroque era witnessed the creation of a number
of musical genres which would maintain a hold on
composition for years to come, yet it was the Classical period which saw the introduction of a form which
has dominated instrumental composition to the present day: sonata form. With it came the development
of the modern concerto, symphony, sonata, trio and
quartet to a new peak of structural and expressive
refinement. If Baroque music is notable for its textural
intricacy, then the Classical period is characterised
by a near-obsession with structural clarity.
The seeds of the Classical age were sown by a number of composers whose names are now largely forgotten such as Schobert and Honnauer (both Germans largely active in Paris), as well as more historically respected names, including Gluck, Boccherini
and at least three of Johann Sebastian Bach's sons:
Carl Phillip Emmanuel, Wilhelm Friedmann and Johann Christian (the so-called 'London' Bach). They
were representative of a period which is variously described as rococo or galante, the former implying a
gradual move away from the artifice of the High Baroque, the latter an entirely
novel style based on symmetry and sensibility, which came to dominate the music of the latter half of the 18th century through two composers of extraordinary
significance: Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
11
History of Classical Music
Early Romantic (c.1830 - c.1860)
As the Classical period reached its zenith, it was becoming increasing clear (especially with the late
works of Beethoven and Schubert) that the amount
and intensity of expression composers were seeking
to achieve was beginning to go beyond that which a
Classically sized/designed orchestra/piano could
possibly encompass. The next period in musical history therefore found composers attempting to balance the expressive and the formal in music with a
variety of approaches which would have left composers of any previous age utterly bewildered. As the
musical map opened up, with nationalist schools beginning to emerge, it was the search for originality
and individuality of expression which began here that
was to become such an over-riding obsession in the
present century.
The Romantic era was the golden age of the virtuoso, where the most fiendishly difficult music would
be performed with nonchalant ease, and the most innocuous theme in a composition would be developed
at great length for the enjoyment of the adoring audience. The emotional range of music during this period was considerably widened, as was its harmonic vocabulary and the range and number of instruments
which might be called upon to play it. Music often had a 'programme' or story-line
attached to it, sometimes of a tragic or despairing nature, occasionally representing such natural phenomena as rivers or galloping horses. The next hundred
years would find composers either embracing whole-heartedly the ideals of Romanticism, or in some way reacting against them.
Of the early Romantic composers, two Nationalists deserve special mention, the
Russian Glinka (of Russlan and Ludmilla fame) and the Bohemian Smetana
(composer of the popular symphonic poem Vltava or 'The Moldau'). However, the
six leading composers of the age were undoubtedly Berlioz, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Liszt and Verdi.
12
History of Classical Music
Late Romantic (c.1860 - c.1920)
With the honourable exceptions of Brahms and
Bruckner, composers of this period shared a general
tendency towards allowing their natural inspiration
free rein, often pacing their compositions more in
terms of their emotional content and dramatic continuity rather than organic structural growth. This was
an era highlighted by the extraordinarily rapid appearance of the national schools, and the operatic
supremacy of Verdi and Wagner. The eventual end of
Romanticism came with the fragmentation of this basic style, composers joining 'schools' of composition,
each with a style that was in vogue for a short period
of time.
13
History of Classical Music
Post 'Great War' Years (c.1920 - Present)
The period since the Great War is undoubtedly the
most bewildering of all, as composers have pulled in
various apparently contradictory and opposing directions. Typical of the dilemma during the inter-war
years, for example, were the Austrians, Webern and
Lehar, the former was experimenting with the highly
compressed and advanced form known as 'serial
structure', while simultaneously Lehar was still indulging in an operetta style which would not have
seemed out of place over half a century beforehand.
So diverse are the styles adopted throughout the
greater part of the present century that only by experimentation can listeners discover for themselves
whether certain composers are to their particular
taste or not. However, the following recordings serve
as an excellent introduction and will certainly repay
investigation:
Webern's An Baches Ranft, op. 3 no. 3
14
KWS School Concerts Program
Music is a Language
COMPOSER
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
(1844 - 1908)
15
TITLE
Flight of the Bumblebee from Tale of the Tsar Saltan
PAGE
16
Modest Mussorgsky (1839 Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle from Pictures at an Ex- 1881)
hibition (arr. Warren)
17
Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840 - 1893)
Overture-Fantasy from Romeo and Juliet (excerpt)
18
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770 - 1827)
II. Andante cantabile con moto from Symphony No.1 in C
major, op.21 (excerpt)
19
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906
- 1975)
4th movement from Symphony No.5 in D minor, op.47
(excerpt)
20
Edvard Grieg (1843 1907)
Air from Holberg Suite, op.40
26
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770 - 1827)
3rd movement from Symphony No.3 in E-flat major,
op.55, Eroica (excerpt)
31
Frédéric Chopin (1810 1849)
Nocturne Op.9, No.2 (excerpt)
32
Antonin Dvorak (1841—
1904)
Slavonic Dance Op. 46, No. 8
34
Serge Prokofiev (1891 1953)
“Juliet the Child” from Romeo and Juliet, op.64 (excerpt)
35
Claude Debussy (1862 1918)
Howard Shore (b. 1946)
"Serenade for the Doll" from Children's Corner
37
The Lord of the Rings: Fellowship of the Ring (excerpt)
39
KWS School Concerts Program
R.- Korsakov: Flight of the Bumblebee
Daniel Warren
CD Track #1
Flight of the
Bumblee
This piece inspired
Walt Disney to have a
bumblebee featured
in part of his movie
“Fantasia” that would
sound as if it was flying in all parts of the
theatre - an experiment that ended up
on the cutting room
floor but led to the
eventual invention of
surround sound.
A piece from the opera,
The Tale of Tsar Saltan
which was written and
composed by Nikolai
Rimsky- Korsakov. This
piece is played during the
scene in the opera when
the magical Swan-Bird
changes the Tsar’s son,
Prince Gvidon, into a
bumblebee so that he
may fly to his father to
inform him that he is
alive. This piece is played
at a very fast *tempo!
Nikolai Rimsky– Korsakov
Rimsky-Korsakov believed in developing a
nationalistic style of
classical music that employed Russian folk
song and lore along with
exotic harmonic, melodic and rhythmic elements in a practice
known as musical orientalism, and eschewed
traditional Western compositional methods
Activity
1. Have the children listen to "Flight of the Bumblebee." In the opera, Prince Gvidon is
changed in to a bumblebee by a magic Swan-Bird so that he can fly away to visit his father
(who does not know that he is alive.)
*Terms:
Tempo: The
speed of a piece
of music
2. Read the lyrics of the song the Swan-Bird sings while changing the Prince to
a bumblebee:
Well, now, my bumblebee, go on a spree,
catch up with the ship on the sea,
go down secretly,
get deep into a crack.
Good luck, Gvidon, fly,
only do not stay long!
(The bumblebee flies away.)
3. Have the children write a brief story that is inspired by the music. Share stories with the
class.
References:
YouTube: “Flight of
the Bumblebee”
brings up several
video performances
on different instruments of this famous
piece.
16
4. Listen again and list the musical elements that help to describe the “bumblebee.”
fast (frantic) tempo; chromatic scale passages; extreme ranges (high/low);
extreme dynamics (louds/softs); timbres (strings, woodwinds); articulation
KWS School Concerts Program
Mussorgsky: Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle
Modest Mussorgsky composed this
work after his good friend, artist
Viktor Hartmann’s death. A memorial was held for the artist where
over 400 of his works were displayed, here while walking through
the exhibition Mussorgsky got his
inspiration to write the composition
Pictures at an Exhibition. Samuel
Goldenberg and Schmuyle is one of
ten movements and is said to be
based on two different photos created by Viktor Hartmann. The
movement is described to be about
two Jews; one who is rich and the
other is poor.
Daniel Warren
CD Track #2
Mussorgsky
Mussorgsky
wanted to achieve
a uniquely Russian musical identity. Many of his
works were inspired by Russian
history, Russian
folklore, and other
nationalist themes
Modest
Mussorgsky
The composition is
meant to imitate the feelings of someone who is
walking through the exhibition with different tempos and feelings portrayed to represent the
viewing of a different
work. The composition is
linked together by a series of notes meant to
imitate the action of walking through the exhibition.
Activity
Terms:
Composition:
meaning “putting
together” in this
case, putting together notes to
make a piece of
music
1. Have the children listen to "Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle " with their eyes
closed. Have them list characteristics of each of the men based on the music. How
old / tall are they? What are they wearing? Do they have hair? etc.
GOLDENBERG
*big *rich *grumpy
*pompous *arrogant
SCHMUYLE
*tiny*poor *winy
*fast-talking *fearful
2. Draw or paint the “picture” that you think Mussorgsky saw for this composition.
What were the men doing? What did they look like?
References:
YouTube: “Pictures
at an Exhibition”
brings up several
video performances
of this famous piece.
3. Listen again and list on chart paper the musical techniques that help to bring these
characters to life!
17
GOLDENBERG
SCHMUYLE
low strings
high trumpets
slow tempo
fast tempo
heavy, loud articulation
light, jumpy articulation
KWS School Concerts Program
Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet
This composition by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is based on
Shakespeare’s play Romeo
and Juliet. The piece is described to be in three strands
representing three stages in
the Shakesperian play. The
first strand gives an introduction to Friar Laurence and foreshadows the impending doom
of the story with lower notes
played by the strings. The sec- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
ond strand portrays the dispute
between the Capulets and the
Montagues with a reference to
the sword fight. The music in
this excerpt is the third strand
where a love theme is played
portraying Romeo and Juliet’s
meeting and the balcony
scene. The music then picks
up to represent the dispute
between the families once
Daniel Warren
CD Track #3
At first Romeo
and Juliet was not
a success. European listeners of
the 1870s were not
ready for it. First, it
was by a Russian.
At that time, Russian composers
were considered
little more than barbarians by critics
and listeners alike.
Terms:
Overture: the instrumental introduction
to a composition
again, but this time more intense.
The love theme returns signaling
Romeo and Juliet’s love and
wanting to be together. Then
there is a cymbal crash to represent the two lover’s death.
Tchaikovsky wrote three different
versions of the piece; each new
version had changes made to
them in hopes that would make it
a success. The first two versions
of the composition were premiered but did not get the applause or positive response
Tchaikovsky had hoped. The
third version premiered in 1886,
more than ten years after
Tchaikovsky wrote and reworked
the first version. This version
ended up being the final version
and is the one played to date,
although the other two versions
of the piece are still played but
more for curiosity sake than
Activity
1. Listen to the “Love Theme” from the Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet.
Excerpt: a passage
taken from the piece
of music
What instruments do you hear playing? flute, english horn, viola, harp
Why are these good instruments for a love song?
2. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy. They fall in love but are not allowed to marry because their
families are feuding.
References:
YouTube:
“Tchaikovsky Romeo
and Juliet” brings up
several video performances of this
famous piece.
Write a short love poem (8 lines) based on the mood of the music. Write it as if you are Romeo or Juliet. What elements in the music inspired your writing?
3. Circle the words that you believe most accurately describe characteristics of this music?
LYRICAL
FAST
RUBATO
SOLO
TENSION
18
STACCATO
SOFT
ACCENTED
SLOW
SAD
EXTREME DYNAMICS
LEGATO
FULL ORCHESTRA
HOPEFUL
JUMPY
KWS School Concerts Program
Beethoven: Symphony No.1 in C
Written and composed by Ludwig van Beethoven,
this was Beethoven’s first of many symphonies
and it premiered in Vienna on April 2nd, 1800. The
piece was written for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets,
2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and
strings. It has been said that the 12 bar introduction of this piece is a ‘musical joke’. This has been
said because in the first 12 bars the notes are
played in the wrong key, certain accents are
faster than usual or are played differently than
they should be. This strange introduction has
been described as a form of Beethoven’s experimentation.
Daniel Warren
CD Track #4
Ludwig van
Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 – 1827)
was a German composer and one of
the most famous and
influential composers of all time.
Ludwig van Beethoven
Activity
1. Listen to the excerpt from the 2nd movement. Can you sing the opening theme to
“doo?”
Terms:
3/8 s │ d d d │ m m m │ f fmrd │ t t t │ d r m │ f s m │ r ....
Timpani: A set of
kettledrums (large
drums) used in an
orchestra
2. Which section of the orchestra plays this opening theme? (strings) What other instruments can you hear playing? (woodwinds; timpani)
3. Why is this opening like a canon or a round? (the theme is played over again
but starting on another pitch and by other instruments)
4.
4. Can you feel the beat? Try putting the strong beat on your thighs and the weak beats
on your shoulders. This music moves in groups of 3 beats.
References:
3/8
YouTube:
“Beethoven Symphony 1” brings up
several video performances of this
famous piece.
bbb│ bbb│bbb│bbb│
5. Listen again and try conducting this 3 beat pattern.
19
KWS School Concerts Program
Shostakovich: Symphony No.5 in D minor
Written by Dmitri Shostakovich, this work had its first
performance in Leningrad on November 21st, 1937 and
received an ovation that lasted over half an hour. The
piece consists of four movements and is 45 minutes in
length. Shostakovich suffered a great fall from popularity
in 1936 after the performance of two of his symphonies
did not get good reviews. The newspaper critic, as directed by the Soviet leader, Stalin, complained that his
music was too complex and Shostakovich was pressured
into writing a piece that was not so complicated.
Daniel Warren
CD Track #5
Dmitri
Shostakovich
Shostakovich
(1906 – 1975) was
a Soviet Russian
composer and one
of the most celebrated composers
of the 20th century.
Dmitri Shostakovich
Having difficulty at first trying to write a composition, Shostakovich turned to
Mahler’s Fourth Symphony for help. Mahler’s Fourth Symphony was a symphony
that was written 37 years earlier and at first was made fun of for its simplicity. With
the help of Mahler’s Fourth Symphony as his guide, Shostakovich successfully
wrote a composition that was enjoyed by most and not too complex.
Terms:
Ovation: Loud and
lengthy applause
Activity
1. Have the class listen to the Finale of Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 5.
2. This music uses the entire orchestra. What creates “tension” in this piece?
References:
timpani; extreme dynamics; fast tempo; use of all the instruments in every range;
YouTube:
“Shostakovich 5”
brings up several
video performances
of this famous piece.
accents; repeated notes; repeated themes;
3. This movement of the Symphony has a very strong
“march feel.” It moves in 4/4 time.
Can you conduct the excerpt using this pattern?
4. Listen to the excerpt again and choose one of the
pictures to colour (on the following pages) while listening. Why did you choose your picture?
20
Colouring
21
Colouring
22
Colouring
23
Colouring
24
Colouring
25
KWS School Concerts Program
Grieg: Air from Holberg Suite
Also known as ‘From Holberg’s
Time’, Holberg Suite was written by Edvard Grieg in 1884.
The piece has 5 movements
based on eighteenth century
dance forms and was originally written for piano, but is
most often heard today being
played by a string orchestra.
The 5 movements are:
Praeludium, Sarabande, Gavotte, *Air (the movement being played) and Rigaudon. The
piece was written to celebrate
the 200th anniversary of the
birth of the playwright Ludvig
Holberg. At first Grieg was
asked to write a *cantata for
Daniel Warren
CD Track #6
Edvard
Grieg
Edvard Grieg
(1843 – 1907)
was a Norwegian composer
and pianist
who composed
in the Romantic period. He
is best known
for his incidental music to
Henrik Ibsen's
play "Peer
Gynt".
Edvard Grieg
Holberg that was to premiere
in December during the unveiling of the Holberg statue.
Grieg accepted but did not
enjoy writing the piece at all .
In March 1885, four months
after the Holberg statue unveiling, Grieg premiered his
tribute to Holberg; a piano
suite entitled Aus Holbergs
Zeit (From Holberg’s Time).
This composition was much
more successful than the
cantata and it was considered as one of his greatest
works.
Nationalist Music
Grieg was known to write “nationalist music” that reflected his country of
Norway. Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs
that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk
tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them. Musical
nationalism can also include the use of folklore as a basis for programmatic works including opera.
*Terms:
Cantata: A single
voice accompanied
by one or two instruments.
Air: French for
aria, various songlike vocal or instrumental compositions
Although some evidence of the trend can be seen as early as the late 18th
century, nationalism as a musical phenomenon is generally understood to
have emerged part way into the Romanitic era, beginning around the mid19th century and continuing well into the twentieth. It initially began as a
reaction against the dominance of "German" music(that is, the European
classical traidition) and later developed alongside the growing movements
for national liberation and self-determination that characterized much of the
19th century. Countries or regions most commonly linked to musical nationalism include Russia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Scandinavia,
Spain, UK, Latin America and the United States.
References:
YouTube: “Holberg
Suite” brings up several video performances of this famous
piece.
26
Activity: Air from Holberg Suite
1. Close your eyes and listen to Grieg’s Air.
What do you think this music might be used for?
Describe the dance.
dance
elegant; slow; graceful; formal
Which instruments / techniques make this sound elegant?
strings; pizzicato; lyrical melody
2. Find the beat pattern of the music by putting the strong beat (beat 1) on your thighs and snapping
the weaker ones (beats 2 & 3)
3/4
b
b
b
thigh snap snap
│ b
b
b
│ b
b
b
│ b
b
b
thigh snap snap thigh snap snap thigh snap snap
3. Try conducting this excerpt in 3/4 time … see pattern below. Watch out for the passages that slow
down!
4. Choose the picture of the dance on the next page that you think most fits this music and colour it.
Why did you choose this picture?
27
Activity: Air from Holberg Suite
28
Activity: Air from Holberg Suite
29
The String Family in an Orchestra
30
KWS School Concerts Program
Beethoven: Symphony No.3 in E-flat major
Known also as Eroica, meaning
heroic in Italian, this symphony was
composed by Ludwig van Beethoven and premiered on April 7th,
1805. Beethoven had originally decided to dedicate the piece to Napoleon Bonaparte because he very
much admired Bonaparte while he
was First Consul. In May of 1804
Napoleon declared himself
‘Emperor of the French’, when Beethoven heard this he was absolutely
Daniel Warren
CD Track #7
Symphony
No. 3 in Eflat major
This is a landmark
work in classical
music that defined
the features of the
romantic style that
influenced music
throughout the
nineteenth century.
In its day, this was
radically different
music.
Ludwig van Beethoven
disgusted at the man he so admired.
Having written the title of his piece
Bonaparte, Beethoven scratched the
name out of the title page with such
force that it created a hole in the paper. Later Beethoven changed the
name of the piece to ‘Sinfonia Eroica’
meaning heroic symphony. The composition was completed in 1804 but
did not premiere until 1805 in Vienna.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Terms:
First Consul: A title
Napoleon used after
his seizing of power in
France
Biography
1. Listen to the “Scherzo” from Beethoven’s Symphony No. 3.
2. What does “Scherzo” mean? fast / lively / playful
3. What techniques does Beethoven use to create the feeling of “playfulness” in this
music?
References:
(*propulsive rhythms! explosive dynamics! accents! exciting repetitive patterns!
colourful timbres/instruments!)
YouTube:
“Beethoven Symphony 3” brings up
several video performances of this
famous piece.
4. Using crayons, markers or paints (something colourful) create a piece of art work
that reflects the energy and passion in this Scherzo! Listen to this excerpt many times
while you work!!
31
KWS School Concerts Program
Chopin: Nocturne Op.9, No.2
Written by Frederic Chopin
between the years 1830 and
1832, this composition is
made up of three different
nocturnes, with a nocturne
being music that is inspired
by the night or evening. The
nocturnes were dedicated to
Maria Pleyel, wife of Camille
Pleyel, who was a painter at
that time. The nocturne has
three parts each with their
own distinct sound and
mood. Nocturne No.2 (the
one that you will hear) was
written by Chopin when he
was about twenty years old
and is the more popular one
of the three nocturnes. The
overall sound of the nocturne
is graceful until it reaches the
end where the music picks up
and it is played louder and
faster.
Daniel Warren
CD Track #8
Nocturne
Op.9–
Frederic
Chopin
This is one of
the best-loved
works by Chopin. It has a
slightly sad
mood to it,
similar to many
of Chopin’s
other compositions.
Terms:
Trill: To play with a
quivering effect. This is
done on an instrument
by quickly moving between two adjacent
notes.
The piece then moves
into a trill before ending
the nocturne quite calmly.
Frederic Chopin
Biography
Chopin (1810 – 1849) was a Polish composer, virtuoso pianist, and music
teacher, of French-Polish parentage. He was one of the great masters of Romantic music.
A renowned child-prodigy pianist and composer, Chopin grew up in Warsaw
and completed his musical education there. In1830 he settled in Paris and
supported himself as a composer and piano teacher, giving few public performances. From 1837 to 1847 he carried on a relationship with the French
woman writer George Sand. For most of his life, Chopin suffered from poor
health; he died in Paris in 1849 at the age of 39.
References:
YouTube: “Chopin
Nocturne 2” brings up
several video performances of this famous
piece.
All of Chopin's works involve the piano. They are technically demanding but
emphasize nuance and expressive depth. Chopin invented some new musical forms and made major innovations to the piano sonata, mazurka, waltz,
nocturne, polonaise, étude, impromptu and prélude.
32
Activity
1. A Nocturne is music inspired by the night or evening. Chopin composed this nocturne for solo piano when he was 20 years old.
2. Write a short poem about the night that has been inspired from listening to the music. Include an
illustration. Share your poem with the class.
3. Listen to the Nocturne again focusing on the musical techniques that add colour and mood. Create
a list on chart paper of all the techniques that you have heard in the piece.
* melody - legato(smooth)
- graceful, decorative notes
- trills
-becomes more elaborative
* dynamics –starts softly to ff to p
* tonality changes- sad (minor) / happy (major)
* texture – solo piano
* timbre – solo piano start simply and blossoms as piece progressed
* tempo changes – use of rubato “stealing time”
* extreme changes in rhythms – simple to complex
33
KWS School Concerts Program
Dvorak: Slavonic Dance No. 8
Daniel Warren
CD Track #9
Slavonic
Dance No. 8
Dvořák only made
use of the characteristic rhythms of
Slavic folk music:
the melodies are
entirely his own
The Slavonic Dances are a
tion. The pieces, lively and
series of 16 orchestral
overtly nationalistic, were
pieces composed by An-
well received at the time
tonín Dvořák in 1878 and
and today are among the
1886 and published in two
composer's most memora-
sets as Opus 46 and Opus
ble works, occasionally
72 respectively. Originally
making appearances in
written for piano four
popular culture. Both ver-
hands, the Slavonic
sions were published within
Dances were inspired by
the year, and quickly estab-
Johannes Brahms's own
Hungarian Dances and
lished Dvořák's international
Antonín Dvořák
reputation.
were orchestrated at the
request of Dvořák's publisher soon after composi-
Activity
Terms:
1. Have class listen to the “Slavonic Dance.” What kind of dance is this?
Time: With music, time
means the number of
beats per bar of music
Who might be dancing to this music? peasants
2. Is this music - strong/ weak; loud/soft; smooth/jagged; thick/thin; high/low; fast/
slow?
3. Have the class find the 2 beat pattern (see below) in their feet by walking on the
spot. Now have the students stomp when they hear an accent and tiptoe when the music is lighter. Try interpreting this music while walking around the room.
4. Teach the class the 6/8 conducting pattern in the feel of 2 beats to the bar.
Have the class conduct the “Slavonic Dance.” How would the conductor show the
following musical concepts? Try conducting using these techniques:
References:
YouTube: “Slavonic
Dance 8” brings up
several video performances of this famous
piece.
LOUD - larger pattern
SOFT - smaller pattern
FAST - quicker pattern
SLOW – slower patter
ACCENT – stronger, detached pattern
LEGATO – smoother pattern
34
KWS School Concerts Program
Prokofiev: Suite No.2 from Romeo and Juliet
This excerpt is from the Ro-
picts scenes such as the feud
meo and Juliet ballet written
between the Montagues and
CD Track #10
by Sergei Prokofiev. The
the Capulets and Romeo at
Romeo and
Juliet
original ballet first premiered
Juliet’s Grave. In 2008 the
Daniel Warren
th
This is a tragedy
written early in
the career of
playwright William Shakespeare about two
young lovers
whose deaths
ultimately unite
their feuding
families.
on December 30 , 1938 in
original score written by Pro-
Czechoslovakia. Although a
kofiev was reconstructed and
revised version that is better
given choreography, all with
known to date premiered on
permission from the Prokofiev
th
January 11 , 1940 in Leningrad. Music from Prokofiev’s
family, and put on a year long
Sergei Prokofiev
tour. Some of the places the
ballet was taken and made
production is said to be per-
into three orchestral suites.
formed are New York, Lon-
Suite No.2 (the one you will
don and Norfolk.
listen to) features some of the
music from the ballet that de-
Terms:
Biography
Orchestral suites: a
collection of parts of a
large orchestra music
composition
Russian composer and pianist Sergei Prokofiev was born in 1891 in Sontsovka, a small
village in Ukraine. Early on, it was clear that he had musical talent. His mother, who was
a very good pianist, encouraged him, and taught him to play the piano. Sergei began
composing at the age of five. When he got a bit older, he and his mother moved to St.
Petersburg, so that he could study music there.
After Prokofiev graduated from school, he traveled around Europe to learn more about
music. World War I and the Russian Revolution made living and working in Russia very
difficult, so Prokofiev left the country in 1918. Paris eventually became his home, but he
also spent time in the United States and the Bavarian Alps. But the whole time he was
away from Russia, Prokofiev longed for his homeland. In 1936, he made the unusual
decision to move back to the Soviet Union.
References:
YouTube: “Prokofiev
Romeo and Juliet”
brings up several video
performances of this
famous piece.
Prokofiev was a master at using music to tell a story. One of his most famous musical
stories is Peter and the Wolf, which was written for Russia's Central Children's Theatre.
35
Activity: Suite No.2 from Romeo and Juliet
1. This section of the Suite has been subtitled “The Young Juliet.” Close your eyes while listening and see if you can
hear 3 different sections in this excerpt. Write words beside each picture that describe what is happening in the music.
A
fast, strings, bells, woodwinds, happy, staccato, pizzicato, skittish, scale passages
B
slow, flutes, cello, legato, rubato, french horn
A
Same as A above
2. While listening, write a short story about what the music is describing.
3. “Share your work with the class and talk about what in the music makes you feel this way.
36
KWS School Concerts Program
Debussy: Serenade for the Doll
Children’s Corner is a suite
pieces in order are called:
that was written by Claude
Doctor Gradus ad Parnas-
CD Track #11
Debussy for solo piano and
sum, Jimbo’s Lullaby, Sere-
Claude
Debussy
reached completion in 1908.
nade of the Doll, The Snow
Debussy wrote the suite for
is Dancing, The Little Shep-
his three year old daughter
herd and Golliwogg’s Cake-
Claude-Emma, also known
walk. “Serenade of the
as “Chou-Chou”. The pieces
Doll” (the piece you will hear)
Daniel Warren
Claude Debussy
(1862 – 1918)
was one of the
most prominent
figures working
within the field
of impressionist
music. Debussy
is among the
most important
of all French
composers, and
a central figure
in European music of the turn of
the 20th century.
are said to portray and be
is meant to portray the
Claude Debussy
evocative of childhood.
sound of girls playing with
There are six pieces in De-
dolls. It is played moderately
bussy’s suite and the dura-
fast and softly except where
tion of the entire piece is
marked forte.
about 15 minutes. The six
Terms:
Activity
Evocative: inspires the
imagination
1. Debussy composed this piece as one of six in a group for his daughter.
Forte: play loudly
It was originally written for piano and later arranged for orchestra. Debussy’s
music is often called “exotic.” (foreign, uniquely new)
Impressionism: 19th
century art movement
starting in Paris
As you listen, can you come up with some reasons why this is so?
2. Circle all the instruments that you hear.
ACCORDIAN
ENGLISH HORN
References:
OBOE
YouTube: “Serenade
for the Doll” brings up
several video performances of this famous
piece.
VIOLIN
BASSOON
BAGPIPES
CLARINET
TUBA
ELECTRIC GUITAR
CELLO
PENNY WHISTLE
STEEL DRUMS
SITAR
HARP
FLUTE
BASS GUITAR
DOUBLE BASS
RECORDER
VIOLA
PICCOLO
3. Imagine that the dolls have come to “life.” Write down what you think they are doing
and share your thoughts with the class.
37
Featured Composer: Howard Shore
Howard Shore is among today’s most respected, honored,
and active composers and music conductors. His work with
Peter Jackson on The Lord of
the Rings trilogy stands as his
most towering achievement to
date, earning him three Academy Awards. He has also been
awarded four Grammys and
three Golden Globes.
Shore was one of the original
creators of Saturday Night Live.
He served as the music director
on the show from 1975 to 1980.
At the same time, he began collaborating with David Cronenberg, and has scored 12 of the
director’s films, including The
Fly, Dead Ringers, Crash, Naked Lunch and Eastern Promises for which he was honored
with a Genie Award. Shore continues to distinguish himself
with a wide range of projects, from Martin Scorsese’s The Departed, The Aviator, and Gangs
of New York, to Ed Wood, The Silence of the Lambs, Philadelphia, and Mrs. Doubtfire.
Shore’s music has been performed in concerts throughout the world. In 2003, Shore conducted the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Chorus in the world premiere of The Lord
of the Rings Symphony in Wellington, New Zealand. Since then, the work has had over 140
performances by the world’s most prestigious orchestras, including the Kitchener-Waterloo
Symphony.
In 2008, Howard Shore’s opera of The Fly premiered at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris and
at Los Angeles Opera. Other recent works include Fanfare for the Wanamaker Organ in
Philadelphia and a piano concerto in 2010 for Lang Lang. He is currently working on his second opera and looks forward to a return to Middle-earth with J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit.
Shore received the Career Achievement for Music Composition Award from the National
Board of Review of Motion Pictures and New York Chapter’s Recording Academy Honors,
ASCAP’s Henry Mancini Award and the Frederick Loewe Award. He holds honorary doctorates from Berklee College of Music and York University and he is an Officer of the French
Order of Arts and Letters.
Source: www.howardshore.com
38
KWS School Concerts Program
Shore: The Lord of the Rings
The music for the Lord of the
help of the London Philhar-
Rings Trilogy was composed,
monic Orchestra and The
CD Track
#12/13
orchestrated and conducted
London Voices, as well as
by Howard Shore. The music
the New Zealand Symphony
Howard
Shore
he wrote for the film has be-
Orchestra occasionally as-
come the most popular
sisting with more of the ear-
scores of his career and one
lier work. The scores for
of the most popular scores for
each movie have all been
a movie in history. The scores
recorded and made into
for two of the three movies
soundtracks. Each sound-
Daniel Warren
Mr. Shore is a
Canadian composer, notable
for his film
scores. He has
composed the
scores for over
40 films, most
notably the
scores for The
Lord of the
Rings film trilogy, for which
he won 3 Academy Awards.
track contains over three
won Academy Awards and
The Return of the King went
Howard Shore
hours of music , with the final
on to win an Oscar for Best
movie, The Return of the
Song and a Golden Globe for
King’s soundtrack spanning
Best Original Score. The mu-
just less than four hours.
sic was performed with the
Writing for Film
Terms:
The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of
filming, at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on
some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original
diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the
film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer
about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone.
Trilogy: A series or
set of three
The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which
scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take
precise timing notes so that he knows how long each cue needs to last,
where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene
with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".
References:
YouTube: “Fellowship
of the Ring” brings up
several video performances of this famous
piece.
39
Activity: Lord of the Rings
“Concerning Hobbits” and “Knife in the Dark”
1. Have the class listen to a scene from a television program or from a movie without watching the screen. Write down
what you think is happening on the screen based on the music score behind the action.
2. Share your thoughts. Why did you assume certain actions were occurring? Watch the scene now. Were you correct?
What cues did the music give you?
3. Listen to Howard Shore’s music The Lord of the Rings – “Concerning Hobbits” and “The Knife in the
Dark”….better yet, watch the movie and notice how important the music score is to the action on the screen. Discuss
some of the ways that composers bring action, characters, mood and emotion to life through their music.
*use of a variety of usual and unusual instruments – strings, woodwinds, brass,
voice, percussion, celtic flutes
* use a wide variety of dynamics
* vary the tempo (speed of music) depending on the action
* vary the rhythms and the use of silence
* change the articulations (smooth, accented, staccato, pizzicato)
* change the keys and tonalities (major – happy; minor – sad / scary
* use repeated patterns and ostinati to create tension and continuity
4. On the following page, match the appropriate techniques, elements and characteristics to the piece to which you think
they belong. (in some cases it can be in both pieces.)
SLOW
FAST
OSTINATO
LYRICAL
EXTREME DYNAMICS STACCATO
ACCENTS
A B A FORM
CHOIR
LOW BRASS CLARINETS
FULL ORCHESTRA PERCUSSION
SEQUENCES
SMALLER ORCHESTRA
PIZZICATO
VIOLIN SOLO PENNY WHISTLE
BASSOON
SYNCOPATED RHYTHM
40
Activity: Lord of the Rings (cont’d)
CONCERNING HOBBITS
41
THE KNIFE IN THE DARK
KWS Education Programs—What We Do
Kinderconcert Series
These programs for children ages 3 months to 4 years are developed and presented by KWS musicians at the Conrad Centre for the Performing Arts. New
this season: Music For Young Children offers pre-concert classes. This series is repeated at River Run Centre in Guelph.
School Concerts
Each season, elementary school students in grades 1 – 3 and 4 – 6 come to the Centre in the Square to see an hour-long, full orchestra educational concert,
free of charge. The content of each concert has been developed by our Educator in Residence to tie into the Ontario Ministry of Education Curriculum. A set
of 6 unique concerts are now offered on a 3-year cycle for grades 1 to 3 and grades 4 to 6 so that students have an opportunity to see a unique concert each
year. The KWS provides supplementary materials for teachers as well as in-classroom visits by musicians before and after the concert experience.
Youth Orchestra Program (YOP)
Music students ages 5 up through 23 can participate in the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony Youth Orchestra Program which is now comprised of five ensembles: Preludium Strings, Youth Strings, Youth Sinfonia, Valhalla Brass and the senior Youth Orchestra. Each ensemble is led by a professional musician/
conductor. This nationally acclaimed program provides a training ground for future generations of musicians. Through its programs, students develop their
instrument technique, communication, team work, leadership and performance skills. There are four YOP concerts at the Centre in the Square and Conrad
Centre per season, side by side opportunities with the KWS and Wilfrid Laurier University Symphony Orchestra, and a range of outreach and education concerts around the Region. Touring and exchange opportunities are offered as they arise.
Family Series
The Family Series is an engaging concert experience designed for ages 4 – 12. Conductor and host, John Morris Russell, has designed this set of 3 concerts
to entertain and illuminate. Each concert includes a wide range of activities and explorations in the KW Art Gallery and Centre in the Square lobbies prior to
the start of each concert.
Generations
The Generations Series tells the story behind the music, as Music Director Edwin Outwater leads the orchestra on an exploration of the masterpieces of classical music. This series targets ages 10 and up in four Sunday afternoon concerts.
Symphony @ Work
This program is offered to students in grades in 7 & 8. Students attend a brief portion of a KWS rehearsal and then go on a guided tour to meet the people
behind the scenes. From learning about the conductor, the marketing director to learning what a stage crew does, this program gives students a glimpse of
the wide range of distinct careers under one roof.
Design a Concert
This program gives selected high school students an opportunity to work under the mentorship of KWS staff to develop and run their own KWS concert. Students gain an understanding of all aspects of programming, marketing, sponsorship and stage production, with lots of hands-on practical experience. This
teaches general project management as well as specific skills required to launch any event.
Unlocking the Music (Preludes)
The KWS provides informative presentations that tie into the music on KWS concerts and classical music appreciation in general. These presentations will be
in a variety of formats and take place in various locations in the region.
High School Music Programs Partnership
Edwin Outwater makes a point of visiting area high schools to work with music students and their teachers. KWS musicians also participate in mentoring programs by rehearsing with high school and university orchestras.
COMMUNITY PROGRAMS
Pathways to Education
This program, based on a model from Toronto’s Regent Park neighbourhood, adds a music component to the successful Pathways to Education after-school
program. The KWS will offer several components to the participating high school students: guest passes to select KWS concerts; music appreciation workshops; and music instrument and vocal lessons – all offered free of charge. This is an interest-based mentoring program offered to high school students in 2
underserved Kitchener neighborhoods.
Sunnydale Community Centre
The Sunnydale Community Association has provided programs to an underserved neighbourhood in Waterloo since 1997. The KWS has been invited to send
small groups of musicians to perform outdoors during food distribution, or larger concerts in a nearby school. In addition, groups from this community will be
invited to see selected KWS concerts and take guided tours of the Conrad Centre during the season.
42