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The Human Digestive System
INTRODUCTION TO THE AIMS TEACHING MODULE (ATM)
Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Organization and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
INTRODUCING THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
PREPARATION FOR VIEWING
Introduction to the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discussion Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jump Right In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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AFTER VIEWING THE PROGRAM
Suggested Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
The Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Checking Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Word Scramble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Types of Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Brain Twisters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Vocabulary Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
SE C T I O N 1
SECTION 2
SE C T I O N 3
SECTION 4
ADDITIONAL AIMS MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . .28
ANSWER KEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
1
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted without written permission of AIMS
Multimedia with these exceptions: Persons or schools purchasing this AIMS Teaching Module may reproduce
consumable ATM pages, identified in Section 4, for student or classroom use.
AIMS Multimedia is a leading producer and distributor of educational programs serving schools and libraries for
nearly 40 years. AIMS draws upon the most up-to-date knowledge, existing and emerging technologies, and all of
the instructional and pedagogical resources available to develop and distribute educational programs
in film, videocassette, laserdisc, CD-ROM and CD-i formats.
Persons or schools interested in obtaining additional copies of this AIMS Teaching Module, please contact:
AIMS Multimedia
1-800-FOR-AIMS
1-800-367-2467
2
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
Congratulations!
You have chosen a learning program
that will actively motivate your students
AND provide you with easily accessible
and easily manageable instructional
guidelines designed to make your
teaching role efficient and rewarding.
The AIMS Teaching Module provides
you with a video program keyed to your
classroom curriculum, instructions and
guidelines for use, plus a comprehensive teaching program containing a
wide range of activities and ideas for
interaction between all content areas.
Our authors, educators, and consultants
have written and reviewed the AIMS
Teaching Modules to align with the
Educate America Act: Goals 2000.
This ATM, with its clear definition of
manageability, both in the classroom
and beyond, allows you to tailor specific activities to meet all of your classroom needs.
3
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
RATIONALE
In today’s classrooms, educational pedagogy is often founded on Benjamin S.
Bloom’s “Six Levels of Cognitive
Complexity.” The practical application
of Bloom’s Taxonomy is to evaluate students’ thinking skills on these levels,
from the simple to the complex:
Knowledge (rote memory skills),
Comprehension (the ability to relate or
retell), Application (the ability to apply
knowledge outside its origin), Analysis
(relating and differentiating parts of a
whole), Synthesis (relating parts to a
whole), and Evaluation (making a judgment or formulating an opinion).
The AIMS Teaching Module is designed
to facilitate these intellectual capabilities, AND to integrate classroom experiences and assimilation of learning
with the students’ life experiences, realities, and expectations. AIMS’ learner
verification studies prove that our AIMS
Teaching Modules help students to
absorb, retain, and to demonstrate ability to use new knowledge in their world.
Our educational materials are written
and designed for today’s classroom,
which incorporates a wide range of
intellectual, cultural, physical, and emotional diversities.
4
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
ORGANIZATION AND
MANAGEMENT
To facilitate ease in classroom manageability, the AIMS Teaching Module is
organized in four sections. You are
reading Section 1, Introduction to the
Aims Teaching Module (ATM).
SECTION 2,
INTRODUCING THIS ATM
will give you the specific information
you need to integrate the program into
your classroom curriculum.
SECTION 3,
PREPARATION FOR VIEWING
provides suggestions and strategies for
motivation, language pre p a re d n e s s ,
readiness, and focus prior to viewing
the program with your students.
SECTION 4,
AFTER VIEWING THE PROGRAM
provides suggestions for additional
activities plus an assortment of consumable assessment and extended activities,
designed
to
broaden
comprehension of the topic and to make
connections to other curriculum content
areas.
5
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
FEATURES
INTRODUCING EACH ATM
SECTION 2
Your AIMS Teaching Module is
designed to accompany a video program written and produced by some of
the world’s most credible and creative
writers and producers of educational
programming. To facilitate diversity and
flexibility in your classroom, your AIMS
Teaching Module features these components:
Themes
The Major Theme tells how this AIMS
Teaching Module is keyed into the curriculum. Related Themes offer suggestions for interaction with other
curriculum content areas, enabling
teachers to use the teaching module to
incorporate the topic into a variety of
learning areas.
Overview
The Overview provides a synopsis of
content covered in the video program.
Its purpose is to give you a summary of
the subject matter and to enhance your
introductory preparation.
Objectives
The ATM learning objectives provide
guidelines for teachers to assess what
learners can be expected to gain from
each program. After completion of the
AIMS Teaching Module, your students
will be able to demonstrate dynamic
and applied comprehension of the
topic.
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
PREPARATION FOR VIEWING
Discussion Ideas
SECTION 3
Introduction to the Program is
designed to enable students to recall
or relate prior knowledge about the
topic and to prepare them for what
they are about to learn.
Discussion Ideas are designed to help
you assess students’ prior knowledge
about the topic and to give students a
preview of what they will learn.
Active discussion stimulates interest in
a subject and can motivate even the
most reluctant learner. Listening, as
well as speaking, is active participation. Encourage your students to participate at the rate they feel
comfortable. Model sharing personal
experiences when applicable, and
model listening to students’ ideas and
opinions.
Introduction To Vocabulary
Focus
Introduction to Vocabulary is a
review of language used in the program: w o rds, phrases, usage. This
vocabulary introduction is designed to
ensure that all learners, including limited English proficiency learners, will
have full understanding of the language usage in the content of the program.
Help learners set a purpose for
watching the program with Focus,
designed to give students a focal
point for comprehension continuity.
In preparation for viewing the video
program, the AIMS Teaching Module
offers activity and/or discussion
ideas that you may use in any order
or combination.
Introduction To The Program
AFTER VIEWING THE
PROGRAM
SECTION 4
After your students have viewed the
program, you may introduce any or
all of these activities to interact with
other curriculum content areas, provide reinforcement, assess comprehension skills, or provide hands-on
and in-depth extended study of the
topic.
Jump Right In
Jump Right In provides abbreviated
instructions for quick management of
the program.
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
SUGGESTED
ACTIVITIES
The Suggested Activities offer ideas
for activities you can direct in the
classroom or have your students complete independently, in pairs, or in
small work groups after they have
viewed the program. To accommodate your range of classroom needs,
the activities are organized into skills
categories. Their labels will tell you
how to identify each activity and help
you correlate it into your classroom
curriculum. To help you schedule your
classroom lesson time, the AIMS
hourglass gives you an estimate of the
time each activity should re q u i re .
Some of the activities fall into these
categories:
Meeting Individual
Needs
These activities are designed to aid in
classroom continuity. Reluctant learners and learners acquiring English
will benefit from these activities
geared to enhance comprehension of
language in order to fully grasp content meaning.
Curriculum
Connections
Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking activities are
designed to stimulate learners’ own
opinions and ideas. These activities
require students to use the thinking
process to discern fact from opinion,
consider their own problems and formulate possible solutions, draw conclusions, discuss cause and effect, or
combine what they already know
with what they have learned to make
inferences.
Cultural Diversity
Each AIMS Teaching Module has an
activity called Cultural Awareness,
Cultural Diversity, or Cultural
Exchange that encourages students to
share their backgrounds, cultures,
heritage, or knowledge of other countries, customs, and language.
Hands On
These are experimental or tactile
activities that relate directly to the
material taught in the program.Your
students will have opportunities to
make discoveries and formulate ideas
on their own, based on what they
learn in this unit.
Writing
Many of the suggested activities are
intended to integrate the content of
the ATM program into other content
areas of the classroom curriculum.
These cross-connections turn the
classroom teaching experience into a
whole learning experience.
Every AIMS Teaching Module will
contain an activity designed for students to use the writing process to
express their ideas about what they
have learned. The writing activity
may also help them to make the connection between what they are learning in this unit and how it applies to
other content areas.
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
In The Newsroom
Each AIMS Teaching Module contains
a newsroom activity designed to help
students make the relationship
between what they learn in the classroom and how it applies in their
world. The purpose of In The
Newsroom is to actively involve each
class member in a whole learning
experience. Each student will have an
opportunity to perform all of the tasks
involved in production: writing,
researching, producing, directing,
and interviewing as they create their
own classroom news program.
Extended Activities
These activities provide opportunities
for students to work separately or
together to conduct further research,
explore answers to their own questions, or apply what they have
learned to other media or content
areas.
Link to the World
These activities offer ideas for connecting learners’ classroom activities
to their community and the rest of the
world.
Culminating Activity
To wrap up the unit, AIMS Teaching
Modules offer suggestions for ways to
reinforce what students have learned
and how they can use their new
knowledge to enhance their world
view.
VOCABULARY
Every ATM contains an activity that
reinforces the meaning and usage of
the vocabulary words introduced in
the program content. Students will
either read or find the definition of
each vocabulary word, then use the
word in a written sentence.
CHECKING
COMPREHENSION
Checking Comprehension is designed
to help you evaluate how well your
students understand, retain, and
recall the information presented in the
AIMS Teaching Module. Depending
on your students’ needs, you may
direct this activity to the whole group
yourself, or you may want to have
students work on the activity page
independently, in pairs, or in small
groups. Students can verify their written answers through discussion or by
viewing the video a second time. If
you choose, you can reproduce the
answers from your Answer Key or
write the answer choices in a Word
Bank for students to use. Students can
use this completed activity as a study
guide to prepare for the test.
CONSUMABLE
ACTIVITIES
The AIMS Teaching Module provides
a selection of consumable activities,
designed to specifically reinforce the
content of this learning unit.
Whenever applicable, they are
arranged in order from low to high
difficulty level, to allow a seamless
facilitation of the learning process.
You may choose to have students take
these activities home or to work on
them in the classroom independently,
in pairs or in small groups.
TEST
The AIMS Teaching Module Test permits you to assess students’ understanding of what they have learned.
The test is formatted in one of several
standard test formats to give your
students a range of experiences in
test-taking techniques. Be sure to
read, or remind students to read, the
directions carefully and to read each
answer choice before making a
selection. Use the Answer Key to
check their answers.
CHECKING
VOCABULARY
The Checking Vocabulary activity
provides the opportunity for students
to assess their knowledge of new
vocabulary with this word game or
puzzle. The format of this vocabular y
activity allows students to use the
related words and phrases in a different context.
9
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
ADDITIONAL
AIMS MULTIMEDIA
PROGRAMS
After you have completed this AIMS
Teaching Module you may be interested
in more of the programs that AIMS
offers. This list includes several related
AIMS programs.
ADDITIONAL READING
SUGGESTIONS
AIMS offers a carefully researched list of
other resources that you and your students may find rewarding.
ANSWER KEY
Reproduces tests and work pages with
answers marked.
10
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia
The Human Digestive System
THEMES
The digestive system is a highly productive factory that makes energy out
of everything from orange juice to
asparagus. This breakdown and conversion of food is the main theme of
The Human Digestive System. Other
themes include the role of enzymes
and the passage of nutrients to each
cell of the human body.
OVERVIEW
Most young people are naturally curious about what happens to food after
they eat it. In The Human Digestive
System, students will gain a deeper
understanding of how their daily diet
is converted into the fuel that keeps
them alive. Students will learn to
identify each organ involved in the
digestion process, along with the
organ’s various functions. The effects
of a modern diet and digestionrelated health concerns will also be
discussed.
OBJECTIVES
To illustrate the digestive process.
To identify the organs of the
digestive system and investigate
their functions.
To demonstrate how enzymes
work to break down food inside
the body.
To explore the different ways in
which the digestive system digests
proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
To explain how nutrients are
transferred from the digestive
organs to the cells of the body.
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Use this page for your individual notes about planning and/or effective ways to manage this
AIMS Teaching Module in your classroom.
Our AIMS Multimedia Educational Department welcomes your observations and comments.
Please feel free to address your correspondence to:
AIMS Multimedia
Editorial Department
9710 DeSoto Avenue
Chatsworth, California 91311-4409
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
INTRODUCTION TO
THE PROGRAM
Ask the class to name as many digestive organs as they can. List the
responses on the board and tell students to write a sentence or two about
the function of each organ. Tell them
to keep their list until the end of the
unit to see what they have learned.
Of the organs listed, which one is the
first to begin breaking down food?
Which organ absorbs the most nutrients? (Keep in mind that the small
intestine is 16 to 20 feet long, while
the large intestine is only about 5 feet
long.)
INTRODUCTION TO
VOCABULARY
The word digestion means “to
divide.” Discuss with students how
this phrase applies to the digestion of
food. Encourage the class to look up
the word “digest” in the dictionary to
find its secondary meanings. How
are these meanings related to the biological definition of “digest”?
Ask students if they are herbivores,
carnivores or omnivores. Discuss the
meaning of each word and explain
the growing trend of vegetarianism.
How could a diet of no animal products be beneficial? Aside from health
issues, what other reasons might
prompt someone to become a vegetarian? How could a diet with no
meat or dairy products be harmful?
DISCUSSION IDEAS
Ask students to think about the
expression “you are what you eat.”
Ask if they eat junk food or “fast
food” and if so, why? Why is a diet
of high-fat, processed foods
unhealthy for humans? Remember to
consider the typical diets of our
ancestors. What do you think a person from the 1800s would think if
they ate a hamburger and French
fries?
How could students change their diets
in a positive way? Discuss how
important it is to form good eating
habits early in life. What kind of
problems could occur if a bad diet
continued for many years?
FOCUS
Discuss with students the link between
diet and state of mind. From past
experience, what kind of meals make
them feel sleepy? Which foods make
them feel more alert? Do any foods or
drinks make them nervous or jumpy?
What are other ways that food might
affect our moods?
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
JUMP RIGHT IN
Preparation
Read The Human Digestive
System Themes, Overview, and
Objectives to become familiar
with program content and expectations.
Use Preparation for Viewing
suggestions to introduce the topic
to students.
Viewing THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE
After Viewing THE HUMAN
SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Set up viewing monitor so that all
students have a clear view.
Depending on your classroom
size and learning range, you may
choose to have students view The
Human Digestive System together
or in small groups.
Some students may benefit from
viewing the video more than one
time.
Select Suggested Activities that
integrate into your classroom curriculum. If applicable, gather
materials or resources.
Choose the best way for students
to work on each activity. Some
activities work best for the whole
group. Other activities are
designed for students to work
independently, in pairs, or in
small groups. Whenever possible,
encourage students to share their
work with the rest of the group.
Duplicate the appropriate number
of
Vocabulary,
Checking
Comprehension, and consumable
activity pages for your students.
You may choose to have students
take consumable activities home,
or complete them in the classroom, independently, or in
groups.
Administer the Test to assess students’ comprehension of what
they have learned, and to provide
them with practice in test-taking
procedures.
Use the Culminating Activity
as a forum for students to display,
summarize, extend, or share
what they have learned with each
other, the rest of the school, or a
local community organization.
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES
Connection to History
Many events throughout history were shaped by food or drink. Some examples include the
Boston Tea Party, the Great Potato Famine of Ireland, Thanksgiving, and Marie Antoinette’s
famous statement, “Let them eat cake.” Ask students to research a food-related historical event,
and have them present their findings to the class.
60 Minutes
Critical Thinking
Ask students if food moves down the esophagus because of gravity or by another mechanism.
(by peristalsis) Remind them that food can be swallowed, even when a person stands on his or
her head. Does this change the students’ answer?
15 Minutes
Explain the mechanism of peristalsis by comparing it to toothpaste being squeezed out of a
tube. Where else in the body might peristalsis be found?
Cultural Diversity
People from different regions of the world have unique customs and preferences concerning
food. In some areas, people will not eat pork because they consider pigs to be dirty animals.
In other places, people refuse to eat cheese because it has an unpleasant smell.
20 Minutes
Encourage students to learn more about the dietary habits of a specific culture different from
their own. Perhaps they will choose to study an ethnic group of their heritage, or they may
want to learn more about the cuisine of a foreign country they plan to visit in the future.
Connection to Art
Taking an honest look at how we perceive our bodies can help us take the right steps to improving our appearance and overall health.
45 Minutes
Tell students to draw two pictures of themselves. The first drawing should illustrate how they see
their bodies, including negative and positive aspects. The second drawing should illustrate how
they would like to appear.
What steps could the students take to make their bodies look more like the second drawing?
How could changes in diet and exercise help? What aspects of the first drawing are unchangeable? How do students feel about the parts of themselves that cannot be changed?
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Writing
Tell students to imagine they are a chicken sandwich being eaten for lunch. Ask them to use
their creative writing skills to describe their journey through the body. Remind them to include
paragraphs for each part of the sandwich, including the chicken (protein), bread (carbohydrate) and mayonnaise (fat).
45 Minutes
What do they see along the way? How do they feel? Where is each part of the chicken sandwich digested?
Connection to Health and Nutrition
Ask students to explain the meaning of the expression “butterflies in your stomach.” What are
some other ways that stress can affect the digestive system?
20 Minutes
Stress can play a large role in disease. Learning to relax can increase health and improve the
quality of life. Guide the class through the following simple relaxation techniques:
• Close your eyes and think of something you enjoy doing.
• Take slow, deep breaths. Start by expanding your stomach as you inhale, then move the
breath into your chest.
• Shrug your shoulders up and down several times. Roll your head in a circle to loosen your
neck muscles, and shake your arms and hands vigorously.
Tell students to try these techniques whenever they feel stressed during the next week. What
happens when they consistently remember to relax?
In the Newsroom
Magazines and newspapers are filled with stories about “miracle” diets, “lifesaving” vitamin
supplements and dangerous foods that may lead to health problems. So much has been written about eating healthy that some of the information is contradictory.
Instruct students to gather articles and books with information on healthy eating. Encourage
them to compare their findings to uncover any misleading or controversial advice. If audio or
video equipment is available, have the class create a news show focusing on the information
that their “investigative reporting” has uncovered.
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
60 Minutes
Hands On
Distribute a small piece of bread to each student. Ask them to place the bread in their mouths
without swallowing. After a minute or so, what do they notice about the flavor of the bread?
Why does it taste sweet?
15 Minutes
Explain that the digestive enzyme salivary amylase has converted the complex starch molecules in the bread into the simple sugars maltose and glucose. How else did saliva change the
bread to make it easier to digest?
Link to the World
Famine is a major problem in Africa, Asia and South America. Although enough food is produced to feed everyone in the world, millions of people eat less than 20% of what they need
to be healthy.
20 Minutes
How do students feel about living in a nation where many people eat twice as much food as
they need? If extra food is present, why can’t it reach people who are starving? How can people of other countries help those who are less fortunate?
Culminating Activity
Serve as the host of a Digestive Talk Show. Assign a part of the digestive system to each student and ask them to study up on their part before the show. Include the mouth, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, villi, liver, gallbladder, and others. Interview
each “guest” by asking them questions that will reinforce what the class has learned about the
digestive system.
60 Minutes
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
VOCABULARY
The following vocabulary words are from The Human Digestive System. Fill in the number of each
word next to its closest definition.
1.
amino acids
7.
lipids
2.
bile
8.
liver
3.
carbohydrates
9.
pancreas
4.
duodenum
10. proteins
5.
gallbladder
11. starches
6.
hydrochloric acid
12. villi
_____ organic compounds such as fat and cholesterol
_____ gland which secretes enzymes for all types of digestion
_____ foods that include bread, pasta and potatoes
_____ organ that stores bile
_____ largest gland in the body and producer of bile
_____ group of compounds that includes starches and sugars
_____ aids protein digestion in the stomach
_____ building blocks of protein
_____ fluid which breaks down fats in the small intestine
_____ main building material of all cells
_____ fingerlike projections that increase surface area of the small intestine
_____ first portion of the small intestine
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
1.
Label the diagram above using the following terms: liver, rectum, pancreas, stomach,
gallbladder, esophagus, duodenum, small intestine.
2.
Where does bile go after it leaves the gallbladder?
______________________________________________________________________________
3.
Which organ is primarily responsible for protein digestion?
______________________________________________________________________________
4.
Where does fat digestion begin?
______________________________________________________________________________
5.
Where does starch digestion begin?
______________________________________________________________________________
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© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
CHECKING COMPREHENSION
Read the following sentences and circle the letters of the words that best fill each blank.
The human digestive system is a group of organs that break down food into _____1_____ to be used as
fuel by the body. Digestive juices, which are mostly _____2_____ , speed up this breakdown.
Carbohydrates are changed into _____3_____ , fats are digested into _____4_____ , and proteins are
broken down into _____5_____ and amino acids.
Digestion begins in the mouth, where food is ground into smaller particles, and an enzyme breaks down
some of the _____6_____. In the stomach, _____7_____ such as hydrochloric acid begin the breakdown
of protein. Fats and starches move on to the _____8_____, where most of the digestive process takes place.
Fluid secreted by the _____9_____ and _____10____ , which is made in the liver, help digest fat. Enzymes
secreted by glands in the walls of the small intestine continue to break down _____11____. Capillaries and
lymph vessels in the _____12____ absorb the digested food and carry it to the body.
1.
A.
B.
C.
D.
cells
atoms
enzymes
molecules
2.
A.
B.
C.
D.
acids
enzymes
bile
lymph fluids
3.
A. amino acids
B. starches
C. simple sugars
D. fatty acids
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
starches and glycerol
starches and simple sugars
fatty acids and glycerol
peptides and fatty acids
5.
A.
B.
C.
D.
peptides
starches
gastric juice
glycerol
(Continued on next page)
20
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
CHECKING COMPREHENSION (Continued)
6.
A.
B.
C.
D.
sugars
starches
proteins
carbohydrates
7.
A. fatty acids
B. gastric juices
C. pancreatic juices
D. liver secretions
8.
A. lymph vessels
B. blood vessels
C. small intestine
D. liver
9.
A. stomach
B. large intestine
C. gallbladder
D. pancreas
10.
A. bile
B. mucus
C. gastric juice
D. hydrochloric acid
11.
A. fats and vitamins
B. starches and proteins
C. starches and vitamins
D. proteins and bile
12.
A.
B.
C.
D.
liver
pancreas
villi
gallbladder
21
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
WORD SCRAMBLE
Unscramble the words on the left, then match them to the definitions below.
_____
lslam sitntenie ____________________
_____
yocregll ____________________
_____
dippetes ____________________
_____
carbaeit ____________________
_____
iialcpslaer ____________________
_____
mertcu ____________________
_____
dteharbsracoy ____________________
_____
valsia ____________________
_____
lrhrihcdyooc ____________________
_____
suumc ____________________
_____
naivmtis ____________________
_____
dlaaeglbdrl ____________________
1.
protects the walls of the large intestine
7.
stores bile before it’s needed
2.
where most digestion takes place
8.
found in the villi
3.
another name for starches and sugars
9.
final segment of the alimentary canal
4.
absorbed by the large intestine
10. what proteins become
5.
acid found in the stomach
11. begins the breakdown of starch
6.
break down roughage in the large
intestine
12. what fats are digested into
22
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
TYPES OF FOOD
1.
2.
Each of the following foods is primarily a carbohydrate, fat, or protein. Use the blanks
below to describe which group each food belongs to.
_______________
toast
_______________
tuna
_______________
steak
_______________
cereal flakes
_______________
soda
_______________
baked potato
_______________
milkshake
_______________
ice cream
_______________
spaghetti
_______________
ham
How would the milkshake be digested?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3.
What would the steak be broken down into?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4.
Where would digestion of the cereal begin?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5.
Vegetables such as lettuce and carrots contain vitamins, minerals and some protein, but they
are mostly roughage. How is roughage digested?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
23
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
BRAIN TWISTERS
Do some research to find answers to the following questions.
1.
Why are there more overweight people than overweight animals?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2.
If potatoes only grow in warm weather, why can we buy them in the winter?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3.
Why does your stomach growl when you’re hungry?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4.
Acid in the stomach can dissolve razor blades. Why doesn’t this acid eat through the lining
of the stomach?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5.
Why don’t we get as hungry when we’re hot?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
24
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
VOCABULARY SEARCH
The following words can be found in the maze below. The letters may be arranged horizontally,
vertically, diagonally or backwards.
WORD BANK
bile
carbohydrates
esophagus
gallbladder
lipids
liver
pancreas
peptides
proteins
starches
stomach
villi
A
C
D
T
E
E
L
I
B
B
I
L
W
N
O
D
X
S
S
R
E
I
L
E
R
A
L
H
N
P
G
G
A
L
L
B
L
A
D
D
E
R
R
E
D
H
R
S
S
I
A
E
T
U
V
O
V
V
L
I
J
I
P
E
P
E
P
T
I
D
E
S
I
E
S
C
P
K
L
I
A
O
L
B
E
S
N
M
L
B
U
E
R
A
D
W
L
O
S
S
E
K
N
S
A
L
H
S
O
S
I
T
O
U
L
H
I
L
S
E
A
C
E
S
T
T
E
G
G
A
C
L
I
A
S
R
A
E
N
M
E
A
N
D
T
R
R
A
E
S
W
M
Q
I
A
H
I
L
U
X
A
M
E
R
T
T
O
O
Z
P
M
N
N
A
E
T
C
P
C
Y
R
T
A
O
B
C
E
S
S
L
S
W
I
N
L
D
S
S
E
T
A
R
D
Y
H
O
B
R
A
C
U
E
M
L
O
I
R
X
C
A
N
O
L
P
E
25
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
TEST
Check the correct answer to each question.
1.
How does saliva digest food?
q
q
by breaking down starches
by using bile to break down sugars
by breaking down proteins
by using peptides to break down fat
q
q
2.
The first segment of the small intestine is called the:
q
villus
illeum
colon
duodenum
q
q
q
3.
The volume of the human stomach is approximately:
q
one liter
two liters
one-half of a liter
four liters
q
q
q
4.
What are the walls of the stomach lined with?
q
q
q
q
5.
blood vessels and bile ducts
villi and mucus membranes
blood vessels and intestinal glands
lymph vessels and villi
Enzymes in the gastric juices break proteins down into:
q
q
q
q
lipids
amino acids
amylase
simple sugars
26
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
TEST (CONTINUED)
6.
What type of food begins the digestion process in the small intestine?
q
starches
proteins
sugars
fats
q
q
q
7.
What happens in the duodenum?
q
q
q
q
8.
food is mixed with pancreatic juice and bile
vitamins and minerals are absorbed
food is crushed by strong muscles and mixed with digestive juices
a large amount of water is absorbed from the food
What are the functions of the intestinal juices?
q
q
q
q
9.
to continue breaking down starches and proteins
to begin breaking down fats
to begin breaking down starches and proteins
to break down vitamins and minerals
Where do amino acids and glucose go after being absorbed by the villi?
q
q
q
q
10.
to the gallbladder
to the large intestine
to the liver
to the lymph vessels
Blood vessels in the large intestine absorb:
q
q
q
q
protein
minerals and water
bile
starches
27
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
ADDITIONAL AIMS MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMS
You and your students might also enjoy these other AIMS Multimedia programs:
How the Body Works: Skin, Bones and Muscles
Circulation of the Blood
Kidney Functions
Brain and Spinal Cord
Human Blood Circulation
Investigating the Nervous System
Lungs (Revised)
Mammalian Heart
Human Brain
28
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
VOCABULARY
The following vocabulary words are from The Human Digestive System. Fill in the number of each
word next to its closest definition.
1.
amino acids
7.
lipids
2.
bile
8.
liver
3.
carbohydrates
9.
pancreas
4.
duodenum
10. proteins
5.
gallbladder
11. starches
6.
hydrochloric acid
12. villi
7
organic compounds such as fat and cholesterol
9
gland which secretes enzymes for all types of digestion
11
foods that include bread, pasta and potatoes
5
organ that stores bile
8
largest gland in the body and producer of bile
3
group of compounds that includes starches and sugars
6
aids protein digestion in the stomach
1
building blocks of protein
2
fluid which breaks down fats in the small intestine
10
main building material of all cells
12
fingerlike projections that increase surface area of the small intestine
4
first portion of the small intestine
29
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
ANSWER KEY for page 19
Name
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
1.
Label the diagram above using the following terms: liver, rectum, pancreas, stomach,
gallbladder, esophagus, duodenum, small intestine.
2.
Where does bile go after it leaves the gallbladder?
(the duodenum)
3.
Which organ is primarily responsible for protein digestion?
(the stomach)
4.
Where does fat digestion begin?
(in the small intestine)
5.
Where does starch digestion begin?
(in the mouth)
30
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
CHECKING COMPREHENSION
Read the following sentences and circle the letters of the words that best fill each blank.
The human digestive system is a group of organs that break down food into _____1_____ to be used as
fuel by the body. Digestive juices, which are mostly _____2_____ , speed up this breakdown.
Carbohydrates are changed into _____ 3_____ , fats are digested into _____4_____ , and proteins ar e
broken down into _____ 5_____ and amino acids.
Digestion begins in the mouth, where food is ground into smaller particles, and an enzyme breaks down
some of the _____ 6_____ .In the stomach, _____7_____ such as hydrochloric acid begin the breakdown
of protein. Fats and starches move on to the _____8_____, where most of the digestive process takes
place. Fluid secreted by the _____9_____ and _____10____ , which is made in the liver, help digest fat.
Enzymes secreted by glands in the walls of the small intestine continue to break down _____11____.
Capillaries and lymph vessels in the _____12____ absorb the digested food and carry it to the body.
1.
A.
B.
C.
D.
cells
atoms
enzymes
molecules
2.
A.
B.
C.
D.
acids
enzymes
bile
lymph fluids
3.
A.
B.
C.
D.
amino acids
starches
simple sugars
fatty acids
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
starches and glycerol
starches and simple sugars
fatty acids and glycerol
peptides and fatty acids
5.
A.
B.
C.
D.
peptides
starches
gastric juice
glycerol
31
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
ANSWER KEY for page 21
Name
CHECKING COMPREHENSION (Continued )
6.
A.
B.
C.
D.
sugars
starches
proteins
carbohydrates
7.
A.
B.
C.
D.
fatty acids
gastric juices
pancreatic juices
liver secretions
8.
A.
B.
C.
D.
lymph vessels
blood vessels
small intestine
liver
9.
A.
B.
C.
D.
stomach
large intestine
gallbladder
pancreas
10.
A.
B.
C.
D.
bile
mucus
gastric juice
hydrochloric acid
11.
A.
B.
C.
D.
fats and vitamins
starches and proteins
starches and vitamins
proteins and bile
12.
A.
B.
C.
D.
liver
pancreas
villi
gallbladder
32
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
WORD SCRAMBLE
Unscramble the words on the left, then match them to the definitions below.
2
lslam sitntenie small intestine
12
yocregll glycerol
10
dippetes peptides
6
carbaeit bacteria
8
iialcpslaer capillaries
9
mertcu rectum
3
dteharbsracoy carbohydrates
11
valsia saliva
5
lrhrihcdyooc hydrochloric
1
suumc mucus
4
naivmtis vitamins
7
dlaaeglbdrl gallbladder
1.
protects the walls of the large intestine
7.
stores bile before it’s needed
2.
where most digestion takes place
8.
found in the villi
3.
another name for starches and sugars
9.
final segment of the alimentary canal
4.
absorbed by the large intestine
10. what proteins become
5.
acid found in the stomach
11. begins the breakdown of starch
6.
break down roughage in the large
intestine
12. what fats are digested into
33
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
ANSWER KEY for page 23
Name
TYPES OF FOOD
1.
2.
Each of the following foods is primarily a carbohydrate, fat, or protein. Use the blanks
below to describe which group each food belongs to.
carbohydrate
toast
protein
tuna
protein
steak
carbohydrate
cereal flakes
carbohydrate
soda
carbohydrate
baked potato
fat
milkshake
fat
ice cream
carbohydrate
spaghetti
protein
ham
How would the milkshake be digested?
(in the small intestine, by pancreatic juice and bile)
3.
What would the steak be broken down into?
(amino acids and peptides)
4.
Where would digestion of the cereal begin?
(in the mouth)
5.
Vegetables such as lettuce and carrots contain vitamins, minerals and some protein, but
they are mostly roughage. How is roughage digested?
(by bacteria in the large intestine)
34
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
BRAIN TWISTERS
Do some research to find answers to the following questions.
Answers will var y.
1.
Why are there more overweight people than overweight animals?
(Most animals eat because they are hungry. People often eat because it is something they
enjoy.)
2.
If potatoes only grow in warm weather, why can we buy them in the winter?
(New technologies involving greenhouses make many fruits and vegetables available yearround. Better transportation methods also make it easier to import warm-weather crops.)
3.
Why does your stomach growl when you’re hungry?
(Gases in the stomach, and in the small intestine, make a gurgling sound when the
stomach is almost empty.)
4.
Acid in the stomach can dissolve razor blades. Why doesn’t this acid eat through the lining
of the stomach?
(Mucus protects the lining of the stomach from acids in the gastric juices.)
5.
Why don’t we get as hungry when we’re hot?
(When we’re hot, we need less fuel to keep our body going, so our brain sends out signals
that discourage us from getting hungry.)
35
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
ANSWER KEY for page 25
Name
VOCABULARY SEARCH
The following words can be found in the maze below. The letters may be arranged horizontally,
vertically, diagonally or backwards.
WORD BANK
bile
carbohydrates
esophagus
gallbladder
lipids
liver
pancreas
peptides
proteins
starches
stomach
villi
A
C
D
T
E
E
L
I
B
B
I
L
W
N
O
D
X
S
S
R
E
I
L
E
R
A
L
H
N
P
G
G
A
L
L
B
L
A
D
D
E
R
R
E
D
H
R
S
S
I
A
E
T
U
V
O
V
V
L
I
J
I
P
E
P
E
P
T
I
D
E
S
I
E
S
C
P
K
L
I
A
O
L
B
E
S
N
M
L
B
U
E
R
A
D
W
L
O
S
S
E
K
N
S
A
L
H
S
O
S
I
T
O
U
L
H
I
L
S
E
A
C
E
S
T
T
E
G
G
A
C
L
I
A
S
R
A
E
N
M
E
A
N
D
T
R
R
A
E
S
W
M
Q
I
A
H
I
L
U
X
A
M
E
R
T
T
O
O
Z
P
M
N
N
A
E
T
C
P
C
Y
R
T
A
O
B
C
E
S
S
L
S
W
I
N
L
D
S
S
E
T
A
R
D
Y
H
O
B
R
A
C
U
E
M
L
O
I
R
X
C
A
N
O
L
P
E
36
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
Name
TEST
Check the correct answer to each question.
1.
How does saliva digest food?
√
q
q
q
q
2.
breaking down starches
using bile to break down sugars
breaking down proteins
using peptides to break down fat
The first segment of the small intestine is called the:
q
q
q
3.
q√
villus
illeum
colon
duodenum
The volume of the human stomach is approximately:
q
q√
q
q
4.
one liter
two liters
one-half of a liter
four liters
What are the walls of the stomach lined with?
q
q
q√
q
5.
by
by
by
by
blood vessels and bile ducts
villi and mucus membranes
blood vessels and intestinal glands
lymph vessels and villi
Enzymes in the gastric juices break proteins down into:
q
q√
q
q
lipids
amino acids
amylase
simple sugars
37
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System
ANSWER KEY for page 27
Name
TEST (CONTINUED)
6.
What type of food begins the digestion process in the small intestine?
q
q
q
√
q
7.
starches
proteins
sugars
fats
What happens in the duodenum?
q√
q
q
q
8.
food is mixed with pancreatic juice and bile
vitamins and minerals are absorbed
food is crushed by strong muscles and mixed with digestive juices
a large amount of water is absorbed from the food
What are the functions of the intestinal juices?
q√
q
q
q
9.
to continue breaking down starches and proteins
to begin breaking down fats
to begin breaking down starches and proteins
to break down vitamins and minerals
Where do amino acids and glucose go after being absorbed by the villi?
q
q
√q
q
10.
to the gallbladder
to the large intestine
to the liver
to the lymph vessels
Blood vessels in the large intestine absorb:
q
q
q√
q
protein
minerals and water
bile
starches
38
© Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System