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Beauty Studies
Varun Marg, Defence Colony, New Delhi- 110 024
Chief Advisor
Anita Satia
Director, SCERT
Dr. Pratibha Sharma
Joint Director, SCERT
Ms. Meenakshi Yadav
Sr. Lecturer, SCERT
Ms. Ila Rani
Lecturer, SCERT
Ms. Deepa Vats, Lecturer (Social Sciences and Humanities) SCERT
Dr. Bhanu Chhabra, ESI Hospital, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, U.P
Ms. Neeru Chaddha, Vice Principal, SV Motibagh II, Nanakpura
Ms. Monika Mehra, Vocational Teacher, Health and Beauty Studies, SKV New Friends Colony
Ms. Gurmeet Kaur, Vocational Teacher, Health and Beauty Studies, GGSSS No.1, East of Kailash
Ms. Savita Gulati, Vocational Teacher, Health and Beauty Studies, GSKV B-3, Paschim Vihar
Ms. Umita Luthra, Vocational Teacher, Health and Beauty Studies, SKV, Noor Nagar, Okhla
Ms. Sarita Renu, Vocational Teacher, Health and Beauty Studies, SKV, Noor Nagar, Okhla
Ms. Ritu Arora, Vocational Teacher, Health and Beauty Studies, SKV, Noor Nagar, Okhla
Ms. Geeta Tiwari, Vocational Teacher, Health and Beauty Studies, GGSSS No. 2, Kidwai Nagar
Ms. Meenakshi Yadav, Sr. Lecturer, (Work Ex. and Voc. Education) SCERT
Ms. Ila Rani, Lecturer (Work Ex. and Voc. Education) SCERT
Ms. Raman, Lecturer (Work Ex. and Voc. Education) SCERT
Publication Incharge
Ms. Sapna Yadav
Ms. Meenakshi Yadav
Publication Team
Mr. Navin Kumar
Ms. Radha
Mr. Jai Bhagwan
Designed & Printed by :
M/s Royal Offset Printers, A-89/1 Naraina Industrial Area, Phase –I, New Delhi - 110 028
Education plays such a rudimentary role on our society that we cannot even imagine a
life without it. It is a determined element for the civilization of human society. Not
only does it helps us develop healthy surroundings but it also generates an advance
community. As a matter of fact, everything we create today is based on the knowledge
that we obtain throughout our life by way of education. The more developed life
becomes, the more necessary education is for everyone.
The Technical / Vocational Education and Training is multi-sectoral in nature. Each
ministry/department in Central as well as State Governments is responsible for
manpower development in that sector. While some offer regular formal or non-formal
courses, others draw from the general pool of educated and trained manpower.
The higher secondary vocationalisation programme aims to develop skilled manpower
through diversified courses to meet the requirements of mainly the unorganized sector
and to prepare people for the world of work in general through a large number of self
employment oriented courses, not precluding wage employment orientation of many
courses. Through diversification into production and service oriented courses, it is desired
to reduce the aimless pursuit of higher education and thereby reduce pressure from the
tertiary education.
SCERT, Delhi provides training to teachers in different school subject for capacity
building of the teachers. It helps them in orienting teachers with different pedagogical
skills that are needed for better classroom transaction.
The present Module is an attempt in the capacity building of the vocational teachers
( Health and Beauty Studies) The module deals with all the practical aspects of teaching
vocational subject (Health and Beauty Studies). It gives ample scope to teachers to
think, choose and conduct the activities for vocational students that can be transacted
in the classroom to make them develop their practical skills. This will help the learner
to become more productive and responsible citizen of the nation.
The module is emphasizing on the importance of Health and Beauty studies so it will
deal with how to take care of one’s health and at the same point of time how to maintain
healthy skin as Worldwide both health and beauty are the supreme and considered as
the essential treasure in anyone’s life. Truly said’ “A healthy body is a healthy mind” or
“A sound body is a sound mind”. Although, the stunning outlook can easily be achieved
through make up but the natural beauty has no comparisons at all. Real beauty comes
from within when the person health is properly fit and healthy. Health and beauty goes
equal in every sense. Health contributes to the overall well-being in terms of mind,
social behavior and physique, whereas beauty refers to the attractive look and personality
of any one. Nowadays both the components play a major role in attaining success in
life. Whether it is a private life or professional, the importance of Health and beauty
cannot be ignored at all. Natural health and the available ways of beauty guidelines like
drinking plenty of water, eating green leafy vegetables and fruits provides sparkling
outlook with fascinating beauty.
SCERT, Delhi takes the opportunity to thank all the Contributors, Principles, and
Teachers who have helped in preparation of this module.
We hope this module will be a great help for the Vocational Teachers in their classroom
preparation and transaction of curriculum to make the learners professionally better
citizen of tomorrow.
Your suggestions are always welcomed.
List of Units
Page no.
Introduction To Vocational Education
Business Entrepreneurship
Basic Computational Skills
Skin Care
Make Up
Hair Studies
Diet and Nutrition
Yoga and its Benefits
Unit 1
Introduction to Vocational Education
Health & Beauty Studies
Health & Beauty Studies
Vocational Education and Training is an important element of the nation’s education initiative. In
order for Vocational Education to play its part effectively in the changing national context and for
India to enjoy the fruits of the demographic dividend, there is an urgent need to redefine the critical
elements of imparting vocational education and training to make them flexible, contemporary, relevant,
inclusive and creative. The Government is well aware of the important role of Vocational education
and has already taken a number of important initiatives in this area. School-based vocational education
in India is currently covered by a centrally sponsored scheme which was mooted in 1988 and was aimed
at providing an alternative to the pursuit of higher academic education. One of the objectives of the
Vocational Education Programme is to meet the need for skilled and middle-level manpower for the
growing sectors of economy, both organized and unorganized. The range of Vocational Education
courses has been expanding over the years depending upon needs of learners and market demands.
Education and Employment
Education, in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of development. Education enriches
people’s understanding of themselves and the world. It improves the quality of their lives and leads to
broad social benefits to individuals and society. Education raises people’s productivity and creativity
and promotes entrepreneurship and technological advances. In. addition, it plays a very crucial role In
securing economies and social progress and Improving Income distribution. Historically, the purpose
of education has been to prepare the next generation for work, family and citizenship; to shape their
future. India being a ‘young nation’, with 28 million population of youth added every year requires
employment-oriented education i.e., Vocational Education of a massive dimension for channelizing
the youth energy to constructive and productive work. Vocational Education has been understood as
an education defined to prepare skilled personnel at lower levels of qualification for one or more
groups of occupations, trades or jobs.
With the progress of human civilization, skill up-gradation also progressed. The need, time and
place have been decisive factors in the process of skill development. With liberalization, privatization
and globalization, the need for skill development and up gradation in our country has increased. In the
present employment scenario, each one of us needs skills - basic skills, life or survival skills,
communication skills, inter-personal and social skills, occupational skills, techno-managerial skills,
leadership skills and many more. It is the level of competence based on knowledge and skills acquired
which makes us successful in our life. In this broader perspective, therefore, everyone. needs vocational
education and training in one form or the other, at one stage or the other for better living.
Vocational education aims to build up a knowledge based skilled workforce that can meet the
requirements of entrepreneurial society at local, global and national level thereby, significantly reducing
the unemployment and enabling people to earn their livelihood.
In Indian context, the work-based education and dignity of labour has always been significant. The
Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi had the vision to visualize the Basic Education (Buniyadi
Shiksha) or Nai Talim seeking to harmonize intellectual and manual work and to develop desirable
work values. Since independence, several Commissions and Committees have reiterated the need of
Vocationalization of education in India.
Health & Beauty Studies
As a matter of fact in India, all committees and commissions on education appointed by the Govt.
of India had emphasized the role of vocational education I and training in the country’s economic
development. It was recommended that at an appropriate stage, students should be exposed to varieties
of courses of , practical nature, which would fit them to occupations. The society need up gradation of
skills and knowledge base is the key that will unlock avenues for m9re employment and better quality
Vocational Education Programme at Higher Secondary Level
The Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended diverting 50 per cent of students beyond class
X to full-time and part-time vocational and professional courses in order to prepare students for gainful
employment and reduce pressure on higher education. On the basis of -recommendations of Kothari
Commission, the National Policy on Education (NPE, 1968), made two very significant changes I in
the education system: (i) 10+2+3 year pattern of education and (ii) distinct academic and vocational
streams at the +2 level.
In pursuance of the National Policy on Education, 1968, NCERT brought out a guideline document
‘Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalization’ in 1976 to facilitate the States UTs to launch
Vocational Education Programme (VEP) at higher secondary level. The Vocational Education
Programme at higher secondary stage was, therefore initiated in 1976-77. However, the programme
could not expand In terms of enrolment of students and coverage of states till 1987-88 because of
lack of resources with the implementing states Governments. Therefore, there was at) urgent need of
central intervention of the programme. In 1986, the central government came out with the new National
Policy on Education followed by Programme of Action in 1986.
The objectives of the VEP as spelt out in the NPE, 1986, are:
(i) to provide diversification of educational opportunities and enhance individual employability,
(ii) to reduce the mismatch between demaod and sUpply of Skilled manpower, and
(iii) to provide an alternative for those pursuing higher education.
In pursuance of National Policy of Education 1986 and POA 1986, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme
(CSS) of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education was launched in 19"88. Under CSS, substantial
financial assistance was provided to the States UTs as well as NGOs for implementation of the VEP.
The VEP has emerged as the largest programme amongst all the States UTs. Capacity for enrolling
more than 10 lakhs students at the +2 stage in different vocational courses has been created in 6800
higher secondary institutions. Some of the States/UTs have made visible impact through vocational
education programme despite several constraints in their way .
The Programme of Action (POA) formulated for implementation of NPE (1986), stated that
vocational programmes for students after class VIII will be introduced on experimental basis. The
Ramamurti Committee (1990) on Review of N-PE also favoured this in the form of pre-vocational
education. The Committee in fact recommended ‘Vocationalisation for All’ for the secondary school
students from class IX to XII covering 4 years with a curricular mix of academic and vocational
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At present, Vocational Education is provided only at the +2 stage and, even here, it is restricted to
a distinct stream that is parallel to the academic stream. In contrast to the NPE 1986 goal of covering
25 per cent of the +2 enrolment in the vocational stream by the year 2000, less than 5 per cent of
students choose this option at present. The programme has been debilitated by a range of conceptual,
managerial and resource constraints for more than 25 years. Apart from being viewed as an inferior
stream, it suffers from poor infrastructure, obsolete equipment, untrained or underqualified teachers
(often on a part-time basis), outdated and inflexible courses, lack of vertical or lateral mobility, absence
of linkage with the ‘world of work’, lack of a credible evaluation, accreditation and apprenticeship
system, and, finally, low employability (Report of the Working Group for the Revision of the Centrally
Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education, NCERT, 1998). Clearly, the gigantic
and urgent task of building an effective and dynamic programme of vocational education is long
overdue. Institutionalisation of work-centred education as an integral part of the school curriculum
from the preprimary to the +2 stage is expected to lay the necessary foundation for reconceptualising
and restructuring vocational education to meet the challenges of a globalised economy.
The VET curriculum should be reviewed and updated from time to time if the programme is not
to become moribund and irrelevant to the vocations and livelihoods in a given area or region. The
centre in-charges or institutional leadership would need to have access to adequate infrastructure and
resources as well as be vested with the necessary authority and academic freedom to establish ‘work
benches’ (or ‘work places’ or ‘work spots’) in the neighbourhood or regional rural crafts, agricultural or
forest-based production systems and industries and services, thereby utilising the available human and
material resources optimally. This collaborative arrangement has three advantages. First, the VET
programme can be set up with minimum capital investment. Second, the students would have access to
the latest techniques and technology that become available in the area. Third, the students would get
on-the-job experience and exposure to real-life problems of designing, production and marketing. For
this purpose, it should be made obligatory for all kinds of facilities engaged in production and services
such as agriculture, forestry, private and public sector industries (including cottage and small-scale
manufacturers) to collaborate with the schools in the area by providing the required ‘work benches’ (or
‘work places’ or ‘work spots’), in the addition to offering training and monitoring support.
In order to translate this vision of VET into practice, several new support structures and resource
institutions will have to be created at various levels, including districts, states/ UTs and the centre,
besides strengthening and reviving the existing national resource institutions like NCERT’s PSSCIVE
at Bhopal.
Health Studies
Health education is a social science that draws from the biological, environmental, psychological,
physical and medical sciences to promote health and prevent disease, disability and premature
death through education-driven voluntary behavior change activities.
Health education is the development of individual, group, institutional, community and systemic
strategies to improve health knowledge, attitudes, skills and behavior.
Health & Beauty Studies
The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals
and communities as well as the living and working conditions that influence their health.
In schools health educators teach health as a subject and promote, implement and Coordinate
School Health Programs, including health services, student, staff and parent health education,
and promote healthy school environments and school-community partnerships. At the school
district level they develop education methods and materials; coordinate, promote, and evaluate
programs; and write funding proposals.
Working on a college/university campus, health educators are part of a team working to create
an environment in which students feel empowered to make healthy choices and create a caring
community. They identify needs; advocate and do community organizing; teach whole courses
or individual classes; develop mass media campaigns; and train peer educators, counselors,
and/or advocates. They address issues related to disease prevention; consumer, environmental,
emotional, sexual health; first aid, safety and disaster preparedness; substance abuse prevention;
human growth and development; and nutrition and eating issues. They may manage grants and
conduct research.
In companies, health educators perform or coordinate employee counseling as well as education
services, employee health risk appraisals, and health screenings. They design, promote, lead
and/or evaluate programs about weight control, hypertension, nutrition, substance abuse
prevention, physical fitness, stress management and smoking cessation; develop educational
materials; and write grants for money to support these projects. They help companies meet
occupational health and safety regulations, work with the media, and identify community health
resources for employees.
In health care settings health educators educate patients about medical procedures, operations,
services and therapeutic regimens, create activities and incentives to encourage use of services
by high risk patients; conduct staff training and consult with other health care providers about
behavioral, cultural or social barriers to health; promote self-care; develop activities to improve
patient participation on clinical processes; educate individuals to protect, promote or maintain
their health and reduce risky behaviors; make appropriate community-based referrals, and write
In community organizations and government agencies health educators help a community
identify its needs, draw upon its problem-solving abilities and mobilize its resources to develop,
promote, implement and evaluate strategies to improve its own health status. Health educators
do community organizing and outreach, grant writing, coalition building, and advocacy and
develop, produce, and evaluate mass media health campaigns.
The Beauty industry is one of the fastest growing industries today. Beauty therapists provide a wide
range of face and body treatments. A Beauty therapist is in fact a Beautician, Body therapist
and Electrolysist all in one. Treatments are designed to improve skin care and condition, and the work
includes a range of electrotherapy treatments for face and body, all designed to help improve facial and
Health & Beauty Studies
body conditions. All forms of aesthetic treatments promote a feeling of well-being - consequently, the
practitioner must be caring, tactful, intelligent, have a well-groomed appearance, especially their hands,
which need to be sensitive and supple.
Beauty Therapists may perform the following tasks:
Carry out skin analysis and give advice about skin and body care
Perform facial or body massage and figure analysis and advise on exercise programs and nutrition
Use a variety of treatments and electrical equipment to treat skin and body conditions
A Make-up artist is an artist who creates makeup and prosthetics for theatrical, television, film
and other similar productions including the modeling world. In some cases, the title of Make-up Artist
can also include the responsibilities of hair and wig design as well.
Make-up artists are normally extremely well-paying jobs, especially in the modeling and photography
world. This is due to the ability to display a face to its full potential as well as establish a working
relationship with the actor or person being worked on.
Image consultants are specialists who combine all aspects of fashion, beauty and haircare into a
single profession. They provide advice and expertise on all aspects of the way a person (or corporation)
manages their public image. Image consultants and Make-up artists are mainly self-employed, but they
may also be represented by an agency, or employed by a production company.
The growing interest in feeling fit and looking good has created a growth in opportunities for welltrained professionals. It is estimated that employment growth within the industry over the next 5 years
will to be strong.
Once specialized, many practitioners develop their skills further into advanced techniques: as
an Electrologist you can learn to remove thread veins and warts; as an Aroma therapist you can use
essential oils and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a person’s mood
or health. Other areas entered include Shiatsu, Reiki or Indian Head massage. Some therapists even
move into other related areas such as marketing, sales and retailing.
Unit 2
Business Entrepreneurship
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ntrepreneurship’ is the act and art of being an entrepreneur or one who undertakes innovations
or introducing new things, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into
economic goods. This may result in new organizations or may be part of revitalizing mature organizations
in response to a perceived opportunity. The most obvious form of entrepreneurship is that of starting
new businesses; however, in recent years, the term has been extended to include social and political
forms of entrepreneurial activity.
Characteristics of an Entrepreneur
Entrepreneurs are generally considered as leaders of their organization. They are the spirit of their
team as many real-life entrepreneurs operate in teams rather than as single individuals. Certain traits
seem to be associated with entrepreneurs as said by different authors:
Bird -More prone to insights, brainstorms, deceptions, ingeniousness and resourcefulness.
They are cunning, opportunistic, creative, and unsentimental.
Busenitz and Barney – They are prone to overconfidence and over generalizations.
Cole - found there are four types of entrepreneur: the innovator, the calculating inventor, the
overoptimistic promoter, and the organization builder.
Collins and Moore - Tough, pragmatic people driven by needs of independence and
achievement. They seldom are willing to submit to authority.
Cooper, Woo, & Dunkelberg - argue that entrepreneurs exhibit extreme optimism in their
decisionmaking processes.
John Howkins - focused specifically on creative entrepreneurship. Enterprenuers should be
creative to make the difference in business world. He found that entrepreneurs in the creative
industries needed a specific set of traits including the ability to prioritise ideas over data, to be
nomadic and to learn endlessly.
David McClelland - primarily motivated by an overwhelming need for achievement and strong
urge to build.
Qualities of the Entrepreneurs
1. Disciplined
These individuals are focused on making their businesses work, and eliminate any hindrances or
distractions to their goals. They have overarching strategies and outline the tactics to accomplish them.
Successful entrepreneurs are disciplined enough to take steps every day toward the achievement of
their objectives.
2. Confidence
The entrepreneur does not ask questions about whether they can succeed or whether they are
worthy of success. They are confident with the knowledge that they will make their businesses succeed.
They exude that confidence in everything they do.
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3. Open Minded
Entrepreneurs realize that every event and situation is a business opportunity. Ideas are constantly
being generated about workflows and efficiency, people skills and potential new businesses. They have
the ability to look at everything around them and focus it toward their goals.
4. Self Starter
Entrepreneurs know that if something needs to be done, they should start it themselves. They set
the parameters and make sure that projects follow that path. They are proactive, not waiting for someone
to give them permission.
5. Competitive
Many companies are formed because an entrepreneur knows that they can do a job better than
another. They need to win at the sports they play and need to win at the businesses that they create. An
entrepreneur will highlight their own company’s track record of success.
6. Creativity
One facet of creativity is being able to make connections between seemingly unrelated events or
situations. Entrepreneurs often come up with solutions which are the synthesis of other items. They
will repurpose products to market them to new industries.
7. Determination
Entrepreneurs are not thwarted by their defeats. They look at defeat as an opportunity for success.
They are determined to make all of their endeavors succeed, so will try and try again until it does.
Successful entrepreneurs do not believe that something cannot be done.
8. Strong people skills
The entrepreneur has strong communication skills to sell the product and motivate employees.
Most successful entrepreneurs know how to motivate their employees so the business grows overall.
They are very good at highlighting the benefits of any situation and coaching others to their success.
9. Strong work ethic
The successful entrepreneur will often be the first person to arrive at the office and the last one to
leave. They will come in on their days off to make sure that an outcome meets their expectations. Their
mind is constantly on their work, whether they are in or out of the workplace.
10. Passion
Passion is the most important trait of the successful entrepreneur. They genuinely love their work.
They are willing to put in those extra hours to make the business succeed because there is a joy their
business gives which goes beyond the money. The successful entrepreneur will always be reading and
researching ways to make the business better.
Health & Beauty Studies
Enterpreneurial Motivation
Successful entrepreneurs want to see what the view is like at the top of the business mountain.
Once they see it, they want to go further. They know how to talk to their employees, and their businesses
soar as a result.
entrepreneurs were motivated primarily by the desire to create something new, the desire for
autonomy, wealth and financial independence, the achievement of personal objectives and the propensity
for action (‘doing’).
The excitement of entrepreneurship was another major motivator — this was nicely captured by
one comment: “We are not sure what’s coming down the curve but it is a thrill.” Importantly, most
entrepreneurs stressed that the objective was never money for its own sake.
They wanted to leave a legacy in the form of a profitable long-lasting business.
Be a Good Entrepreneur
The 9 Personality Types of Entrepreneurs
1. The Improver: If you operate your business predominately in the improver mode, you are
focused on using your company as a means to improve the world. Your overarching motto is: morally
correct companies will be rewarded working on a noble cause. Improvers have an unwavering ability to
run their business with high integrity and ethics.
Personality Alert: Be aware of your tendency to be a perfectionist and over-critical of employees
and customers.
2. The Advisor: This business personality type will provide an extremely high level of assistance
and advice to customers. The advisor’s motto is: the customer is right and we must do everything to
please them. Companies built by advisors become customer focused.
Personality Alert: Advisors can become totally focused on the needs of their business and customers
that they may ignore their own needs and ultimately burn out.
3. The Superstar: Here the business is centered around the charisma and high energy of the
Superstar CEO. This personality often will cause you to build your business around your own personal
Personality Alert: Can be too competitive and workaholics.
4. The Artist: This business personality is the reserved but highly creative type. Often found in
businesses demanding creativity such as web design and ad agencies. As an artist type you’ll tend to
build your business around the unique talents and creativities you have.
5. The Visionary: A business built by a Visionary will often be based on the future vision and
thoughts of the founder. You will have a high degree of curiosity to understand the world around you
and will set-up plans to avoid the landmines.
Personality Alert: Visionaries can be too focused on the dream with little focus on reality. Action
must proceed vision.
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6. The Analyst: If you run a business as an Analyst, your company is focus on fixing problems in
a systematic way. Often the basis for science, engineering or computer firms, Analyst companies excel
at problem solving.
Personality Alert: Be aware of analysis paralysis. Work on trusting others.
7. The Fireball: A business owned and operated by a Fireball is full of life, energy and optimism.
Your company is life-energizing and makes customers feel the company has a get it done attitude in a
fun playful manner.
Personality Alert: You may over commit your teams and act to impulsively. Balance your impulsiveness
with business planning.
8. The Hero: You have an incredible will and ability to lead the world and your business through
any challenge. You are the essence of entrepreneurship and can assemble great companies.
Personality Alert: Over promising and using force full tactics to get your way will not work long
term. To be successful, trust your leadership skills to help others find their way.
9. The Healer: If you are a Healer, you provide nurturing and harmony to your business. You have
an uncanny ability to survive and persist with an inner calm.
Personality Alert: Because of your caring, healing attitude toward your business, you may avoid
outside realities and use wishful thinking. Use scenario planning to prepare for turmoil.
Each business personality type can succeed in the business environment if you stay true to
your character. Knowing firmly what your strong traits are can act as a compass for your small
business. If you are building a team, this insight is invaluable. For the solo business owners,
understand that you may need outside help to balance your business personality.
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Unit 3
Basic Computational Skills
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Computational skills are the selection and application of arithmetic operations to calculate solutions
to mathematical problems.
Arithmetic encompasses a set of mathematic processes that include number sense, the understanding
of mathematic principles such as the associative and commutative properties, and computational skills.
Specifically, computational skills are defined as the abilities to calculate basic addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division problems quickly and accurately using mental methods, paper-andpencil,
and other tools, such as a calculator. This requires the selection of the appropriate arithmetic operation.
Also, computational skills require the execution of the steps to calculate the solution. The term
computational fluency expands the definition to include the flexible application of calculation strategies.
It is important to develop computation skills, in particular, which are essential in helping students
fulfill their future roles as citizens, consumers, employees, employers, investors, inventors, and
Computation skills, as defined are more than just the skills needed to make quantitative and precise
calculations. Rather, these skills encompass the ability to
solve mathematical problems,
analyze and interpret data, and
apply sound decision-making skills.
These abilities are an important component of what it takes to succeed in all areas of business and
finance in our technology- and data-driven society.
The computation standards demonstrate a developmental approach to the acquisition of computation
The business entrepreneurs offers multiple opportunities to develop, use, and integrate computation
skills at all levels, including how to choose and use the technology resources available for calculation,
computation, analysis, and interpretation of data. students develop the computation skills needed to
solve business-, personal finance-, and economics-related problems.
Basic Computational Skills
Mathematics computation skills are often simply known as basic mathematics skills. This is because they refer to
your basic ability to calculate numbers or amounts. Simple mathematics computations are taught in early elementary
years, and the level of sophistication in computations increases as you get older. Whole numbers, fractions and mixed
numbers, decimals, percents, ratios and proportions and estimations are key computation skill areas.
I. Mathematical Foundations
Achievement Standard: Apply basic mathematical operations to solve problems.
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II. Number Relationships and Operations
Achievement Standard: Solve problems involving whole numbers, decimals, fractions, percents, ratios,
averages, and proportions.
III. Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
Achievement Standard: Use algebraic operations to solve problems.
V. Statistics and Probability
Achievement Standard: Analyze and interpret data using common statistical procedures.
VI. Problem-Solving Applications
Achievement Standard: Use mathematical procedures to analyze and solve business problems.
Whole Numbers
Learning to count to 10 is a common first math skill learned in preschool or kindergarten.
Once students master this, the next step is to learn numbers up to 100 and beyond. As students
become more familiar with whole numbers, they are introduced to computations involving
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Fractions and Mixed Numbers
Students must learn the concepts of simple fractions like one-half and one-third, students are
taught how to compute math problems with fractions. Then, mixed numbers with whole numbers
and fractions are introduced and computed.
Decimals and Percents
As students recognize the concepts of number parts through fractions, they should learn
decimals. This typically includes translating fractional numbers into their decimal equivalents.
Work begins with one and two decimal computations and evolves into more decimal place
computations. Percentage computations are closely related as students learn to translate both
fractions and decimals into percentages.
Ratio and Proportion
Building on percentages, students learn about ratios and proportions. For instance, a simple
ratio of 5 players playing for 1 basketball team helps students understand the real life application
of ratios and correct proportional relationships of one item to another.
Estimation skills are often challenging for kids to learn once they have mastered technically
accurate math computations. Students often struggle to understand the merits of estimating
because this skill is usually introduced when students have strong enough computation skills to
accurately complete problems. However, it is important for children to understand the
importance of estimating values.
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is the distance around a closed figure white area is the part of plane or region occupied by the closed
Area — The amount of surface enclosed by a closed figure is called its area.
Area of Rectangle = length X breadth
Identify some rectangular shapes from your surroundings and find area eg - Board, door, window, top
of table, etc.
Area of Square = Side X Side (as l = b)
Find the area of rectangle whose length and breadth are
(a) 12 cm, 8 cm respectively
(b) 10 cm, 4.5 cm respectively
The area of rectangular piece of cardboard is 108 cm2 and its length is 12 cm, find width of
the cardboard
A floor is 8 cm long and 6 m wide. A square carpet of side is laid on the floor. Find the of floor
that is not carpeted.
Area of parallelogram = Base X Height
Area of
— X Base X height
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The distance around a circular region is called its circumference
Circumference of Circle = 2 I Ir Area of Circle =I I r2
1 cm = 10 mm
1 m = 100 cm
1 cm2 = 100mm2
1m2 = 10000cm2
1 hectare = 10000m2
Amount of space occupied by a three dimensional object is called its volume.
Volume of Cuboid = Area of base X height
Volume of Cylinder = Area of base X height
= I I r2 X h = I I r2h
Volume of Cube = Side X Side X Side (Side)3
Volume and Capacity
Volume refers to the amount of space occupied by an object while capacity refers to the quality that a
container holds
1 ml = 1 cm3, 1 L = 1000 cm3, 1 m3 = 1000000 cm3 = 1000 L
Comparing Quantities
Ratio and Proportion
In our daily life, many a times we compare two quantities of the same type like, heights, weights, makes
etc. One way of comparison is by taking difference
eg — Radha is 25 yrs old
Asha is 20 yrs old
Difference is age = 25 yrs - 20 yrs = 5 yrs
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The other way of comparison is by saying how many times one quantity is of the other
eg — Radha is 10 yrs old
Asha is 5 yrs old
Ratio = 10:5
Radha is twice as old as Asha
eg — Length of field = 60 m
Breadth of field = 15 m
Ratio of the length of the breadth = —
= 4:1
Note: Two quantities can be compared only if they are in the same unit.
Q 1.
Out of 40 students in a class 12 like cricket, 20 like tennis and remaining like football
(a) Find the ration of no. of students liking football to total number of students
(b) No. of students liking football to no. of students liking tennis.
Q 2.
Divide 450 in the ratio of 2:3
Proportion: If two ratios are equal, we say that they are in proportion and use the symbol ‘: :’ or ‘=’ to
equate the two ratios
eg — We can say 2, 7, 12, 42 are in proportion
2:7 : : 12:42
it is read as 2 is to 7 as 12 is to 42.
eg — If ratios 20:25 and 28:35 are in proportion
Sol 20:25 =
— = —
28:35 =
— = —
So 20:25 : : 28:35
Find if the following ratios form a proportion
(a) 240 km : 60 km and 5 l : 1 l
(b) 40 person : 300 person = 8 : 60
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Percentage %
Percent is derived from latin word ‘per centum’ meaning ‘per hundred’.
Percent is represented by the symbol % means hundredths too. That is 5% means 5 out of hundred or
5 hundredths.
5% = —— = 0.05
eg — Out of 40 children in a class 30 are girls. What is the percentage of girls.
% of girls =
100 = 75%.
Method - I. Write the fraction of girls in class =
— = —
II. Multiply by 100
— X 100 = 75%
Q1. Ritu earns
50,000 per month. She saves 25% of her salary. find the amount does she save.
Q2. Find the total quantity if 40% of it is
Profit & Loss
Cost Price
— Buying price of any item
Selling Price
— Price at which any item is sold.
If C.P. < S.P. then we have made a profit
If C.P. > S.P. then we have a loss
If C.P. = S.P. no Profit no Loss
Profit % or Loss % is always calculated on the C.P.
I. eg — If C.P. =
S.P. =
Profit % = ————— X 100
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—— X 100 = 30%
II. eg — The cost price of a painting is
price at which it is sold.
15000. If the shopkeeper sells it at a profit of 20%, find the
C.P. = 15000
Profit = 20%
Profit = 20% of the cost price
20% of 15000 = —— X 15000 = 3000
CP + Profit
Selling price of painting is = 15000 + 3000
= 18000
To find cost price, if S.P. and profit / Loss is given
C.P. = S.P. X ———
100 + P
or C.P. = S.P. X ———
To find selling price, If C.P. and P/< is given
C.P. = S.P. X ———
or C.P. = S.P. X ———
The money you borrow is known as sum borrowed or principal
This money would be used by the borrower for sometime before it is returned. For keeping this money
for some time the borrower has to pay some extra money to the bank. This is known as interest.
The amount borrower has to pay at the end of year can be calculated by adding the sum borrowed /
principal and the interest.
Amount = Principal + Interest
Interest is given in percent for a period of one year. It is written as say 8%, 10%, 12%, p.a. (per annum)
eg — Ritu takes a loan of ¨ 50,000 at 15% per year as rate of interest find the amount she has to pay
at the end of one year
Principal = 50,000 Rate of interest = 15%
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S.I. = —————
Amount = P + S.I. = 50,000
Ritu has to pay
50000 x 15 x 1
——————— = 7500
+ 7500
= 57500
Interest is the extra money paid by institutions like banks or post office on money deposited (kept with
them) Int. is also paid by people when they berrow money.
Unit 4
Skin Care
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acial massage are known for improving the circulation of skin
and rejuvenating the face.For deep down cleansing and a definite
improvement in skin tone, try a facial. If you apply facials just once
a month you will notice an improvement in your complexion. Apart
from these a facial also exfoliates the skin and hydrates. A complete
facial treatment includes steaming, exfoliation, extraction, creams,
lotions, masks, peels, and massages.
Benefits of a Facial
Facials are deep skin treatments with real benefits to counteract the ravages of pollution and the
damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun. Apart from these facials are very relaxing.
1. A facial deep cleanses and removes dirt particles embedded in the skin which cannot be removed
by washing alone. A facial helps in opening up the pores through steaming and extraction of
these dirt particles.
2. Pollution, Stress and sun’s rays together lead to skin damage and pre-mature wrinkling and
other skin disorders. Facials are useful as mild treatments to take care of certain skin problems
such as the dreaded pre-mature wrinkles.
3. What facials help to do is remove the dead , dull outer layer of cells that make-up the skin’s
surface or epidermis along with pollutants. Thus, the newer and younger cells underneath are
revealed, giving the skin a youthful glow.
4. The actual massage helps blood circulation, which in turn aids lymphatic drainage, the system,
which removes our waste and toxins. The massage relaxes the face, which has over 120 muscles
and to delay wrinkles it is very important to massage them consistently.
5. Facials provide in depth moisturizing and therefore helps most dry skin disorders.
6. Facials help to remove blackheads and whiteheads
7. Facials also help to improve the skin tone.
How Often Should You Go For A Facial
You should ideally get a simple herbal facial once a month, but
if seeking an expert Facial at a beauty salon, then a 6 weeks gap
between facials is a must as our skin needs that much time to
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regenerate. However problem skins and acne prone skins need more frequent visits to the Beauty salon
as and when your beautician advises. Seasonal changes amy also cause changes in your skin tone and
hence a facial is a must.
Types of Facials
Types of facials you could use depend upon your skin type and also the
type of benefit that you wish to recieve from your facial. However for all facials
a thorough basic clean up procedure is a must. A complete facial would then
proceed to steaming (alternatively you could use a herbal heat treatment), an oil
massage, a face pack or mask, toning and moisturizing and finally a facial massage
or a facelift. The type of products used and the mechanism used in the facial
differ according to your skin types and also depends on the type of skin problem
you wish to heal.
1. Normal Facial: These facials are ideally suited to those who have a
normal to slightly drier skin. This facial includes a cleansing, steaming
and massaging routine where the skin is nourished with a rather thorough massage. Being less
expensive than the other types of facials, it is a popular one also as it de-stresses you completely.
2. Cleansing Facial: This is a deep-pore cleansing, scrubbing and exfoliating, steaming and
moisturizing facial. The skin is first cleansed under steam, and then very gently scrub granules
are massaged over the skin. After removing the scrub, another creamy cleanser is applied and
the skin is exfoliated further with a soft rotating electric brush and massaged. These facials
help open pores and remove blackheads and whiteheads and also reduce suntan. This type of
facial is ideally suited to oily and combination skin types and can be done on a normal skin type
once every 6 weeks. People with sensitive skin, dry skin and mature skin should refrain from
such a facial as it will irritate and dry the skin further and result in sagging and wrinkles. People
with such skin types should go for Special Facials.
3. Acne Facials: These facials are suited to acne prone and oily skin types.
Ideally suitable for teenagers and adults with troubled skin. After
cleansing this treatment begins with enzyme or glycolic acid exfoliation
and a warm vapor mist, followed by extensive manual deep pore
extractions, electric disencrustation and a skin-calming, anti-bacterial
masque. This facial should be performed at regular, two-week intervals
until problem clears.
4. Age-Defense Facial: Signs of aging can be postponed with the latest
and most advanced, clinically proven, anti-aging technology called Microcurrent. Anti-aging skin care facial treatment will purify, detoxify,
stimulate circulation, improve circulation, heal the skin, prevent skin
damage, revitalize the skin and soften lines and wrinkles. The basic
steps for a facial skin care treatment are cleansing, exfoliating, massaging,
applying mask, toning, and hydrating. Along with this most advanced technology, this treatment
employs a powerful combination of anti-aging products (vitamin C, minerals, amino acid,
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, Hyaluronic acid gel, Restylane fluid, aloe, nourishing liposome support
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serum/cream and other products promoting collagen and elastin). The results are immediate
firming, smoothing, and rehydration while reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
Spas often use clinical strength glycolic acid peels (30 minutes) to exfoliate and stimulate surface
skin repair of fine lines and age spots. A medical spa or dermatologist will offer more intensive
solutions like a non-invasive IPL treatment. IPL stimulates collagen that fills in wrinkles and
facial lines. Note that IPL is not pain free!
Galvanic Facial: This type of facial uses a Galvanic gadget that give
a steady, direct galvanic current to introduce water-soluble substance
to the body through the skin. The capacity of the skin to absorb is
increased and this improves the penetration of products through the
skin. To treat specific problems this helps make it easier. This type of
facial is best for those with dry, dehydrated skin since it helps improve moisture retention. This
facial also helps to remove congestion. Works to restore skin’s natural vibrancy by removing
impurities and promoting cellular energy. When your complexion looks tired and stressed, a
spa facial can provide the revitalization you need, but who has the time? Exclusive patented
technology allows you to achieve spa results at home in just 10 minutes with the Galvanic Spa
Instrument, Face Conductor, and specially formulated facial gels. Galvanic Spa Pre-Treatment
Facial Gel helps remove impurities so your pores can breathe while Galvanic Spa Treatment
Facial Gel revives and invigorates tired skin by promoting cellular energy.
Oxygen Facials: This is a spa treatment where a combination of
purified oxygen, essential oils, and mild acids are gently sprayed upon
your face. Spas offering oxygen facials cite a number of anti-aging
benefits you’ll get from by increasing your skin’s oxygen consumption.
Benefits include wrinkle reduction, improved circulation, softening
of tight skin, and a reduction in adult acne.
Vitamin C Facial: Now day spas offer the Vitamin C facial with the
promise of restoring facial skin texture and firmness, as well as
improving the skin tone. Vitamin C facials are believed to have
antioxidants that leave your skin radiant and visibly improved. Experts
will tell you that your skin needs to be at the right pH to absorb the
Vitamin C.
Special Facials: A hypoallergenic cream is used during a specialized
facial to help moisturize the skin. There are different types of face
packs that can be applied depending on the skin type of the individual
as well as a special cleansing and rejuvenating technique. This is the
better option for those with sensitive skins when undergoing a facial.
Bio-lift Facial: Biolift is a complete treatment process using three
technologies that combine to produce dramatic and immediate results
for lifting, toning and deep skin cleansing. Collagen and elastin fibres
are increased and strengthened providing a firmer network of support
for the skin. This is a non surgical facelift facial. It starts out with a wonderful relaxing facial,
followed by a biolift mask. The mask helps to rejuvenate facial muscles and lift the skin this is
a great treatment to help your face and neck look more youthful.
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10. Purifying Facial/ Deep Cleansing Facial: Many spas use fruit peels,
like papaya, cranberries or green peel, to give a deep exfoliation that
softens clogged pores and acne blackheads and makes your skin glow.
After the cleansing, the aesthetician will extract any impurities left in
your pores. These types of facials are generally done less than 3 times a
11. Deep Sea facial: Deep Sea minerals and enzymes are used in a detoxifying mask. The mask is
a thick, hard crust that is meant to cleanse pores, firm-up the skin, and improve circulation.
12. AHA (Alpha Hydroxy Acid) Facials: Alpha hydroxy acids or AHAs
rejuvenate the skin by encouraging the shedding of old, sun-damaged
surface skin cells. Glycolic acid is a fruit acid most frequently used for
facial treatments but lactic and citric acid are also useful. AHA preparations
are recommended for those whose skin is showing signs of ageing. Fine
lines, brown marks and dry spots (solar keratoses) can improve with regular
applications or peels. Glycolic acid may also prove helpful for those prone to acne.
AHAs loosen the glue-like substances that hold the surface skin cells to each other, therefore
allowing the dead skin to peel off. The skin underneath has a fresher, healthier look with a
more even colour and texture. With high concentration and long-term use, AHAs may also
affect the deeper layers of the skin. Collagen and elastin regenerate making fine lines less
An ideal treatment for busy people who are unable to take time off work for a deeper peel or
laser resurfacing, AHA facial peels gently retexture the skin over a period of a few months.
The treatments are also helpful in stabilising oily or acne-prone skin and improving skin tone.
A glycolic acid peel takes about 15 - 20 minutes. It is usually repeated at one to two weekly
intervals as it is superficial so recovery is rapid. It The strength of each peel ranges from 20 70%, depending on skin sensitivity and starting gently. The face is cleansed thoroughly and
then the peel solution is applied for three minutes. It stings mildly. The solution is then washed
off. Treated skin may be a little pink immediately after treatment. A little peeling may occur
over the next few days. It can be disguised with moisturizer or normal make-up. There are
many products with varying concentrations of various AHAs in differing bases. For the best
results, leave-on preparations should be applied at night, if necessary twice daily. They can be
alternated with other anti-aging preparations including retinoid creams and vitamin C. There
are specific preparations for dry, normal and oily skin. Those available from medical practitioners
are stronger than those at pharmacies and beauty therapists.
13. Herbal/Ayurvedic Facials: A natural, pure herbal peel, without chemical
additives produces remarkable results in the removal of fine wrinkles,
hyper-pigmentation and acne scars. Skin is treated in salon with the
continuation of treatment at home with herbal products for four days.
After four days skin is lifted revealing a radiant and rejuvenated
14. Collagen Facial: Collagen is a key building block in your skin tissue.
Your collagen breaks down with age, giving rise to face creases we call crow’s feet, expression
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lines, and wrinkles. The collagen facial applies pure plant collagen to your skin to make up for
the collagen you’ve lost. This facial is meant to hydrate the skin and tighten sallow skin, and
does not replace your lost collagen (this takes a collagen injection, laser treatment, or some
other facial filler like Juvederm), but some people think it gives them instant skin texture
Anti-oxidant / Anti-pollution facials: This facial uses creams and masks
enriched with free-radical fighting agents like vitamin A, beta-carotene and
vitamin E. Pollutants are first removed and the skin is then deep cleansed
in this procedure. This is recommended for people who have to be outdoors
often-on account of their work.
Detoxifying Skin Facial: Toxic accumulation is due to age, illness,
medications, stress, improper diet, smoking, drinking, lack of exercise and
weight loss, to name a few causes. When the skin and kidneys become
overloaded, toxins are stored in the fluid between the fat cells. Includes
lymphatic drainage pulsator to encourage breakdown of toxins to maximize blood and lymph
flow, also lymphatic drainage facial massage, herbal oils, custom mask and an anti-stressing
shoulder and neck massage.
Rejuvenation Facial: The flexibility of the skin is due to a microscopic
network of collagen fibers. Over time, this network can weaken, and so
does its support of the skin. Heat generated by contour mask of gesso
helps penetration of soluble collagen and elastic to prevent the appearance
of fine lines and wrinkles by restoring the elasticity of the skin and
moisturizing the upper layers of the epidermis. A rejuvenating facial which
nourishes, tones and refines the texture of the skin. Excellent for pre and
post travel. A fresh collagen masque is applied for rejuvenation. It lends
elasticity and firmness to the tissues.
Dry Skin Facial: The exertion demanded of the skin during our
lifetime wears it down and leaves it dry, tired and dull. The skin must
renew itself by means of what we call the “skin’s natural regeneration
process,” in which skin cells are constantly renewed. Studies have
shown the benefits of direct oxygenation to the skin will encourage
rapid and continuous cellular renovation. Use of state-of-the-art
oxygenating Ionization solution, enzyme exfoliate and the revitalizing properties of Aroma
Aromatherapy Facials: In the Aromatherapy facial, essential oils are used.
Essential oils have potent and specific curative properties that are of
particular benefit to the skin. Most important of all, they are extremely
effective for inducing relaxation of both body and mind, calming the nerves
and reducing stress. The skin is massaged with herbalised oils that contain
essential oil and herbal extracts. The elimination of toxins, the improvement
in the skin’s normal functions, including cell regeneration and the calming
effect on the mind, all combine to make it totally revitalizing for both body
and mind.
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20. Pearl Facial: Based on Ayurveda, the Pearl Facial uses products which contain powder of
pearls. Research has revealed that pearls influence the transfer of melanin (natural pigment) to
the skin surface, filtering the sun’s rays and counteracting sun damage. Pearls also contain
powerful nutritive elements, like amino acids, minerals and proteins, which strengthen the skin
and improve its moisture retention ability. The facial gives way to a healthy radiant skin, with an
even colour tone.
21. Gold Facial: The Gold Facial, based on Ayurveda, is a powerful anti-ageing treatment, with
revitalizing and rejuvenating effects. Gold is one of the softest metals and is easily absorbed by
the skin. It helps lymphatic drainage and facilitates the removal of toxins and wastes. It also
stimulates blood circulation and improves skin elasticity, accelerating cell renewal and reversing
oxidation damage.
Complete Stages of a Facial
Every Facial follows some basic steps such as cleansing, steaming,
massaging, applying a face pack or mask, toning, moisturizing and finally
an facelifting massage. The products used may differ from person to person
depending upon your skin type and also upon the type of facial you wish to
have. These basic steps of a complete facial are:
1. Cleansing : The first step is cleansing. Your beautician will apply a cleanser to your damp face
and starting at the base of the throat work her way upwards and spread the cleanser. Then in a
similar fashion the cleanser will be wiped away with a cotton pad. This will remove the oil,
grime and makeup.
2. Steaming : A weekly heat treatment suits most skin types, though once a
month is enough for dry and mature skins. Damp heat opens the pores,
encourages sweat to fluch out ingrained dirt and brings oxygen-rich blood
to renew the skin. You may choose to put oil on your skin first, since the
heat helps oil penetrate more deeply. But don’t leave cleansing oil on, or
you’ll be drawing dirt back into the skin.
a) Herbal Steam: Sit with your head forward over a bowl of hot, herbinfused water, draped in a towel to stop the steam escaping, for
about 5 minutes. Stop immediately if you feel dizzy or overheated.
b) Herbal Compress: Soak several face cloths in hot, herb-infused
water, and wring out. Sitting with your head back and supported,
put the cloths over your face and relax for 5 minutes. As the cloths
cool down, wring them out in the hot water again.
c) Herbal Bath: Infuse a bag of herbs in your bath and let the heat
open your pores. Finish by patting your face with a clean cloth wrung
out in cool water.
3. Exfoliation : The next step is exfoliation or facial scrubbing. This method
extracts the dirt particles from the open pores ( pores are opened through
steam treatment) and also blackheads and whiteheads are removed.It is a
simple method that whisks away dead cells from the surface of your skin,
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revealing the plumper, younger looking skin underneath. It also encourages your skin to speed
up cell production, which means that the cells that reach the surface are younger and betterlooking. The result is a brighter, smoother complexion - no matter what your age or skin type.
4. Facepack or Mask : Few treatments give your skin such a quick lift
as a facepack. These simple treatments, based on fruit or vegetables,
can be left on for upto an hour, while you can have a massage or
meditate( you maybe lying down if the mask is runny; try the Corpse
Yoga pose). A mask is a stronger version of a facepack, using a
powder such as flour or clay to penetrate the pores more deeply. It
should be left on for 10-15 minutes.
To remove the facepack or mask, dab it with water (for oily skin) or milk (for
dry skin) to soften it, then gently massage and rinse the mix off your skin.
5. Toning : Remove any residues and soothe the skin with a splash of cool
flower water or, for oily skin, witch hazel and flower water. Skin that is very
oily or has darker patches can be rubbed with a slice of lemon and left for a
few minutes before rinsing off.
6. Moisturizing : Moisturize the skin with a good massage. You may use cream
or oil based noisturizers for the massage or may use a light moisturizer.
Skin Types And Home-made Remedies For Their Treatment
The skin type quiz has allowed you to effectively identify your skin type. As different skin types
have different textures and characteristics, skin care regimes and also the choice of cosmetics should
also differ. The different skin types are mainly:
1. Normal Skin
2. Oily Skin
3. Dry Skin
4. Combination Skin
5. Sensitive Skin
6. Mature Skin
However, today’s urban living conditions have also enabled us to segregate skin types further more
into a Sun-damaged skin, Dehydrated skin, and Couperose skin. Genes, diet, stress level, medication
and even your skincare regimen all determine how much oil your skin produces which furthermore
determine your akin type to a large extent. We can also have another skin type which is Mature Skin
type relating to the above 40 age group.
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1. Normal Skin
This is the perfect, balanced skin type! It has a healthy glow with
a fine texture and no open pores. It rarely develops spots or shiny
areas. It is soft, smooth, pimple-free, clean and without flaky areas.
In fact, it’s quite rare to find a normal skin, especially as all skins tend
to become slightly drier as you get older. The skin has a rosy color
because the blood circulation is good and the skin is well moisturized.
The pH of healthy normal skin is between 5.6 and 6; that is, it is
slightly acidic. This acidic pH is due to the presence of acids in the
sebum, sweat and keratin. It is therefore necessary to maintain the acidity of the skin. Thus, curds and
lemon juice when applied on normal skins do wonders for this type of skin. The main concern of a
normal skin is to maintain it and keep it functioning well. Although normal skin is definitely the easiest
skin to take care of it does require the basic skin care. Just like any other skin type, normal skin still
should be washed and moisturized daily in order to prevent dry skin or acne.
Tips For Normal Skin:
1. Do wash your face twice a day; once in the morning and again before you go to bed. Regularly
clean your skin with a good cleanser. Remove all your makeup before going to sleep. Makeup
will clog the pores if left on for too long, which can cause acne to develop.
2. For normal skin, cleansing, toning, nourishing should be done regularly.
3. Use light make up. If using heavy make up, avoid make up and let your skin breathe at least
once a week.
4. Always Moisturize your skin. This will prevent dehydration and wrinkles.
5. Exfoliating removes dead skin cells, which in turn promotes the growth of new, healthy skin
cells, and leaves your skin looking smoother.
6. Always use a sunscreen before going out in the sun. Use a moisturizer that has an SPF of at
least 15 or use a sun screen in conjunction with your moisturizer.
7. Drink 8 glasses of water daily.
8. Use a face mask once a week.
9. Exercise regularly.
10. Follow a healthy diet as it also plays an important part, along with adequate sleep.
Don’ts For Normal Skin:
Don’t Tan or allow over exposure to sun and harsh conditions.
Don’t smoke or drink alcohol.
Don’t wash your face with hard soaps. Use a good mild cleanser instead.
Avoid experimenting with too many cosmetics. Stick to the products which suit you best.
Avoid touching your face too often with dirty fingers. This will clog pores and cause acne and
skin infections.
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Home Face Packs For Normal Skin:
Face packs rejuvenate a skin and help to increase circulation as well as tauten and cleanse the
complete face. Face packs are also beneficial to remove impurities, dead skin cells and wastes from the
skin. One can easily make face packs at home in a few minutes. The juice of fresh fruits and vegetables
tone and provide enzymes that help balance and cleanse the skin. Smash or pulp the fresh fruit and
vegetables, then add fruit pectin, agar agar, clay or oat flour to firm the mixture so it does not slide off
the face. The face pack has property similar to toner. A pack should always be applied after applying a
scrubber which opens the pore due to scrubbing effect. Therefore it is important to close down the
pores with the help of face pack. Adding Honey underneath a mask treatment is delicious for normal
skin, as it smoothens and nourishes the skin by regulating the skins moisture.
1. Papaya Mask: Mix Papaya pulp with half a teaspoon of raw milk and honey, rose water and
apply all over face and neck, leaving on for 10 to 15 minutes. This is a great mask for dry dull
skin. Papaya provides the necessary nourishment while milk and honey provide moisture to the
skin making it soft and supple.
2. For Skin Rejuvenation: Mix in Sandalwood powder, turmeric powder and milk in equal
proportions, apply over face and neck avoiding the eye area and eyebrows, wash with cold
water after 15 minutes. This pack is best for skin rejuvenation and fairness. Turmeric helps get
the skin fairer, sandalwood for coolness and milk for skin miniaturization.
3. Oatmeal And Rosewater Face Pack: 2 tablespoons fine oatmeal; 1 tablespoon honey; 1
tablespoon rose water. Blend the oatmeal with the honey and then stir in the rose water. Apply
to the face and leave for 10 minutes. Remove with lukewarm water.
4. Instant Glow Pack: 2 spoons chickpea flour, half lemon, 1 spoon curd, 1i spoon honey mixed
and applied on face and washed when dry will give an instant glow.
5. Cool Face Pack: Make sandalwood paste, add rosewater and apply it on your face. It has
cooling effect.
6. Mud Face Mask: Take a spoonful of finely ground Fuller’s Earth, a spoonful of rose water or
cleansing-milk and prepare a thick paste. Apply a thick coat on the oily part of your face and a light
coat on the dry part. Let it remain for ten minutes before washing it off with lukewarm water.
7. Herbal Cleanser: Mix together equal quantities of ground coriander, ground cumin, ground
fenugreek, ground liquorice and chickpea flour and store in air tight containers. When apply
take a small quantity and mix with water or rose water. Make a smooth paste and gently rub it
onto your skin with small circular movements. Massage off with warm followed by cold water.
8. Simplest Facial: Milk and sugar make the simplest facial. Moisten face with water and massage
gently. Clean with a teaspoon of sugar. Tone with a splash of water. Moisturize the skin from
the top of boiled milk that’s been left to cool. Leave this on for 2 minutes, then massage off
with water.
9. Egg Mask: Mix an unbeaten egg, a few pinches of camphor and a teaspoon milk powder to
make a paste and wash off after 20 minutes.
10. Apple Mask: 1 apple quartered, cored; 2 Tbsp honey and 1/2 tsp. ground sage. Chop apple in food
processor. Add honey and sage to apple. Mix well. Refrigerate for 10 minutes. Pat mixture onto face
with a light tapping motion, tapping until honey feels tacky. Leave on for 30 minutes. Rinse.
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11. Moisturizing Pack: Mash or liquidize half an avocado pear with 1 tsp of sunflower oil. Apply
the mixture to face and neck avoiding the eye and lip area. Leave it on for 10 minutes and wash
off with lukewarm water.
12. Toner For Normal Skin: Chop up a small sized fresh cucumber and liquidize it with half a
cup of yoghurt. Apply the mixture for 5-10 minutes, and wash off. The remainder can be
stored in the fridge for future use.
Maintaining Normal Skin:
Normal skin naturally has a good balance of oil and moisture levels. Your routine should include
gently cleansing your skin to ensure surface grime and stale make up are removed, and to prevent a
build-up of sebum. Then you should boost moisture levels with moisturizer to protect and pamper
your skin.
1. Always remove eye-makeup carefully. Going to bed with your mascara still on can lead to sore,
puffy eyes. Applying new makeup on top of old, stale makeup is unhygienic, too! Choose your
cleanser according to whether you are wearing ordinary or waterproof mascara.
2. Splash your face with water, then massage in a gentle facial wash and work it up to a lather for
about 30 seconds. It is a good idea to massage your skin lightly, because this will boost the
supply of blood to the surface of your skin - which means a rosier complexion.
3. Rinse with clear water until every soapy trace has been removed from your face. Then pat your
face with a soft towel to absorb residual water from the surface of your skin. Don’t rub your
skin, especially around the eyes, as this can encourage wrinkling.
4. Cool your skin with a freshening toner. Again, avoid the delicate eye area as this can become
more prone to dryness.
5. Smooth your skin with moisturizing lotion. Dot on your face, then massage in with your fingertips
using light upward strokes. This leaves a protective film on the skin, so make up can be easily
applied and the moisture content is balanced.
Normal Skin Problems:
May experience minor breakouts related to a “big night out”, hormones, or stress. Watch for any
premature aging under eyes, as this area tends to need more moisture due to lack of sebaceous (oil)
activity; may experience minor breakouts relating to hormonal cycle. People with normal skin start
showing signs of age and wrinkling sooner than others. Drink lots of pure water, eat a variety of fresh
fruit and vegetables, fresh air and exercise are always beneficial, and always apply sunscreen, especially
in the hotter months, as this is the best approach to prevent premature aging!
2. Oily Skin
This skin type usually has open pores and an oily surface, with a tendency towards
pimples, blackheads and a sallow appearance. This is due to the over production of
the oily substance called sebum by the oil glands in the lower layers of the skin.
Unfortunately this skin type is one of the most prone to acne. Good news is that
this oiliness will make your skin stay younger looking for longer. The main concern
of an oily skin is to keep it oil free, clean and fresh in order to prevent acne.
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Characteristics Of Oily Skin:
On average, the pores on the face of someone with oily skin produce around 2 grams of sebum a
year. The thin layer of oil this creates on the skin leads to a shiny surface, open pores (which stretch as
oil accumulates in them), blackheads (which occur when that oil is exposed to air and oxidizes) and
whiteheads (which occur when dead skin cells stick in the oil and degrade). Sometimes the pres create
acne too, but don’t assume that if you have oily skin, acne follows - research seems to show that the oil
in acne-prone skin is thicker and more likely to clog pores than normal. There are various reasons for
oily skin. It’s often hormonal, which is why teens are prone or why skin can become oilier before your
period; it can also be triggered by high humidity. Finally, oily skin can actually be caused by poor
skincare. If you strip your top layers of the skin of too much moisture, the lower levels produce more
oil to counteract this. On skin which produces higher oil levels anyway, this leads to serious shine.
Causes Of An Oily Skin:
1. Hormonal Imbalance: When there is excess androgen production,
the sebaceous glands become over active, producing extra sebum or
oil. This happens during the teenage years, pregnancy, while using birth
control pills, and in cases of polycystic ovaries.
2. Faulty Skin Care: Besides physiological reasons, even faulty skin care
regimes can lead to excessive oiliness of the skin. Humidity and heat
and sometimes unhealthy eating habits and erratic lifestyles aggravate
the problem.
3. Inappropriate Cosmetics: These too, lead to oiliness and clogging of pores, giving rise to
blackheads. If we are not diligent about unclogging pores, then even normal skin can become
How To Care For Oily Skin:
Treating oily skin is therefore a matter of trying to reduce oil production and
keeping the pores clean to prevent stretching and oxidation. To many people with
oily skin this means a routine of harsh cleansers and facial scrubs, but these just
create that panic response. Instead, use light foaming cleansers, which have enough
power to break through the oil and grime on the skin without irritation. The added
bonus of these is that the action of rubbing them onto the skin (particularly if you
remove them with a flannel or soft cloth) removes dead skin cells that can block
pores and lead to whiteheads. People with acne-prone skin can try medicated washes
or those based on salicylic acid (a plant-based ingredient which fights bacteria on
the skin and helps prevent pore blockage).
You may think that you should follow up with a toner. The hype says toners close the pores and
lower oil production, but it is not true. Most toners actually irritate the skin, making it swell, which
makes the pores look smaller, but the oil production stays the same. In fact, the time to tackle oil
production is when you moisturize. Many people with oily skin feel they don’t need moisturizer, but
that is also not true - you could still be lacking in water and by replenishing this you’ll make the skin
look plumper and healthier. This is particularly true of the neck, chest and around the eyes - all areas
that dry out easily. Gel-based moisturizers (preferably those that are marked oil-free or non-comedogenic)
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will therefore help your skin look its best. Many beauty companies are now adding ingredients such as
Witch Hazel, Salicylic Acid and Talcum to moisturizers for oily skin. These soak up sebum on the skin’s
surface and can keep you shine-free for up to eight hours. Look for products that claim to be “mattefying”
or “shine controllers” and watch your skin thrive.
1. Drink, Drink and drink lots of water: Doctors and aestheticians can’t
stop stressing on this point. You should drink at least 10 glasses of water a
day. Water helps flush out toxins from our body. Mix the juice of four
tomatoes with four peppercorns and a dash of honey. Drink this concoction
first thing in the morning, before eating anything else. The anti-oxidants in
the juice will cleanse you internally.
HOT TIP: Rub the left over tomato pulp over your face to tighten the
pores and brighten your skin.
2. Eat Right: Experts emphasize the importance of good diet to fight seborrhoea. Eat fibrous
vegetables (leafy stuff, cabbage, carrots, ridged gourd) daily to keep the system clean internally.
To keep pimples at bay, go on a complete raw and boiled food diet for a week every month.
detoxifies your skin well and helps it regain its pH balance.
3. Go For Active Ingredients That Control Oil Production: To manage oily skin you need to
look out for skincare products that contain active ingredients such as glycolic acid and/or
tretinoin (retinoic acid). These active ingredients are exfoliants and are effective in the treatment
of enlarged pores and excessive sebum production. When buying your cleanser, look for
ingredients like alpha hydroxy acids, salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. These dry up an erupting
blemish very fast. For the same reason look out for night creams and toners that contain tea
tree and witch hazel extracts. Witch hazel not only dries up a pimple but also prevents scarring
of the skin.
HOT TIP: Avoid toners or astringents with alcohol as it can strip your skin of oil completely
and make it very dry and prone to wrinkling.
Beauty Regimen For Oily Skin:
1. Go For Regular Cleansing: Oily skin requires regular cleansing, at least
three times a day with warm water. The aim is to remove excess oil without
total removal of skin lipids. Severe de-greasing can lead to worsening of
sebum secretion. You may feel like scrubbing it all out but that will lead to
dehydrated and flaky skin. Therefore, avoid using harsh soaps and face
2. Use Soap-Free Face Wash: If your condition is not aggravated, it is best
to use a soap-free face wash rather than a creamy cleanser. If at all you
need a cleanser or baby oil to remove make-up, then wash off the oily residue with a gentle face
wash. Alternatively, you may apply a foaming (but soap-free) cleanser to your face, then, using
a soft flannel, gently rub the whole face in circular motions. This will break down oil and grime
on the skin’s surface, while the movement will exfoliate any dead cells.
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3. Use Anti-Bacterial Cleansers: On the other hand, if your skin is excessively oily, go for antibacterial cleansers for sensitive skin with a neutral pH, rather than soaps. You can use a deepcleansing exfoliant at night in case your skin is flaking as well. Pick up Neutrogena face washes
and scrubs with 1% and 2% salicylic acid or Neostrata Skinceutical products for cleansing and
exfoliation. Try Cetaphil or VICHY cleansers; they are some of the best anti-blemish products
in the market and help fight very serious conditions.
HOT TIP: For best results limit scrubbing to twice a week.
4. Steam Your Face: Boil some water and pour it into a large bowl. After the really hot steam has
dispersed, lower your face over the bowl (keeping it at least 10 inches off the water). Put a
towel over your head and stay put for up to 10 minutes.
5. Remove Blackheads: Use a blackhead extractor to wrap clean tissue around the tips of your
fingers and gently apply pressure round the sides of the blackheads. Move the tissue regularly.
When you’ve finished apply a little witch hazel or tea tree oil.
6. Apply Face Masks: Once a week deep cleansing with a mask is a
must. Go for mud based masks or clay-based mask to open your
pores tightened and deep cleanse your skin. If the mask makes your
face sting then it’s too harsh for your skin; try the strawberry-based
mask (given below) instead. If you have any blemishes, apply a spot
treatment based on salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide, then apply
your moisturizer as normal.
Homemade Face Masks For Oily Skin:
A. Egg Mask: Whisk one egg white till it thickness, then whisk in 1 teaspoon of honey and 1
teaspoon of sunflower oil. Apply on the face for 20 minutes and wash off with warm water.
B. Easy Pack: Blend turmeric powder with milk and apply on the face. It removes the tan and
helps to reduce the facial hair. Scrub it off with a good face scrub and then wash with cold
water. You can also keep it overnight.
C. Orange Peel Scrub: Grind equal quantities of lentils, wheat and dried orange peel to a coarse
powder. If your skin is sensitive also then grind the ingredients more finely. Mix all ingredients
together and store in airtight containers. This scrub helps remove blackheads gently and leaves
skin feeling smooth.
D. Honey Cleansing Mask: Mix 1 tbsp honey with 2 tbsp finely ground almonds and 1/2 tsp
lemon juice. Rub gently onto face. Rinse off with warm water.
E. Fruit / Vegetable Pack: For a fruit pack choose lemon, pear,
strawberries, tangerine and chop, grate or mash them into pulp in a
non-metallic bowl. Strain off the excess juice for a healthy drink
and add yoghurt to the pulp. Spread the mixture over your face and
neck, avoiding the delicate skin around the eyes. Lie down for at
least 10 minutes while it takes effect, then massage and rinse with
cold water. In case of a vegetable pack use cabbage, cucumber, tomatoes.
F. Apple Face Pack: Mix 1/2 small apple (peeled and grated), 1 tbsp honey, 1 egg yolk, 1 tbsp
cider or wine vinegar, and 3 tbsp jojoba oil. Apply and rinse after 15 minutes.
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G. Cucumber Pack: Extract the juice of half a cucumber and add in a few mint leaves. Blend
with a few drops of limejuice, a teaspoon of milk powder and a little egg white (optional) or
Kaolin Powder if not using egg. Chill the mixture in the refrigerator before applying. This pack
also helps whiten the skin apart from optimizing its oil balance.
H. Strawberry Mask: Strawberries have great astringent properties and will help cleanse oily skin
without irritation. For an easy face mask blend together 1/2 tsp lemon juice with 1 egg white,
1 tsp honey and 1/2 cup strawberries. Apply on face and neck and leave the mask on cleansed
skin for 10 minutes and rinse off.
I. Moisturise: Women with oily skin avoid moisturizers but on the contrary, you should in an oil
free skin cream, as in the absence of any moisturizer even oily skin becomes flaky and dehydrated.
You can also go for water based moisturizers. For the daytime, pick a gel-based sunscreen as
they too, contain water.
HOT TIP: When shopping for creams/lotions avoid the ones that contain cocoa butter, shea
butter, lanolin or any heavy oils in them.
Use The Right Make-Up (Oil-Free):
1. Start with a toner and a Mattefying face primer.
2. Then dab some foundation, for a completely oil free face. In case you have
deep acne pits on your skin you can try VICHY Derma blend Corrective
3. To hide an inflamed pimple just dab some concealer with a brush.
4. Then dust your face with an oil-control compact. It’s best not to use too
much make-up on a blemish. If you must then use a light oil-free concealer.
When choosing make-up, especially blush and shadow, buy oil-free products
and powder-based versions as they absorb oil better and keep you looking fresh longer. Make
sure they are non-comedogenic ( don’t cause pimples) and non-allergic. Invest in a good make
up remover or deep pore cleanser to remove every trace of make-up from your face.
Top 5 Tips For Oily Skin:
Only cleanse twice a day. More often will trigger that panic response.
If shine still slips through, blotting paper is great for mopping up excess oil.
Ensure all your products - even your make up - are oil-free.
Cut down on fast food. No, grease doesn’t cause grease, but studies show
that the iodine in fast food can contribute to spots on oily skin.
5. If you get painful red spots, a little lavender oil dabbed on the skin will help
reduce inflammation in minutes. In emergencies, whiteheads can be dried
out with toothpaste.
Get Pro Help:
If your skin still becomes problematic, see a dermatologist. She can prescribe OTC drugs that can
bring down inflammation and control painful conditions. In fact, before setting out a skin-care regime
ask your dermatologist to recommend the right set of products.
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Go For Dermat Procedures:
Glycolic peels can slough off dead skin cells while removing debris from
the pores. You need to go for at least six sittings to get the desired results.
This works better if you have acne or black-heads. Peels don’t banish them
but keep them under control.
3. Dry Skin
Dry skin is characterized by scaling on the cheeks and tautness. Underneath, the skin lacks suppleness
and therefore feels rough, tight and itchy after washing. Dry skin is caused by too little sebum in the
lower layer of the skin, and too little moisture in the upper levels. At its worst, it can be flaky with little
patches of dandruff in your eyebrows, and a tendency to premature ageing with the emergence of fine
lines and wrinkles.
Characteristics Of Dry Skin:
If you’ve got dry skin you probably never really feel comfortable in your face - it’ll be tight and look
dull and grey. It’s often flaky too (particularly around the nose) and develops lots of tiny fine lines
which can make you look older than you are. Dry skin occurs when the protective barrier of oil in the
lower level of the skin starts to break down and water evaporates from the skin into the air. A number
of things can destroy this barrier: it can be genetic; central heating and cold temperatures are common
causes; or you can lose skin oils if you’re on a diet too low in fat.
The problem with dry skin is that it will make you old before your time; not only is it prone to
natural wrinkling but UV rays penetrate deeper into dehydrated skin, increasing sun damage. Getting
those moisture levels back up to scratch is therefore vital for your looks.
Causes Of Dry Skin:
1. Frequent Washing: Frequent washing removes natural oils of the skin and therefore the skin
feels taut. Therefore one should protect the skin with regular applications of a nourishing
cream which suits you after a wash.
2. Over Exposure: Certain environmental factors like wind, sun exposure, and overheated homes
can also dehydrate the skin.
3. Hereditary: Sometimes dryness is hereditary - then it is called ichthyosis.
4. Age: As we age, our skin gradually becomes rough and parched.
1. Use liberal amounts of oils and moisturizers. But don’t use a moisturizer
that makes you break out.
2. Avoid soaking in baths;
3. Use rubber gloves while doing household chores;
4. Avoid getting your environment too dry, specially if you are used to airconditioning;
5. Use cosmetics formulated especially for dry skin, because many other
cosmetics may have a drying effect.
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6. If all this does not help you, visit your dermatologist.
7. Avoid soap or makeup removal bars and never let water or toning lotion dry on your face - pat
it dry with tissue paper.
8. Avoid water-based products and cleansing simply with water and a sponge or under the shower.
9. Avoid all alcohol-based products.
10. Scrubbing is usually not recommended for dry skin. Instead, once a week use a mild oatmeal
soap, which will gently exfoliate your skin without causing irritation. After bathing or showering,
do not rub your skin with a towel, instead, softly pat it dry. Apply a natural oil (Coconut Oil,
avocado oil) or cocoa butter or shea butter when the skin is still moist, and pay the most
attention to your lower legs where skin tends to be the driest.
Care For Dry Skin:
To care effectively for dry skin means ensuring the products that you use
contain no drying ingredients like alcohol or soap. Instead, they should contain
ingredients that put something back into your skin. Choose creamy or milky
cleansers that will add moisture and leave a fine film that boosts skin
protection. If you must use soap, choose glycerin-based ones that also coat
the skin.
You also need to exfoliate. One of the reasons why dry skin tends to look dull is that its cell renewal
process has been slowed and dead skin cells stick to the surface of the skin. Using a cleanser with
alpha-hydroxy acids can help beat this. Apply them everyday for a week, then rest for 1-2 weeks - using
them too often can be harsh. In between, use a gentle facial scrub to remove dead skin cells and boost
skin tone.
The moisturizer you use can make the difference between dry and perfect skin. Moisturizers use two
types of ingredients to hydrate the skin - humectants that attract moisture to the skin and ingredients that
help reinforce that protective barrier. Choose products that include both. Look for ingredients such as
hyaluronic acid, glycerin or sorbitol (which are humectants) and lactic acid, collagen, petrolatum and
lanolin (which are emollients). Choosing moisturizers that are high in water will also help the skin look
and feel hydrated. Apply the moisturizer at least twice daily - more if your skin still feels dry and taut.
Finally, as most cases of dry skin are caused by environmental factors, try to minimize the chances
of dehydration in your daily life. Invest in a humidifier to keep water levels in the air high and cut the
amount the atmosphere sucks from your skin. In winter months, try to keep your skin covered, and
apply moisturizer, lip balm and hand cream before you go out. The more water you manage to keep in,
the less you have to try to put back.
Beauty Regimen For Dry Skin:
1. Exfoliate: Using your gentle facial scrub, rub the skin in a circular motion.
Concentrate on areas like the nose and forehead. Some scrubs can dry the
skin out, so rinse well.
2. Cleansing: Cleanse the skin with a milky cleanser. Doing this after exfoliation
will help remove any deep-down grime rather than just polishing the dead
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skin cells on the surface. Wipe it away with cotton wool; it’s less absorbent than tissue and so
will leave more protection on the skin. Also cleanse thoroughly at night to remove makeup.
Splash your face with lukewarm water in the morning. You can also start your day with a
thorough cleansing routine using a mild face wash which is good for dry and sensitive skins.
Avoid gel cleansers as they may leave the skin dry. Even raw milk mixed with gram flour can be
used to clean the face.
Hydrating Mask: Now apply a hydrating mask. Look for emollient or humectant ingredients
in these - or try the following face mask: Mash together 1/2 a avocado and 1/4 cup honey and
apply to your face and leave for five minutes before removing with a flannel and some tepid
water. Honey and avocados are particularly rich in moisturizing properties.
Moisturizing: Moisturizers formulated especially for dry skin should be applied frequently
and liberally. Use a heavy moisturizer if necessary. Moisturizers are best applied when the skin
is moist, such as after bathing. Gently pat the skin dry and apply a water-in-oil topical moisturizer
immediately. This helps trap additional water which is absorbed by the skin. Repeat through
the day to prevent further water loss. However in summer it is best to avoid oils. The best way
to apply a moisturizer is by patting the skin with your fingers - this helps bring blood to the
skin’s surface which will help hydrate it from within.
Massage: A gentle massage with a warm oil once or twice a week is the best way to keep your
skin soft and supple. Avocado oil is great for dry skin. It contains chemical compounds called
sterolins that soften the skin and leave it feeling moisturized. You can also a add a few drops of
olive oil to your bath water to counter itchy skin.
Sunscreens: Apply a Sunscreen daily. A good sunscreen is an absolute must for women who
venture outdoors. You may also look out for a herbal formulation that contains moisturizing
ingredients like Aloe Vera, coconut butter and herbal oils.
Anti-Ageing Products: At night use an Age Diminishing Cream with vitamin E that hydrates
and replenishes the skin.
Special Treatments For Dry Skin: For skin rejuvenation you can opt for micro-dermabrasions
and thermal peel facials.
Home-made face-packs For Dry Skin:
A. Olive Oil And Sugar: Mix sugar and olive oil and spread on
skin in a circular motion. It gets rid of dry skin as well as makes
skin smooth to touch.
B. Avocado Face-pack: Mash 1 avocado, mix with 1 tsp lemon
juice and 1 egg white and apply to the face. Leave for 20 minutes.
Gently massage the pack off your skin and finish by rinsing
with water.
C. Banana Face Pack: Mash 1 egg yolk, 2tsp almond oil and 1 ripe banana into a paste.
Apply to your face and leave for 10 minutes, then remove with cool water and pat dry.
D. Oatmeal Mask: Make a mixture of cooked oatmeal and honey and apply on face. This
acts as a very good moisturizer and cleanser.
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E. Honey Mask: Mix 1 teaspoon of egg yolk with 1 teaspoon of honey.
Then, add a few drops of the olive oil or the Vitamin E oil. Mix the
ingredients and apply this evenly all over the face. Keep this on for half
an hour and rinse. Pat dry.
F. Yoghurt Mask: Apply yoghurt on face evenly and set it smoothly on
face for 20 minutes. Rinse it off with lukewarm water. This is a natural
moisturizer for dry skin.
Step By Step Beauty Care:
The condition of dry skin is aggravated by over use of soap, detergents and toners. It can also be
adversely affected by the over exposure to hot sun, cold winds, and central heating. For these reasons
it is advisable to opt for a gentle, nourishing approach that concentrates on boosting the skin’s moisture
levels. This will plump out fine lines and keep the skin soft and supple.
1. Pour a little oil-based eye make-up remover onto a cotton wool
and sweep it over the eye area. This oily product will also help
soothe away dryness in the delicate eye area, but a little goes a
long way. If you overload the skin here with an oily product it can
cause puffiness and irritation.
2. If there are any stubborn flecks of mascara left behind, tackle
them with a cotton bud dipped in the eye make-up remover. Take
great care that the remover does not get in the eyes, but you will need to work as closely as you
can to the eyelashes to remove all signs of make-up.
3. Choose a creamy cleanser as it’s vital that your skin is really clean. Leave the cleanser on for a
few moments, before sweeping it away with a cotton wool pad. Use gentle upward movements
to prevent stretching the skin and encouraging lines.
4. Many women with dry skin complain that they miss the feel of water on
their skin. However you can splash your face with cool water to remove
excess cleanser and to refresh your skin. This also helps boost the circulation.
5. Finally, apply a nourishing cream to seal in the moisture. Opt for a thick
cream, not a runny lotion, as this contains more oil than water, and helps
seal in moisture. Give the moisturizer a few minutes to sink in before applying
The Right Make-Up For Dry Skin:
1. Choose creamy oil-rich make-up
2. After washing your face, toner, etc, slab on your moisturizer and let it sink in
well for a few minutes. This will help your makeup glide on and blend much
better and will avoid your skin drying out. Try a moisturizer with SPF - the
sun is very drying to the skin.
3. Then choose a natural looking light foundation formulated especially for
dry skin. Make sure that your foundation is oil-based for dry skin. Avoid
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Matt foundation as it leaves fine lines on face. Foundation lasts longer on dry skin than on any
other skin types.
4. While doing your eye make up use cream eye shadows for your eyes.
Top 5 Tips For Dry Skin:
1. Only cleanse your skin once at the end of the day. This will remove dirt
and grime but will prevent further drying. In the morning, a splash of
water and some moisturizer are all you need.
2. Exfoliation is essential for dry skin. When choosing your facial scrub, avoid
any made from seeds or salt - these can have sharp edges which may tear
dry skin, increasing moisture loss.
3. Never expose your skin to really hot water. It dries out parched skin.
4. Never dry your skin completely. One of the best ways to hydrate dry skin
is just to pat it with the towel after washing, then apply moisturizer to seal
in that extra moisture.
5. Increase your intake of oily fish or take a supplement of essential fatty acids. One of the main
tell-tale signs of deficiency of these essential nutrients is dry, flaking skin.
4. Combination Skin
Combination skin needs special attention because it has a blend of oily and dry patches. The centre
panel or T-zone, across the forehead and down the nose and chin, tends to be oily, and needs to be
treated like oily skin. However, the other areas are prone to dryness and flakiness from lack of moisture,
and need to be treated like dry skin. Having said this, some combination skins don’t follow the T-zone
pattern and can have patches of dry and oily skin in other arrangements. If you’re unsure of your skin’s
oily or dry areas, press a tissue to your face an hour after washing it. Any greasy patches on the tissue
signify oily areas.
Skin that has a combination of dry and oily patches requires a dual approach to skincare. Treating
your entire complexion like oily skin will leave the dry areas even drier and tighter than before. In the
same way, treating it only like dry skin can provoke excess oiliness and even an outbreak of blemishes.
This means that you will need to deal with the different areas of skin individually, with products to suit.
This isn’t as complicated and difficult as it sounds, and the result will be a softer, smoother, and clearer
complexion than before.
Characteristics Of Combination Skin:
Combination skin is normally a mix of oily skin in the centre of the face (an area commonly called
the T-zone) plus dry or normal skin on the cheeks. Exactly which areas are affected often changes with
age - teens find their forehead and nose are big problems and this tends to be caused by the hormones
flying around in puberty; older women find chins sometimes break out, too, and this is often linked to
increased stress levels. Outside the oily zone the state of the skin tends to depend a lot on your skincare.
Using products to tackle the grease dramatically dries out the cheeks, chest and eyes. Tackling combination
skin is therefore a matter of balance.
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Do’s And Don’ts Of Combination Skin:
1. Choose cleansers for combination skin.
2. Use oil-free moisturizers.
3. Apply acne products on the entire acne-prone T-zone, avoiding the eyes and
mouth area.
4. Use a sunscreen with SPF 26 or more.
5. Cleanse your skin after a workout.
1. Use two kinds of cleansers and moisturizers on different parts of your face.
2. Use balancing lotions.
3. Apply a moisturizer or make-up before working out.
4. Forget to wear sunscreen.
General Guidelines For Combination Skin:
1. Avoid bar soaps and bar cleansers as they tend to dry up the skin. Use gel
based cleansers or mildly foaming cleansers which are gentle and mild.
2. Avoid using different toners for different areas of your skin. If you opt for a
toner apply it all over your face if is non-greasy. Thus water and glycerin
based toners are best for combination skins but make sure that they have lots
of anti-oxidants in them.
3. Use sunscreen everyday. Sunscreen lotions with SPF 26 and in a non-oily base
is ideal for combination skins.
4. Exfoliation of combination skin is a must. Use a beta hydroxy acid (BHA / salicylic acid)
product which only exfoliates the surface of skin it also exfoliates inside the pore to improve
its shape and function.
5. Treat all dry patches of your skin with a moisturizer loaded with anti-oxidants and waterbinding agents.
6. Apply an oil-absorbing facial mask as required but only apply it over oily areas. Apply after
cleansing, leave on for 10-15 minutes, and then rinse thoroughly.
7. At night actuate your routine moisturizer to the eye area and follow with a thin layer of olive,
evening primrose, or borage oil.
8. Cleaning and caring for the skin prevents cracking, inflammation, and infection as well as
wrinkling, dry spots and age spots.
How To Care For Combination Skin:
Your aim should be to treat the problem on one area of the face without harming the skin of the
other areas. Your first step is cleansing. It’s best to avoid harsh cleansers that are formulated for oily
skin or milky cleansers that are formulated for dry skin and instead use a moisturizing cleansing bar or
facial wash. The foaming action of these will help strip through the oil on the greasier parts of your
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skin but won’t dehydrate the cheeks at the same time. After cleansing, use a gentle
exfoliator. Many women with combination skin find they tend to get spots around
their nose as the dry flakes of skin from their cheeks stick to the oily areas and so
cause blockages. Gentle exfoliation will go a long way to help reduce this.
Exfoliation will loosen blackheads, but for the ultimate blackheads-buster turn
to pore strips - little sticky pads which you place over blocked pores and then pull
off. These are perfect for combination skins as they allow you to focus your treatment
on the affected area. For best results use the strips every day for three days, then
reduce it to just once a week.
The final step in your skincare program is your moisturizer, and here you do need to pander a little
to your different skin types. During the day, when beating the shine is what counts, you should use
mattifying products to soak up the sebum produced in your T-zone without drying out your cheeks.
Many companies now sell mattifying products using ingredients like witch hazel, talcum powder or
cornstarch to soak up oil without irritation. At night, choose oil-free creams or light moisture lotions
which will supply your cheeks with extra hydration without over-stimulating the oil in your T-zone.
Beauty Regimen For Combination Skin:
A dual approach to skincare will double the benefits for combination skin, and it need not be
terribly time-consuming.
1. Choose an oil-based eye make-up remover to clear away every trace of eye
make-up from the delicate area which is prone to dryness. Use a cotton bud
to remove any stubborn traces. Splash with cool water afterwards to rinse
away any excess oil.
2. Use a foaming facial wash in the morning. This ensures oily areas are clean,
and clears pores to prevent blackheads. Massage a little onto damp skin,
especially dry areas. Leave for a few seconds to dissolve the dirt, then splash
clean with cool water.
3. Exfoliate to avoid flakes of dry skin clogging pores. Using a gentle facial scrub or a flannel, rub
the cheeks lightly. Go more intensely when tackling the greasy areas of the face to help loosen
4. Boil a kettle of water and pour some into a large bowl. Add four drops of rosewater to the
bowl - this hydrates the skin and will prevent the steam drying out the cheeks while it tackles
the nose. A the hot steam has dispersed, lower your face over the bowl, keeping it 10 inches off
the water. Put a towel over your head and stay put for up to 10 minutes.
5. On big pamper sessions go for the double mask. Shop around for a hydrating moisture mask
you apply to your cheeks and throat and a clay-based mask for the oily areas. Leave the masks
on for 10 minutes and rinse with tepid water before applying your normal light moisturizer.
Alternatively, try the following mask: Wash rose petals of 1 rose in water. Soak for a few
minutes and then crush them is a bowl. Add 1 tbsp rosewater, 1 tbsp natural yoghurt and 1 tbsp
honey. Mix well and apply to the skin for five minutes. Rinse off with tepid water. A rose based
mask is an excellent balancing treatment for combination skin.
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6. In the evening, switch to a cream cleanser, to keep dry areas of skin clean and soothed. This
will balance excess oiliness or dryness in your complexion. Massage well into your skin,
concentrating on the drier areas, then gently remove with cotton wool pads.
7. To freshen your skin, you need two different strengths of toner to deal with the differing skin
types. Choose a stronger astringent for oily areas, and a mild skin freshener for drier ones. This
isn’t as costly as you think, because you will use only a little of each. Sweep over your skin with
cotton wool pads.
8. Smooth moisturizer onto your entire face, concentrating on the drier areas. Then blot off any
excess from the oily areas with a tissue. This will give all your skin the nourishment it needs.
Home Treatments For Combination Skin:
If you have a combination skin, use two masks - one suitable for oily skin and one for dry skin. Just
apply each one to the area that needs it. Here are some general face packs especially formulated for
combination skin types.
1. Egg And Oatmeal Mask: Mix 1 egg white, 1/2 cup cooked instant oatmeal
and 1 teaspoon olive oil until smooth.
2. Rose Mask: This mask is good for both the oily and dry areas of your skin. Soak
5 rose petals in water and then crush them. Add 2 Tbsp rosewater, 1 Tbsp yogurt
and 1 Tbsp honey (heated in a microwave for a few second to melt it) and mix
well. Apply on face and wash off after 15 minutes.
3. Papaya Mask: Apply a pack made of half a cup of powered, dry peas, mixed
with three spoons of curd, juice of one lemon and half a cup of papaya pulp. Apply it for 20
minutes and wash your face with ice- cold water. Better still rub an ice cube dipped in rose
water over the T-Zone. It prevents enlarged pores and blackheads. Freeze tray with rose water
ice cubes so you can rub your face with them any time of the day especially after a bath as it
opens the pores.
4. Plum Face Mask: Mix a mashed Peach and a mashed Plum to 2 tsp honey and an egg. Apply
on face, leave for 1/2 an hour and wash.
5. Gram Flour Mask: Mix a tbsp gram flour with 1 tsp lime juice and a pinch of turmeric
powder and 2 tsp raw milk. Apply on face and rinse.
Top 5 Tips For Combination Skin:
1. Don’t scrub oily areas too much - this irritates the skin and increases oil production.
2. Don’t treat your whole face the same. Your T-zone will require cleansing
twice a day, while the cheeks only need doing once. It’s vice versa with
3. After using pore strips, apply tea tree oil to your nose. It will reduce redness
and cut bacteria levels in the pores.
4. Avoid leave-in hair conditioners. Ingredients in these block the forehead’s
pores, making already greasy skin worse.
5. Don’t forget eye creams: you may need to avoid rich moisturizers on your cheeks, but you
should’nt skin them on the delicate skin around your eyes.
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The Right Make-Up For Combination Skin:
Choose some products which are labelled for your skin type, and test them on the back of your
hand for a good colour match.
1. Use a non-greasy light foundation which matches your skin type.
2. For make-up your best bet would be anything oil-free/waterbased. If you do not require full coverage try M.A.C. Studio Mist
Foundation it both lightweight and seems to be water based.
3. Look for products that normalize your skin, such as those that contain
alpha hydroxy acids. Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) are derived from
fruit, milk and sugar cane and have anti-inflammatory properties. When
applied to the skin they help remove dead skin cells (exfoliate), giving you a younger appearance.
4. Use make-up with oil absorbing properties, and oil free.
5. Always use a sunscreen with SPF 26 or more in a non-greasy lotion base.
Anti-Ageing Products: You can opt for anti-oxidant supplements like
Carofit and Casera for a month and then take a break for a couple of months
before resuming. However, consult a dermatologist before taking up any course.
Taking Evening Primrose oil capsules for a few days occasionally is also helpful.
If you have a mild rosacea (a skin condition characterised by red patches on
the skin) avoid retinoids, though they are recommended for women over 40.
Special Treatments:
If you have a combination skin and suffer from Adult acne, use Clindac - a gel
for relief. If you have a problem of strong expression lines you can resort to Botox
as an effective treatment. People with combination skins can also use laser Photofacial
which stimulates and redistributes collagen in the facial skin thus acting as an effective
anti-ageing measure. You can also use NdYAG laser treatment for hair reduction on
the upper lip area if your have hair on your upper lip. This is quite an effective
Mature Skin: The skin gradually changes as you get older and to keep your skin
looking its best, your skincare regimen should address the unique needs of each decade. Understanding
the physiologic changes that are occurring in each decade can help you to better take care of your skin.
Characteristics Of Mature Skin:
If you’re in your twenties or thirties you maybe surprised to find yourself in this category - surely
maturing means you’re in your forties? Well, not necessarily. What maturing skin means is that for some
reason (be it sun damage, smoking, or high levels of stress) your skin is starting to ‘act old’ - and this
may have nothing to do with what it says on your birth certificate. By ‘acting old’, we mean that your
skin maybe starting to lose its natural glow or its elasticity. It’s likely to be developing more lines than
you would like or becoming a slave to open pores. These things can begin as early as your mid-twenties
or thirties (probably due to those trips to Spain as a child). However, you can slow them down.
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Care For Mature Skin:
If you do have maturing skin you probably think cleansing is the least of your
worries - after all, you’re past the greasy, spotty stage. However, cleansing the
skin with the right products can actually help reduce some of the signs of ageing.
Choose a cleanser that contains alpha or beta hydroxy acids, as these help increase
cell replacement which slows on maturing skin, reducing its radiance; they also
help clean and shrink open pores that become more noticeable as we age. The
use of AHA / BHA cleansers also removes the need for a toner, which can dry maturing skin further.
Once a week, use a gentle exfoliating scrub (or a peel-off face mask). This will remove dead cells and
keep the skin glowing.
In terms of moisturizing, you should be aiming to replace oils and water (the more hydrated the
skin is, the less noticeable lines and wrinkles are), so choose rich creams that provide oil and attract
moisture to the skin. When applying moisturizer, don’t make the mistake of stopping when you get to
your chin - the neck and chest are some of the first areas that show ageing, yet most of us ignore them.
It will also help to choose products that incorporate age-fighting ingredients - like vitamin A (also
referred to as retinols), vitamin C, coenzyme Q10, kinetin and copper. Which you choose is upto you,
as they all do the same thing - fight molecules called free radicals that destroy healthy skin cells, collagen
and elastin. Use these in your moisturizer or try serums which deliver intensive bursts of nutrients to
the skin. And finally, always wear sunscreen. None of the rest is worth doing if you don’t - even in
winter it can take just 20 minutes of unprotected exposure to damage the skin. To help ageing skin,
your moisturizer must contain sunscreen of at least SPF 15.
Firming Facial For Maturing Skin:
This once-a-week facial hydrates intensely, but also uses massage techniques to boost circulation
and tighten and firm the skin.
1. Cleanse the skin using a milky cleanser, applying it directly onto your
face with your fingers. Leave it to sink in for a few seconds, then, using
circular movements (always moving up the face), massage it in. Remove
with cotton wool in the same fashion. This will increase circulation to
the skin.
2. Starting at your chin, move around the edge of the jaw and face, lightly
tapping the skin 10-20 times at points an inch apart. Do the same around the eyes. This will
help boost circulation and reduce puffiness, creating a firmer look.
3. Apply an exfoliating mask. This will get rid of dead skin cells but is more hydrating than a facial
scrub alone (try a peel-off cucumber mask ). Apply tightening cucumber pads (or slices of the
real thing) to your eyes and relax. Rinse off, finishing by splashing the face 10-20 times with
cold water. This boosts circulation, ready for the treatments to come.
4. Apply a vitamin serum, again using upward stroking movements but this time from the neck.
Slap the underside of your chin 20 times.
5. Finish with a thick coat of rich moisturizer. Leave this to soak in for five minutes, then remove
any excess with cotton wool.
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Top Five Tips For Maturing Skin:
1. Rich moisturizers are great for maturing skin, but if you start to
break out in spots, your moisturizer is too rich. Alternate with a lighter
2. Don’t stop skincare at your chin - your neck gives away your age
faster than your face ever can. Ditto your hands - always rub a little
of whatever you’re using on your face on those too.
3. Use a special eye cream daily; eyes are the first place to show ageing
and need specialist treatment.
4. Never drag the skin while removing make-up or putting on
moisturizer. When the skin is already under threat from ageing, pulling or folding the skin adds
to the pressure. Do everything lightly.
5. Boost your intake of antioxidant vitamins by aiming for seven portions of fruit and vegetables
a day. These not only help fight ageing, but also help your skin to create its own sun protection,
which will fight any UV rays that get through your sunscreen.
Homemade Treatments For Mature Skin:
1. Sugar Mask: Melt 2 tbsp sugar in 3 tbsp warm water (in neat form sugar
granules can cause tiny tears in the skin, which allow moisture to leak out).
Apply to the face, leave for five minutes, then very gently massage around
the skin. Rinse well.
2. Oatmeal Honey Mask: Mix 1 Tbsp. rose clay, 1 Tbsp. finely ground oatmeal,
1 tsp. honey, 1 tsp. avocado or almond oil, 1 drop frankincense oil, 1 lavender
oil, 1 drop rose oil and water to make a paste. Apply on face and neck and
rinse after 15 minutes.
3. Olive and Lime Mask: Mix 2 tsp. olive oil and half tsp. lime juice. Wisk until it turns cloudy.
Leave on all night or great for a 30 minute mask. You’ll be amazed at how much dirt it lifts.
4. Cleansing Mask: Combine 1/4 cup heavy cream, 1/4 tsp coconut oil, 2 drops orange oil, 1
tbsp baking soda, 1/2 cup water, in a saucepan over low heat and bring mixture to a gentle
simmer. Remove from heat and allow to cool. While stirring add 2 teaspoons honey slowly.
This product will separate so always stir before use.
5. Firming Mask: Mix 1/2 cup chopped hearts of palm, 1/4 cup wheat germ, 1/4 cup powdered
milk, 1/4 russet potato (do not peel), 1 tsp mint, 1/2 cucumber (do not peel), 1 tsp vanilla
extract, 1 tsp coconut extract, 2 egg whites together in a blender on low speed. Using your
fingers rub into your face and neck with a gentle circular motion. Let sit for 15 to 20 minutes
then rinse off with warm water. You can use 2 or 3 times a week.
6. Moisturizing Mask: Heat 1 tsp rice bran oil, 1 tsp avocado oil, 1 tsp canola oil; 1 tsp walnut
oil, 2 tsp lemon juice, 2 tsp lime juice, 1/2 tsp coconut oil, 1/4 tsp orange oil together in a small
saucepan over low heat. Let the mixture cool then pour into a cosmetic bottle. Massage a few
drops into your face and neck daily. This mixture will separate so shape well before using.
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The Right Make-Up For Mature Skin:
1. Makeup goes on much easier after a firming mask has been used.
2. Before applying foundation, apply a light diffusing primer with a damp wedge
3. Since mature skin tends to be drier, choose a mousse or cream foundation,
which will hydrate skin and avoid settling in fine lines. Choose a foundation
with yellow undertones, which offers the most natural coverage. Pink-based
foundations tend to look artificial.
4. Before applying eye shadow, use a light diffusing eyelid primer.
5. Use a Vitamin E stick or lip primer before applying color.
Fruits and vegetables are not only sources of nutrients but can also act as a substitute for cleansers,
scrubs, and moisturizers. Juice extracts from vegetables and fruits can do wonders with skin if used
regularly without giving any harmful effect on skin.
a. Extract the juice of half an orange or tomato; mix with 2 tsp. of curd. Lightly massage onto
your face in an upward direction. Let it dry. Then wash your face with cold water and wipe dry.
b. Rub the inner part of papaya skin on your face and let it dry. Then wash your face with cold
water and wipe dry.
c. Beat the white of an egg and apply on your face in an upward direction. Once it dries, wash it
with cold water. It helps tighten your skin and delays wrinkles.
d. Make a paste of 2 tbsp. of wheat flour and using as much as needed. Apply on your face in an
upward direction. Leave to dry. Then wash with cold water and put dry. This helps remove
excess oil from your skin.
e. Mix 2 tsp. of raw milk and 2tsp. of cucumber juice and a few drops of lemon, with a cotton
ball, apply the solution to your face and leave it to dry.
f. Mashed half a rip banana, add 1 tsp. of honey and make a paste. Apply on your face. Once it
dries wash with cold water and put dry.
g. Make a paste of 1 tsp. of Malai, a pinch of turmeric and 5 drops of olive oil. Apply on your
face and leave it to dry, wash with cold water and dry Malai acts as a natural moisturizer and
turmeric and olive oil help rejuvenate your skin.
h. Soak 2-3 tsp. of Methi (fenugreek) seeds overnight, grind into a paste, and then rub onto your
face. Once it dries, wash it with cold water. Granular effect helps remove black heads; Methi
also helps remove excess oil from skin. The excess paste can be stored in the refrigerator but
should be used within a week.
i. Milk and chapatti make a very good fairness facial mask at home. Mash left over chapatti in
milk to make a paste and apply it onto your face. Keep it on for 15 minutes and wash and put
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Mix 3-4 tsp. of multani mitti with 8-10 ground pudina (mint leaves). Freeze the pack overnight,
keep outside for 10-15 minutes and then apply on your face. After 10-15 minutes, wash off and
put dry which helps in cooling and cleansing your skin.
k. For normal skin, make a paste of besan, clotted cream, and turmeric powder, then apply on
your face to clean dust and grime off it. Rub the paste in circular manner gently. This way it
removes all dust and grime off your face. Wash off in 10 minutes and see the glow.
l. Grate raw coconut and squeeze milk out of it. Apply this milk over your face. It adds grace and
glow to the face.
m. Mix 1 tbsp. each of orange juice and lemon juice in a cup of yogurt to make a paste. Apply this
paste on your face for 15 minutes. Then wipe it off with wet tissues. This mask enhances the
glow of your face.
a. Grate raw potato, squeeze the juice and apply it under your eyes. Potato slices have zinc and
lactic acid, both aid in lightening the skin tone. Curd is an excellent home remedy for getting
fair skin.
b. Mix 1 spoon each of milk powder, lemon juice and almond oil. Apply this concoction on your
skin and leave it on for 15 minutes before washing it off. This is an effective skin-lightening
mask. This home remedy helps give excellent results in getting fair skin.
c. Apply egg white on face twice a week to get fairer skin. Use this home remedy if you have to
make your oily skin fair at home.
d. Apply the juice of ripe pineapple to get fair skin naturally at home.
e. Boil radish in water and apply this water on face to get fair skin at home.
f. A refrigerated concoction of cucumber juice, glycerin and rose water is a great sun protecting
g. Prepare a homogenous mixture of cucumber juice, glycerin & rose water. Apply this on face &
wash off 5-10 minutes later. This prevents skin tanning.
a. Soak 2-3 tsp. of whole Masoor dal overnight, grind into a paste and apply on your face. Wash
it off with cold water and put dry.
b. The juice of lemon mixed with sugar granules can be used a s a natural scrub for glowing skin.
Rub ice cube for proper blood circulation, raw milk can be massaged on face to make it soft
and supple.
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irsuties or hypertrichosis are terms that refer to the growth of an unusual amount of hair on
parts of the body normally bearing only downy hair, such as the faces of women. Hair removal
is a treatment to be given for unwanted hair known as superfluous hair. It is a industry not in India but
all over the world minting money with various methods to remove superfluous hair. Unwanted or
overly abundant hair is a common problem that affects both
men and women, for women fortunately a variety of hair
removal methods are available, ranging from the fairly simple
procedures of shaving and tweezing to more complex
procedures that required special training. By understanding
these methods and their effects, hair-removal specialists will
be able to offer sound advice to clients, explain the problems
clients may be having with their home hair-removal
methods, and steer clients toward methods better suited to
the client’s needs. Two major types of hair removal
Use of waxes for different parts of the
techniques are in use today: permanent and temporary. Salon
body (paraffin wax, sugar wax etc…)
techniques are generally limited to temporary methods
One of the main purposes of the client consultation is to determine the presence of any
contraindications for hair removal. Facial waxing or tweezing should not be performed on those clients
who have any of the following conditions or treatments:
Very sensitive skin / sunburn
Presence of pustules or papules
Recent botox or collagen injections
Cosmetic or reconstructive surgery
Two methods are used to remove superfluous hair :DEPILATORY METHOD OF HAIR REMOVAL
i) Shaving
ii) Depilatory cream
i) Threading
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ii) Waxing
iii) Laser / Thermolysis / Electrolysis
i) Shaving
Shaving is the most common method of removing unwanted hair by men and women. However,
more and more women are embracing the benefits of professional hair removal and are switching
from shaving to waxing, electrolysis, or laser hair removal.
Types of growth of hair visible on skin surface.
Shaving with razor.
ii) Depilatory Cream
Depilatory cream dissolves a hair just below the skin with the chemicals calcium thioglycolate,
sodium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, agents that dissolve the hair on cattle hides. The keratin in
hair is broken down, causing it to weaken and break away, broken hairs are washed away with the
depilatory product. New hair, may be visible soon after, but if more depilatory product is applied to
the area within a month.
i) Threading
The most popular areas for threading are the eye-brows, hairline, the sideburns, the sides of face,
the upper lip, the chin and under the jaw. Threading is a good alternative for those unable to tolerate
waxing on the face due to prescription and other product. But ineffective for the large parts of the
The correct shape of the eyebrows has a marked
effect on the beauty and contour of the face shaping
are the important features of the face. The entire
expression can be changed by the eyebrow line and
eyebrow forms a significant point of structure in facial
composition and it is work of beauty expert to relate
the structure to help emphases good points and detract
bad paints. The natural arch or the growth of the hair
Correct placing & shaping the eyebrows
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follows the bony structure or the curved line of the orbit (eye socket). The majority of persons have
disorderly growth of hair both above and below the natural line. These hairs should be removed to give
a clean cut and attractive appearance.
Emolient cream
Eyebrow pencil
Eyebrow brush
Astringent lotion
Cleansing tissue
Place an orange stick beside the nose and the inside corner of the eye. This is usually in line
with the tear duct. Any hairs that grow between the eyes and beyond this point should be
removed. If the client has a very broad nose, however, this guide is inappropriate : tweezing
would commence near the middle of the brow. In this instance, use the tear duct at the inside
corner of the eye as a guide.
Place an orange stick in a line from the base of the nose (to the side of the nostril) to the outer
corner of the eye. Any hairs that grow beyond this point should be removed.
Place an orange stick in a vertical line from the centre of the eyelid. This is where the highest
point of the arc should be.
Seat the patron on facial chair in reclining position.
Select type of arc according to the face shape and customers liking, suitable for her facial
Cover patron’s eyes with cotton pads moistened with antiseptic lotion.
Brush the brows to remove powder and scales. Brows around the surrounding skin may be
softened by rubbing emollient cream into them.
Remove hair between brows and above brow line, when gradually proceed under the line.
Extra care has to be taken while working under the brows. Stretch under and above the brows
to maintain the tension.
While working for thick growth it is advisable to use tweezer simultaneously to avoid cuts or
Use these guidelines when defining the eyebrow shape:
1. Start
2. Point of arch
3. End point of eyebrow
The entire expression can be changed by
the eyebrow line. Select shape falls into the
following categories as illustrated.
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High Forehead:- The eyebrow arch is slightly elevated to direct from the high forehead.
Low Forehead:- A low arch gives more height to the very low forehead.
Wide Set Eyes:- The eyes can be made to appear closer together by extending the eyebrow line to
the inside corner of the eyes.
Close Set Eyes:- To make the appear farther apart space brows. Farther the distance by widening
the distance between them also slightly extend the brows outward.
Round Face:- Arch the brows to make the face seem narrower. Start online directly above inside
cover of eye and extend to ends of been pulled out leaving little sports in the brows darken them with
the pencil. Using the eyebrow brush over is to soften the pencil mark.
Where the Arch is too High:- Remove the superfluous hairs from the top of the brow and fill the
part from the top of the brows.
Where Arch is too Low:- Remove the superfluous hair from the lower part of the brow and build
up the shape of the brow by means of the brow pencil.
Precautions & Reminders:l
It is inexpensive treatment and discomfort level is usually less than the waxing tweezing but it
in effective for the large parts of the body.
It can be uncomfortable because the hair are snagged out of the skin faster than tweezing but
more slowly than waxing.
ii) Waxing
There are two major methods of
waxing for hair removal. One is hard
wax, also known as the nonstrip method.
The other major wax method is the hot
wax or strip method. This can include
the honey-textured waxes and crème
waxes. In addition to those waxes, there
are various varieties in between, such as
cold wax and sugar was, and many with
soothing additives.
Use of wax on upper lips.
Waxing Contraindications
If the client has any of the following, wax depilation must not be carried out:
Skin disorders, such as bruising or recent haemorrhage.
Loss of skin sensation
Cuts / Abrasions
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Equipment & Materials
Room with privacy
Table / Stool
Antiseptic cleanser and towel
Washable drapes for the client
Applicator / Spatula
Pretreatment lotion / Antiseptic lotion
Dusting powder
Ice cubes
Soothing lotion
Wax heater
Waxing strips (disposable)
Types of waxes
Good lighting is essential to a waxing treatment area. Fluorescent
Removal of wax
lights are the brightest and most economical with music because music
makes a treatment most pleasurable. Wax heater are usually thermostatically controlled , but the wax
should be always be tested on the skin of the technician on the inner forearms before its application on
the client.
Make sure the table is at a comfortable height for working, check the posture and make sure you do
not bend over, maintain safe distance with client.
Use a towel to protect the client’s remaining clothing.
Wipe the area to be waxed with a professional antiseptic prewax cleansing lotion on cottonwool. Blot the area dry with
tissues before applying the wax. While wiping the skin, look
for contra-indications.
If the client’s skin is very greasy (she may for example have
applied oil before coming to the clinic), cleanse it using an
astringent lotion such as witchhazel. Use dusting powder with
cottonwool on the treatment area before the application of
Apply wax on the area which is to be treated in the same
direction of hair and press the disposable strip, with stretching
the skin and pull the strip with sudden tug in the opposite
direction of the hair.
An after-wax lotion should be applied, using clean cottonwool,
at the end of the treatment. This breaks down any wax residue,
helps to guard against infection and irritation, and takes away
any feelings of discomfort.
Application of wax
Apply wax in the same
direction of hair
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Hygiene and Sanitation
Use disposable equipment where possible to avoid cross-infection. Wear protective gloves during
the treatment.
Clients should not apply perfumed products to the area that was waxed for at least 24 hours.
A clean and sanitary environment is not only important to meeting state requirements, it inspires
client confidence. As the client leaves the room, tools should be washed with a germicidal soap
and put in the sterilization unit. Wipe down surfaces and bottles with a disinfectant cleaner.
Points to remember
Hot wax is always applied in the direction of hair growth and
remove against hair growth.
It is always better to work from lesser hair growth to denser
hair growth.
The wax should not be applied to a greater area than is going
to be immediately removed.
The strips should not end where there is still wax.
The strip should be place over the wax, always allowing a
sufficient free edge to grasp easily.
Once the strip is place over the wax, it is only needs to be
smoothed or rubbed once or twice to adhere to the wax and
be effective.
Do not prolong the anticipated moment of discomfort by
excess rubbing.
The pull of the strip should always be against the hair growth.
It should be quick and decisive and as close to the skin as
possible for minimal discomfort.
Application of strip
Removal of strip
iii) Laser / Thermolysis / Electrolysis
Laser Hair Removal
Laser are a new method for the rapid, gentle removal of unwanted hair. The term laser is an
acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Laser have the strength to pierce
nature’s hardest substance, the diamond, to perform orthodontic procedures on the gums. The laser
was the first introduced as a method of hair removal after 1980s. It was noted that birthmarks treated
with certain types of lasers became permanently devoid of hair. Lasers are not for everyone; the
absolute requirement is that one’s hair must be darker than the surrounding skin. Coarse, dark hair
responds best to laser treatment. For some clients, this method brings truly permanent results. The
laser can also slow down regrowth. Whereas electrolysis works on a hair-by-hair basis, laser uses a wide
beam that can treat multiple hairs at once. Laser hair removal is based on the principle of selective
photothermolysiswhich is the selective targeting of an area using a specific wavelength to absorb
light into that target area sufficient to damage the target tissue while allowing the surrounding area to
remain relatively untouched.
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Implements & materials for Laser Hair removal
Thermolysis / Electrolysis
Electrolysis is the removal of hair by means of an electric current that destroys the root of the
hair. The current is applied with a very fine, needle shaped electrode that is inserted into each hair
follicle. This technique can be painful, time-consuming, and expensive, and must be performed only by
a licensed electrologist.
Thermolysis takes its name from the Greek word thermo, meaning heat, and Ysis, meaning to
dissolve. It is also commonly called diathermy, a more outdated term; (high frequency). The facts that
it is fast and effective and relatively easy to learn make it popular method. There are three types of
thermolysis machine:1. Manual
2. Semi-Manual
3. Computerized
With the manual thermolysis machine, the intensity of the current is selected using a rheostat and
controlled by the operator, as is the duration of the current, which is controlled by the foot pedal.
Semi-manual thermolysis machine were developed later, as concerns arose about the duration of
the current. The lengthy and often clumsy use of the footswitch or inaccurate counting with the handoperated button resulted in the overtreatment of the hair follicle and damage to the skin. To prevent
the extended application of current, a dial with an automatic timer was added, allowing the operator to
preselect the duration of the current once the footswitch is tapped.
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Computerized, or automatic, thermolysis machine can be programmed for galvanic, thermolysis,
the blend, and pulsing and flash techniques. They can also be programmed to apply the appropriate
amount of current for hair type.
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leaching is a temporary solution to facial hair which will disguise rather than remove hair. Avoid
bleach if you have a lot of upper lip hair as it may turn the hair yellow. Skin Whitening, skin
lightening and skin bleaching refers to the practice of using chemical substances in an attempt to
lighten skin tone or provide an even skin complexion by lessening the concentration of melanin.
Bleach refers to a number of chemicals that remove color, whiten, or disinfect, often via oxidation.
Powdered bleach: This is done by adding bleaching powder with
liquid hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. If powder bleach is used for
eliminating dark spot and freckles then bleaches should be applied only
to that area of dark spots and freckles.
Cream bleach: This is available at any drugstore or at chemist shops
and used in most of the beauty parlors. It is used for Skin brightening use
a cream bleach so that you can widespread on your face.
If you do not have a defined area (i.e. if freckles and spots are wide
spread) then it is safer to use cream bleach.
Milk Bleach: This is usually best suited for sensitive skin type. It
primarily comprises of milk powder and usually some ammonia to lighten
the hair.
Protein Bleach: It is mild bleach, in which butter pack is used to ensure a soft supple skin. Ammonia
is used to lighten the hair and remove tanning. Protein Bleach is a blessing for those who have a
sensitive / oily skin.
Gold Bleach: In gold beach Aqua activator is used along with the Gold cream bleach, which helps
in activating the bleaching action to give you a fairer and glowing skin. Ammonia is used to lighten the
hair and remove tanning. This particular bleach is famous among brides as it gives a golden glow to
one’s skin.
Oxy bleach: Feel your skin breathing with Oxy bleach. It’s a special type of bleach which is especially
good for the tanned and sensitive skin. It helps oxygen to penetrate the skin. When oxygen enters the
skin, it takes with it water and lipids deep into the skin, making the skin softer, more hydrated and
glowing. It is a healthy way to bleach. Its effectiveness can be judged by the onlookers around you.
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The Pros of bleaching
It’s fast, easy, and without much risk. Bleaching cream can be found at any drug store fairly cheap,
and you can bleach right in your own home. Large areas of hair can be bleached at the same time, with
the entire process only taking minutes from start to finish. You don’t risk a lot pain or getting ingrown
hairs, since you aren’t removing the hair from follicle.
The Cons of bleaching
Bleaching facial and body hair doesn’t give you a smooth and hairless surface. These are the
main reasons people want to rid hair. Even though hair is lighter, it still may be noticeable,
especially if you are standing in the sun or a bright room.
Not all hair or skin types can benefit. Don’t count on bleaching disguising long or thick haironly finer ones, like on the face or arms. Bleached hair on dark or tan skin, can still stand out
because of the color contrast (light hair against dark skin).
The results aren’t very long-lived. The hair above the surface is the only part of the hair follicle
that has been lightened. As the hair grows, you will see the darker, natural color.
It can temporarily lighten dark skin tones. The lighter skin tone can last for up to 3 days.
Materials Required: Bowl (Glass or Plastic), Cotton wool, Sponge, Towels, Neck cape, Applicator
Brush, Head Band, Gloves (Rubber), Bleaching Powder, Hydrogen Peroxide (20 Volumes), Liquid
Ammonia, Dropper and Rose Water
Patch Test: A Patch Test is necessary before proceeding with the bleach. This should be performed
at least 24 hours prior to bleaching process. If reaction occurs, do not bleach.
Procedure for Powder Bleach
1. Remove the jewellery and make up
2. Cleanse the face and neck thoroughly
3. Prepare the client using head band and wrap the towel or neck cape
4. Prepare the bleach pack by mixing two tea spoons of bleaching powder, 5-6 drops of liquid
ammonia and hydrogen peroxide (20 volumes) as per requirement to make a smooth paste
5. Cover the client’s eyes with cotton dipped in Rose water
6. Apply bleach pack in upward and outward movements. Leave for 10- 15 minutes and clean the
face with tap water.
7. Apply moisturizer
There are several things to keep in mind before using bleach for lightening your facial or body hair
Only use bleach meant for facial or body hair. Don’t use bleach meant for the hair on your
head, it’s much stronger than the formula that’s used for the face and body
Test product first. Do patch test product first on arm and wait 24 hours before using on large
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area, because you could be allergic or very sensitive to the product. Even if you don’t see any
redness on your arm, you still need to be cautions when using on facial skin- it’s generally more
Don’t use a metal dish to mix bleach or apply bleach using anything metal.
1.5 Exercise Questions
Theory Questions:
Explain the term Hypertrichosis
Differentiate between the term epilation and depilation
Explain the judging of brow length with the help of illustration
Explain Bleaching and its precautions
Describe the epilatory method of hair removal
Practical Questions
Demonstrate the use of depilatory cream on arm
Demonstrate eyebrow shaping using threading technique
Demonstrate the procedure of hot wax on legs
Demonstrate the trolley setting for the removal of superfluous hair
Demonstrate bleaching on client’s face.
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Manicure and Pedicure
en and women alike enjoy nail and hand manicure and pedicure and beauty treatments. Nail polish,
nail simply can deal only or both hands. French manicure is the most popular modern methods
Neirufasshon. A similar treatment is performed on foot pedicure. You can apply a treatment such as
nails or applying imitation jewels pictures and drawings of the painting authentic manicure nails.
French Manicure:
1. Start by removing old nail polish cotton ball or pad.
2. Then rinse using hand stripping as either salt or sugar scrub.
3. Drop of cuticle oil or sweet almond. Then allow a few minutes until they are all well, using an
orange wooden stick, please gently push the cuticle.
4. Formed to hold a round nail tips and edges of the best ways. Never nail around the entire nail.
5. Then, apply on each nail and let a few minutes to dry. One coat will help strengthen nails.
6. Finally, the glow, apply a clear top coat for extra protection of the Frenchmanicure.
French Pedicure:
1. From toe nail removal using a first, remove old nail polish.
2. Then, soak your feet in warm water bath. If you’re trying to soften your feet, you can use sweet
almond oil.
3. Gently push the cuticles using cuticle remover and oil.
4. Placed between the fingers stabbed foam toe separators and apply one coat of clear nail polish.
5. Apply a transparent pink or nude nail polish around the toenails. That before we apply the
second coat dry.
6. Finally, apply the topcoat to the new French manicure shine and protection.
Manicure goals:
Its main objective, hands, arms, please clean and in good condition.
It prevents long nail formation.
This is the first sin of aging, wrinkled skin of the hand discouraging.
This will prevent split nail damage like fragile tips.
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Purpose of pedicure:
Feet, just be in good condition and clean.
Soft, smooth skin.
It nourishes the skin of the leg muscles to improve blood circulation.
To prevent the toe nails clean, well-shaped and shiny.
1. Nail cutter
2. Nail filer
3. Cuticle cutter
4. Cuticle pusher
5. Nail brush
6. Orange stick
7. Pumice stone
8. Foot scrapper
9. Two basins large enough for foot bath
1. Acetone
2. Liquid soap
3. Luke warm water
4. Antiseptic lotion
5. Oil or cream
6. Nail polish
7. Foot powder
8. Hydrogen peroxide
1. Remove the old nail polish using acetone with lotion
2. File the nails and cut the nails if necessary.
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3. Place both the feet in Luke warm water containing liquid soap
and hydrogen peroxide.
4. Clean the foot using nail brush, foot scrapper and pumice
5. Remove the foot from the basin and clean thoroughly using a
soft towel.
6. With a cotton dipped in Antiseptic lotion and with the help of
an orange stick apply the lotion under the free edge of each nail
7. Buff the cuticle to soften the cuticle
8. Loosen the cuticle back gently
9. Massage the legs for five minutes
10. Apply the first coat of nail polish and allow it to dry and then apply the second
There are a few other items that you may wish to use during your manicure, all of which are
Cuticle Remover: These cosmetic solutions will aid in softening the cuticles and may contain
2-5% sodium or potassium hydroxide and glycerin’s. Apply to the cuticle area after filing and
before soaking in the fingerbowl.
Nail Cleansers: Usually a type of detergent (scrub) in liquid form that is added to the water
in the fingerbowl to aid in soaking and cleansing the nail plate.
Cuticle Oil, Lotion or Creams: Any combination of essential oils that soften and lubricate
the skin and nails.
Nail Bleaches: These cosmetics contain hydrogen peroxide or organic acids that can be
applied over and/or under the free edge of the nail plate to remove stains. Sometimes they
work — sometimes they don’t!
Base Coat, Enamel color of choice, and Top Coat.
Polish Dryers: These products can be sprays or Top Coat enamels and are designed to quickly
dry the surface layer of enamel. The solvents in nail enamel must evaporate in order for the
polish to dry. When Polish is applied, the solvents on the surface begin to evaporate and the
solvents on the bottom begin to move upward, and the surface begins to harden. The solvents
have to diffuse through this hardened surface and evaporation slows down. Polish dryers repel
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this thickening layer, pulling the solvents into itself. This action is much like pressing down on
a wet sponge, or wringing our a wet rag. The polish is not totally ‘dry’, but is simply much drier
than it was immediately after application. It takes a full hour for the enamel to be free of
solvents and fully hardened.
Aromatherapy Oils: For a relaxing mood or to relieve stress.
Sloughing Lotions: To aid in exfoliation of rough, dry skin.
Paraffin Wax Machine: Paraffin wax aids in moisturizing and conditioning the skin by opening
the pores and allowing the massage/aromatherapy oils to deeper penetrate the skins outer
Arrange your files, implements and tools on the table towel on top of your working surface so they
are within easy reach. Wash your hands with a mild detergent or hand soap, rinse well and dry thoroughly.
Remove all traces of old enamel by moistening a cotton or gauze
pad with the remover of your choice. Press the pad onto the nail
plate, hold for a few seconds, then swipe toward the free
edge. Change the pad often as the remover cannot perform well if
it is saturated with old enamel. Dark pigmented enamels are the
hardest to remove, and the old polish may get on your skin or
underneath the free edge. If this happens, wrap a small piece of
cotton on the end of the orangewood stick, saturate it with remover
and clean the enamel from the cuticle line and under the free edge.
Use a 240-grit file to remove length or to perfect the free edge by
filing from the outside corner to the center of the nail plate. Never
saw back and forth across the free edge as it can disrupt the nail
plate layers and lead to splitting and peeling. The ideal shape of
the free edge should mirror the shape of the cuticle, i.e.: an oval
cuticle = an oval free edge.
To seal the free edge, use the 3-way buffer: black to refine, white to semi-shine and gray to
finish. This will seal the layers of the free edge to further prevent splitting or peeling.
Apply cuticle remover, oil or lotion all around the cuticle area if
you so desire, then immerse the nails in the soaking dish for no
more than 3 minutes. If you are performing this procedure on
yourself, soak one hand at a time and proceed to the next step.
Perform the procedure on the other hand. Soaking for more than
3 minutes will fully saturate the nail plate, causing it to swell. Once
the plate returns to its normal shape, any polish that is applied will
crack and chip. If your nails are already dry and brittle, perform a
hot oil manicure instead.
Remove the fingers from the soaking dish, and holding the orangewood stick or metal cuticle
pusher much as you would a pencil, proceed to ‘push’ the invisible cuticle skin from the nail
plate surface back toward the ‘live’ tissue. Do not use downward force when performing this
procedure as the nail matrix could become damaged from the aggressive force. Keep in mind
that all you want to do is remove any translucent skin from the nail plate — you do not want to
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break the seal between the proximal nail fold
and the nail plate. Perform this procedure
on all 5 fingers, then do the same on the other
The ‘skin’ you see at the cuticle line in Fig. 2
has been pushed back from the nail plate.
This ‘true cuticle’ can be gently removed by
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
scraping the plate with the cuticle pusher or
the curette.
Holding the cuticle nippers/scissors in one hand, nip or clip any loose
‘tags’ of skin that you were unable to remove with the cuticle pusher or
the curette. NEVER cut live skin! Be very careful to only trim the
‘dead’ tissue. If no translucent tissue has been pushed from the nail
plate, or there are no ‘tags’ of dead skin, there is no need to trim anything.
Using the orangewood stick or the curved end of the metal cuticle
pusher, clean under the free edge of the nail plate. Once again, do not
apply pressure when performing this procedure to prevent a tear or
break from occurring in the nail plate seal. Any tear or break in the seal between the nail plate
and the nail bed is the perfect entry point for bacterial microorganisms that may cause an
At this point, you may wish to exfoliate the
hands by dispensing a small amount of
sloughing lotion into the palm of one hand.
Distribute the lotion evenly between your
palms, and apply with a gentle ‘massaging’
action to the clients hand and fingers.
Massage into the palm of the hand and the fingers, being expressly
gentle with the back of the hand. Massage for just a few minutes, then
rinse the lotion from the hand and fingers, or wipe clean with a wet
terry cloth towel and dry thoroughly.
Follow this procedure with an application of moisturizing lotion,
massaging the lotion into the skin until it is absorbed
If the nail plate surface is ridged or
corrugated or otherwise ‘uneven’, you may
wish to smooth the surface using the 3-way
buffer. Whenever the nail plate surface is
filed in any way, even with a buffer, it should
be filed in the direction of nail growth to
prevent disrupting the nail plate layers.
Gently file with the black side of the buffer, then proceed to the white then gray sides. Buffing
with all 3 sides to create a high-gloss shine will help to seal the nail plate surface from staining
and dehydration by ‘plasticizing’ the surface layer.
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You may now wish to perform a Paraffin Treatment if the client has extremely dry, calloused
skin, or just wishes to be pampered. Before the procedure begins, apply an instant sanitizing
agent to the clients hands, fingers and wrists to be sure that all surface contaminates/bacteria
have been removed. Massage skin and nail oil, or the aromatherapy oil of your choice into the
clients hands, fingers and wrists. Dip each hand gently and slowly into the paraffin, hold for
just an instant, and remove the hand. Allow the wax to ‘set’, then dip again. Dip and remove
several times, wrap each hand with a plastic liner, then cover with terrycloth gloves. Allow the
paraffin to remain on the hands for 5 minutes. Remove the terrycloth gloves, and using the
plastic liner, remove the paraffin from the hands and fingers. Discard used wax after use.
After all previous procedures have been completed, wash, rinse and dry your hands/nails to
remove all surface traces of nail filings, lotions or oils. Enamel will not successfully adhere to
an oily surface. If your skin and nails are excessively oily, and/or you have used any type of oil,
lotion or cream during your manicure process, you may wish to swipe the nail plate with a
‘prep’ dampened pad to be sure all traces of these products have been removed.
Nail Art
ail art, the practice of painting decorative designs on your fingernails, is a fun way to
brighten up your everyday look or accessorize a special occasion outfit. There are a
variety of designs available, ranging from subtle and understated to funky and outrageous.
it’s possible to create simple nail art at home.
The key to any successful nail design is starting with clean and well-shaped nails. Nails
should be neatly trimmed and filed before painting. Even the most accomplished artist
can’t create an attractive design on nails that have been bitten down to stubs. If your
natural nails are beyond repair, consider applying artificial acrylic nail before painting your
Once you’ve painted your nails with a neutral base coat you can draw your design using a
special thin-tipped nail brush. However, beginners may choose to improvise by creating
their designs with a bobby pin or toothpick. Regardless of which application method you
choose, it’s best to use a cotton swab and pure acetone to remove any polish application
mistakes. Work as fast as possible, since nail polish dries fairly quickly. To save time, have a
separate brush for each color of polish.
The classy and timeless nail designs can be easily turned into modern accessories if you
use your creativity and nail painting skills. French manicure leads the top of most soughtafter nail art trends thanks to its subtle elegance and easy-to-create quality.
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Attractive Designs
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e’re all familiar with shaving, either with an electric device or a razor blade (which reminds me —
guys who shave every day get a perk from the process, exfoliated skin from the razor’s glide).
Hair is sliced away close to the skin’s surface, and can either be felt or seen pretty quickly, depending on
the location and speed of hair growth for each person.
Chemical Depilatories
Nair, GiGi, Surgi Cream and similar lotions are chemical depilatories. They basically melt the hair
away (my term, not theirs). Chemical depilatories are available wherever you shop for groceries or drug
items. They can be irritating, because the same chemicals that remove the hair also start working on the
skin. New hair will be visible fairly quickly, although sometimes not so quickly as after shaving. Personally,
I hate the slick, almost ‘glossy’ feel that my skin has after using these products. If you choose to give chemical
products a try, be sure to test first and follow all instructions carefully.
You’ve no doubt used a pair of tweezers to remove one hair at a
time. Tweezing is great for cleaning up random hairs, but tediousto-unrealistic when there are lots of hairs to remove. A well-lit
magnifying mirror will help you find those random facial hairs (and
may be a little scary, since you’ll get an enlarged look at blackheads,
whiteheads and other skin residents that you can’t see without
magnification). | Compare Prices of Tweezerman Tweezers |
Epilating Devices
Epilators look like electric razors, but they do not cut hair —
they pull it out. Designs have changed over the years, and many
people who use current epilating devices say they are not as painful
to use as the first versions. I purchased one of the first, back in the
1980s, but didn’t continue to use it because it was a painful process
that left me with little welts for days. Users of today’s epilators say
that pain diminishes with regular use — likely because fewer hairs
will be attacked — not because it slows hair growth, but simply
because you’ll be dealing with hairs in different stages of growth.
| Compare Prices of Epilators|
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Estheticians use a couple of different types of wax to remove hair from the body. Both are applied
with disposable sticks of varying sizes, depending on the detail required in the area being waxed.
Hard wax. This wax is applied and allowed to cool and harden. It is then quickly yanked off of
the skin with fingers. A quality hard wax does not stick to skin — only to hair — so can often
be used on clients with sensitivity issues.
Soft wax, also called strip wax, is a product that becomes the consistency of honey when
heated. It is spread very thinly across the skin, and covered with a muslin or non-woven strip.
When the strip is removed, hair comes with it. Ingrown hairs can be a problem with soft wax,
but it’s the most practical type of treatment for large areas, such as legs, arms and backs, where
hard waxing would take forever to accomplish. Your skin care therapist will likely put a bit of
powder on your skin before spreading the soft wax, to help keep the wax from grabbing skin
when it hooks onto hairs.
Waxing may not be an option for your facial area if you use retinoids or alpha hydroxy acids —
don’t forget to mention this to your esthetician, since I doubt you want to lose chunks of skin along
with hair when wax is pulled away. If you do forget, your skin care therapist may be able to tell if you
use those products, as they leave the skin with somewhat of a ‘shine.’ There are other skin and health
conditions that may prevent you from being waxed — your skin care therapist will review your health
history and discuss options with you.
Sugaring is sometimes regarded as a natural hair removal method. Sugar can be used to remove hair
in a couple of different ways, and both formulas for sugar wax are concocted with water, lemon and
sugar. For one method, the solution is fairly thin, the same consistency as strip wax, and it’s applied and
removed in the same way.
Thicker sugar paste is used for the alternate method. The paste is applied with gloved fingers,
pressed into the skin to grab hairs and then pulled away quickly. It’s similar to the hard wax method, but
remains pliable enough to be repositioned and used again (on the same person, of course).
Sugaring has a few benefits when compared to waxing, including:
Sugar is used at a lower temperature, so less risk of burning or irritating the skin
It will grab hairs that are somewhat shorter than (typical) waxes
Sugar is easier to clean off the skin (clothes, etc.) than waxes
Sugar does not stick as readily to the skin as (some) waxes do, creating less trauma
Threading is a centuries-old technique that uses a strand of knotted cotton thread to grab hairs and
pull them out — think of it as a very fast, mass production version of tweezing that’s most often used
for eyebrows and other facial areas. Threading does not cause trauma to the skin, so it is a safe method
for people who cannot (or do not want to) wax.
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Threading is easier to understand when you see a practitioner in action — this threading videooffers
an excellent preview (although some practitioners use a different method to hold and move the thread).
Threading is growing in popularity and is on my own ‘methods to learn’ list.
Laser Hair Removal
There are different types of laser hair removal methods, and each comes with its own set of pros
and cons. States differ as to the licenses required to use laser devices for hair removal, so talk with
someone licensed for that procedure in you area and ask questions, lots of questions. The American Society
for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery offers a quick look at laser hair removal, and so does the American Academy
of Dermatology.
Unit 5
Make Up
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History of Make UP
very woman, whether she chooses to acknowledge it or not, wants to be desired. It goes without
saying that we, as human beings, don’t enjoy being disliked and we go to any measure to make
ourselves more readily acceptable to others. For women, one of the easiest ways to improve confidence
and self-image is makeup.
Around 4000 BCE, the women wore copper , around their eyes to make their eyes stand out.
They also put malachite, a mixture of copper minerals, on their cheeks, and Kohl became the main
product for lining their eyes. A lot of their cosmetics had multiple purposes.
Around 3000 BCE, Greeks and Chinese began whitening their faces.
The Chinese used rice powder and the Greeks used
white lead.
Greek women would apply berries on their cheeks as
rouge around 1800 AD, it is found that zinc oxide, which
is commonly used in today’s cosmetics, is much safer than
lead for use on the skin. Queen Victoria denounced
makeup as vulgar.
It lost some popularity and was only acceptable for
use by actors.
Around the 1900s, makeup regained its appeal. As
hosts, women were expected to have a youthful appearance.
They turned to buying cosmetics at beauty salons in
secrecy to avoid anyone knowing that they needed the
products to look young.
Today there is a wide variety of cosmetics for every
need of which anyone could imagine. There are a variety
of brands, with each having its own variances of colors
and styles. There are different types of brushes for applying
different types of makeup. Makeup is not only a way to Fig . Eyeliner from the time of Ancient Egypt
enhance one’s beauty; it has become somewhat of an art.
It is the foundation for the fashion world. Most people won’t leave home without having first applied
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The main objective of makeup application is to emphasize one’s good facial features and minimize
less attractive features. Since each person has unique features, there is no one ideal way to apply makeup.
Applying cosmetics is an art. Anyone can put makeup on themselves and make the application
look okay, but we will teach you tips for applying makeup to perfect your look.
A professional make-over performed by an esthetician or make-up artist is the best way to learn
how to apply makeup in a manner that will best suit your needs. The esthetician will carefully analyze
your facial features. Then she will teach you how to apply makeup in order to best accentuate your
positive attributions and minimize your negative ones
Cosmetics used in Makeup
Make-up, which refers primarily to colouring products intended to alter the user’s appearance.
Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
Most cosmetics are distinguished by the area of the body intended for application.
Primer, come in various formulas to suit individual skin conditions. Most are meant to reduce
the appearance of pore size, prolong the wear of makeup, and allow for a smoother application
of makeup, and are applied before foundation.
Lip-gloss, is a sheer, liquid form of lipstick.
Lipstick , lip- gloss, lip liner, lip plumper, lip balm, lip conditioner, lip primer, and lip boosters. Lip
stains have a water or gel base and may contain alcohol to help the product stay on the lips. The
idea behind lip stains is to temporarily saturate the lips with a dye, rather than to cover them
with a coloured wax. Usually designed to be waterproof, the product may come with an applicator
brush or be applied with a finger.
Concealer, makeup used to cover any imperfections of the skin. Concealer is often used for
any extra coverage needed to cover blemishes or other marks. Concealer is often thicker and
more solid than foundation, and provides longer lasting, more detailed coverage. Some
formulations are meant only for the eye or only for the face.
Foundation, is used to smooth out the face and cover spots or uneven skin coloration. Usually
a liquid, cream, or powder, as well as most recently a light and fluffy mousse, foundation also
provides excellent coverage. Foundation primer can be applied before or after foundation to
obtain a smoother finish. Some primers come in powder or liquid form to be applied before
foundation as a base, while other primers come as a spray to be applied after the foundation to
help the make-up last longer.
Face powder is used to set the foundation, giving it a matte finish, and also to conceal small
flaws or blemishes.
Rouge, blush or blusher is cheek colouring used to bring out the colour in the cheeks and make
the cheekbones appear more defined. Rouge comes in powder, cream, and liquid forms.
Contour powder/creams are used to define the face. They can be used to give the illusion of a
slimmer face or to modify a person’s face shape in other desired ways. Usually a few shades
darker than one’s own skin tone and matte in finish, contour products create the illusion of
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depth. A darker toned foundation/concealer can be used instead of contour products for a
more natural look.
Highlight, used to draw attention to the high points of the face as well as to add glow to the
face, comes in liquid, cream, and powder forms. It often contains shimmer, but sometimes
does not. A lighter toned foundation/concealer can be used instead of highlight to create a
more natural look.
Bronzer is used to give skin a bit of colour by adding a golden or bronze glow. It comes in
either matte, semi matte/satin, or shimmer finishes.
Mascara is used to darken, lengthen, and thicken the eyelashes. It is available in natural colours
such as brown and black, but also comes in bolder colours such as blue, pink, or purple. There
are many different formulas, including waterproof versions for those prone to allergies or sudden
tears. It is often used after an eyelash curler and mascara primer. Many mascaras now have
certain components intended to help lashes to grow longer and thicker
Eyeliner is used to enhance and elongate the size of the eye.
There are 2 main types of brushes one should have :This brush is used to pack on color to the lid. It needs to be flat
so you can pat on the eyeshadow over your eye primer, and it needs
to be stiff so it picks up plenty of colour.
This brush is used for creating the perfect smoky eye, for
feathering in darker eyeshadows, and for applying more color to the
This brush is used for stippling foundation onto the skin for a
more airbrushed finish. The bristles need to be stiff in order to hold
up to the foundation and not streak.
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This brush is used for applying darker powder under the
cheekbones to create a contoured effect- it makes the cheekbones
stand out and your face look slimmer.
This brush is used for applying powder blush to the cheeks. It
needs to be angled so the blush is easier to blend, and it needs to be
soft so it doesn’t pick up too much colour.
Make up colour theory
There are many variations of the colour wheel, but the most common is the RYB (red-yellow-blue)
colour system.
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Three colours that can’t be mixed from any other shade. Primary colours of pigment are red,
yellow, and blue.
A mixture of two primary colours (orange, green, purple).
Created by combining primary and secondary colours (red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green,
blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet).
A colour at its maximum intensity (the outer modules of the colour wheel).
A colour plus white.
A colour plus black.
A measure of the brightness or strength of a colour.
The shade created by mixing two complementary colours
Make-up Contraindications
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Health and safety
Health and safety is an important aspect of your working life - know your responsibilities and that
of others to prevent accident, injury and illness
HYGIENE & GOOD WORKING PRACTICES are essential to prevent cross infection,
contamination of make-up products and to keep the workplace safe:
Make-up and tools must be used hygienically and should not be shared.
Hands should be washed, and seen to be washed, between each make-up. A small bottle of hand
disinfectant is useful on set.
Separate make-up brushes, sponges and puffs must be used for each artist and must be cleaned and
disinfected before being used on someone else. There are disposable brushes, mascara wands, sponges
and puffs available, as well as disposable disinfectant brush wipes that sterilise brushes. Scissors, tweezers
and other metal tools should be disinfected.
There are two basic skin tones — cool and warm. You can decide what you are by investigating
the colour of your veins as seen on the underside of your arm. If the veins show through blue, you’ve
got blue or white undertones, meaning you’re a cool skin tone. Those with green veins have yellow
undertones and are therefore warm. But there are much more specific descriptions as well.
There are six main types of skin tones ranging from light to black. Identifying your skin type will
help you pick out make up, clothing and a hair colour that best suits your natural appearance. A lot of
people spend hours out in the sun or in a tanning booth to try to change the colour of their skin. In
doing so, they increase their chance of skin cancer. It’s in your best interest to work with the skin you’ve
got, instead of trying to change it.
Think of your skin tone like a natural foundation. It’s your starting point. Everything else is
determined by that foundation. You can use that starting point to help you pick out everything from
the right makeup to the right nail polish, and if you do it correctly, you’ll be amazed by the results.
Client Consultation
Current make up (like, dislike)
Type of skin (dry, oily, both)
What looks you are most interested
based on shape of face, features, eyes ,cheekbone
Determining skin type
Using the right makeup for your skin type can save you a lot of trouble and resources by keeping
your skin healthy and maintained.
The basic skin types are oily, dry, combined, normal and sensitive. Each one of these skin types has
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its requirements not only for white cosmetics, but also for makeup. So what kind of decorative cosmetics
should be used for your particular skin type?
Oily skin
Choose foundation which does not contain fats, because they will clog the pores and further grease
your skin. Avoid using creamy blush and eye shadows, because they contain more fats than the powder
varieties. They also tend to cluster over the eyelids soon after application. Your face powder should
have a matting effect. It should also protect your skin from environmental hazards without clogging
the pores. For this skin type it is especially important to remove your makeup every night in order to
prevent the formation of pimples and blackheads.
Dry skin
Quite the opposite of oily skin, your foundation has to hydrate your skin, making it smooth and
improving its elasticity. Same goes for eye shadows – the creamy ones are most suitable for you. Eye
makeup is usually quick to disappear when applied to dry eyelids, which is why you should use eye
foundation to make your makeup more lasting.
Combined skin
The best option for combined skin is to use two kinds of foundation with different texture – fatfree, matting foundation for the T-zone (chin, nose and forehead) and a moisturizing foundation for
the outer parts of the face which are prone to dryness. You need balance in eye makeup too. Eye
shadows should be neither too greasy, nor too dry. Just like the oily skin type, your skin needs to be
carefully cleansed before and after applying makeup.
Normal skin
Normal skin prefers a light, moisturizing foundation, but is agreeable with all kinds of eye shadows
and blush. Keep a lookout for your skin’s moisture levels in order to determine whether to use creamy
or powder makeup.
Sensitive skin
Most cosmetic experts recommend that if you have sensitive or problem skin, you should not be
reaching towards the makeup bag at all. However, your skin does need protection from harmful
environmental influences. Look for foundation, powder and eye makeup that contains minerals. These
mineral-based products allow the skin to breathe while protecting it from bacteria and fighting
Determining the skin tone
There are two basic skin tones — cool and warm. You can decide what you are by investigating the
colour of your veins as seen on the underside of your arm. If the veins show through blue, you’ve got
blue or white undertones, meaning you’re a cool skin tone. Those with green veins have yellow undertones
and are therefore warm. But there are much more specific descriptions as well.
There are six main types of skin tones ranging from light to black. Identifying your skin type will
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help you pick out make up, clothing and a hair colour that best suits your natural appearance. A lot of
people spend hours out in the sun or in a tanning booth to try to change the colour of their skin. In
doing so, they increase their chance of skin cancer. It’s in your best interest to work with the skin you’ve
got, instead of trying to change it.
Think of your skin tone like a natural foundation. It’s your starting point. Everything else is
determined by that foundation. You can use that starting point to help you pick out everything from
the right makeup to the right nail polish, and if you do it correctly, you’ll be amazed by the results.
Types of foundation
Liquid Foundation: Offers light to medium coverage. Available in moisturizing formulas with a
satin finish for dry skin or oil-free versions with a matte finish for oily skins.
Cream Foundation: Offers light to medium coverage, slightly heavier than a liquid. Great for dry
skin. Avoid using if you have oily or combination skin.
Stick: Foundation sticks also double as concealers. The new gel or powder finish formulas are not
as heavy or greasy as the older “pancake” formulas.
Dual-finish compact formulas (liquid to powder or cream to powder): Medium coverage Great
for combination skin, but should be avoided by those with excessively dry skin or who need heavier
coverage. Can tend to dry out your face.
Tinted moisturizer: Can be used under foundation or alone for minimal to no coverage. Almost
like a liquid bronzer.
Mineral Powder Foundation: Offers light to full coverage. Comes in every shade and tone
imaginable. VERY easy and fast to apply. Longer lasting than most foundations. Controls oil and most
are waterproof with a natural SPF!
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Choosing Your Foundation Colour to match your skin tone
Now that you are aware of the types of forms that foundation comes in you’re ready to select a
colour. I’m sure you know that choosing a makeup foundation shade and tone is not so easy. All these
makeup companies talk about exact match and this is the right colour for you. Don’t fall into the
makeup hype. With a few basic tips, you can choose a foundation shade that works for you.
Type, Shade Level, and Base
First, pick the type of makeup you want. In my opinion, mineral foundation is the easiest to
match for all skin tones.
Next, choose the shade level. The shade level is just how dark or light you need it to be. I personally
like a foundation to be slightly darker than my pale skin tone. But that’s a personal preference.
Finally, choose the base colour. This is the tone of the foundation. You’ll see beige, ivory, tan,
nude beige, pale, medium. The list is endless! And to top it off, every cosmetic lines’ terms mean
different base colours. Beige in one line can be pink and in another it can be neutral with a yellow base.
Hold the bottle or compact to the light. What’s the tone you see? Does the foundation look pink? Or
yellow? Or a basic neutral tone? Then hold your arm up to the colour. Does it match your skin tone?
Most will tell you to hold the colour to your wrist. But with blue veins and pale wrists, this can throw
the colours off. Use the top of your arm, above the wrist.
Matching Lip Colour to Skin Tone
Choosing the right lip colour isn’t as simple as it might seem. We’ve all seen someone wearing the
wrong shade of lipstick and, chances are, at some point or another we were that person. The two most
important factors to take into consideration when picking out a lipstick are skin tone and the size of
your lips. We’re going to focus on skin tone, but the lip size is worth mentioning, too.
As a rule of thumb, people with thin lips should avoid dark colours, and people with full lips should
avoid bright colours. Dark colours on thin lips can make them look even thinner, while bright colours
on full lips can make them seem even fuller if you have fair skin, you want to stay away from anything
that can make you look washed out — like browns and yellows. Pinks, nudes and cherry reds, on the
other hand, will help accentuate your porcelain features]. Women with a medium skin tone can rely on
pinks as well, especially those with brown undertones. In fact, a number of different shades of brown
can be incredibly flattering on women of a medium to olive complexion. Just stay away from anything
too pale.
If your skin tone is somewhat yellow, you’ll want to steer clear of the
bright oranges and reds. Instead try something a little more rich like a
deep brown or a deep berry. Yellow undertones can also serve you well.
Choosing the right lip colour isn’t as simple as it might seem. We’ve all seen someone wearing the
wrong shade of lipstick and, chances are, at some point or another we were that person. The two most
important factors to take into consideration when picking out a lipstick are skin tone and the size of
your lips. We’re going to focus on skin tone, but the lip size is worth mentioning, too.
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As a rule of thumb, people with thin lips should avoid dark colours, and people with full lips should
avoid bright colours. Dark colours on thin lips can make them look even thinner, while bright colours
on full lips can make them seem even fuller.
If you have fair skin, you want to stay away from anything that can make you look washed out —
like browns and yellows. Pinks, nudes and cherry reds, on the other hand, will help accentuate your
porcelain features with a medium skin tone can rely on pinks as well, especially those with brown
undertones. In fact, a number of different shades of brown can be incredibly flattering on women of
a medium to olive complexion. Just stay away from anything too pale.
If your skin tone is somewhat yellow, you’ll want to steer clear of the bright oranges and reds.
Instead try something a little more rich like a deep brown or a deep berry. Yellow undertones can also
serve you well. If you have dark skin, try brown or purple lipstick
Preparing the work space
1. Should be well ventilated – cool in summer, warm in winter
2. Should be quiet and undisturbed from outside noise; soft music can be played to enhance
3. Should have good lighting so that the makeup look natural
4. Should be clean, tidy and smell fresh
5. Should contain everything you need for treatments, and be well organized
Preparation of client
1. Make the client sit on the chair and support the head on the cushion.
2. Use a gown from the salon; it should be clean and fit loosely. The gown should be made in
such a way that it leaves and upper chest free for use.
3. Head drape should be such that it covers the head completely with a head band. Hair should
not come in the way while doing the work.
4. Towel should be placed over the front of the client.
Application of makeup
1. Startwith a freshly-washed face, (and hands,
too).Get a facial, or do one yourself. You want your face
to be a clear and smooth canvas for you, the “artist,” to
do your art. Use a good deep-cleansing mask. Do
not exfoliate if you have oily or sensitive skin. It will
spread bacteria around your face from the already
existing blemishes. Use antibacterial soap if you
have acne. Also be sure that you replace the towel you
use to dry your face every week. Lastly, apply toner by
taking a cotton pad that has been dampened in warm
water and sweep it over your face.
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2. Massage a light moisturizer into your face no matter
what skin type you have.Always avoid the eye area. You
could also apply your moisturizer with your foundation brush
or sponge if you have one. This will help oily skin dry, and
dry skin become smoother. Wait a few minutes for it to soak
into the skin.
3. Apply a foundation primer before you apply any
foundation or tinted moisturizer. The foundation
primer will smooth out the skin surface, make applying
foundation easier, and make your makeup last longer.
4. Apply a sheer foundation that matches your skin
tone.Tip: If a liquid foundation has SPF in it, it’s NOT good
for taking flash photography. Use the ones without SPF
instead if you don’t want to look too flashed out on your
5. Wear illuminator to make your skin appear youthful and
dewy compared with dull, matte makeup.
Use a makeup sponge or wedge, starting around
the hairline and working your way down. (Use the
wedge for this routine because you can be more
precise about where the makeup goes.) If you want
a proper look that looks as if it has been done by a
professional makeup artist, try using a foundation
Remember to apply the makeup all the way down
to your throat area and keep blending so you can’t see where the makeup ends. Nothing is
worse than looking like you have a mask on your face.
Around the eye area, do very light strokes inward, toward the inner corner of your eye.
Don’t apply it to your upper eyelid. All of the professional makeup artists say not to apply
foundation to this area. This is why you need a foundation that matches your skin. If you
want foundation to darken your skin then try putting it above your eyes, and see what you
like. Be gentle with this part, because the skin is very delicate and sensitive here.
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6. Apply concealer to any red or discoloured spots. In the
corners of your eyes, where it’s red, around the nostrils, and
under the eyes (to make you look more awake) are good
places for this. Do this after applying foundation, so you
don’t use too much. First apply the concealer, and then pat
very lightly with your finger to blend. Only apply concealer
to the area that you want to conceal. Afterward, use the wedge
to blend the concealer in with the foundation. Stand back
away from your mirror to see if you have effectively
concealed the areas. Try to stand about the distance away
from the mirror that you stand away from people when you
talk to them. Another way to conceal blemishes is to pat
green concealer on the blemishes and red spots, and then
put foundation over top (the green reduces redness).
7. Apply a loose powder all over the face using a
powder brush. Pat it into the powder then, with a paper
towel, tap the brush so the excess falls off the brush.
Lightly brush across the whole face. Use a powder puff
(small) to apply powder on the upper lid. Apply a bronzer
to your forehead, cheeks, and chin, to give a sun-kissed
look, if wanted.
8. Highlight your brow bone, cheek bones by applying a
light powder just below the brow, and to the highest part of
your cheek.
9. Apply a small amount of blush to the apples of your
cheeks. Smile so you can see the apple of your cheek.
Start the application at the apple and drag the blush
outward toward your temple, following your cheek bone.
Blend the colour down a bit below your cheekbone in
towards your earlobe.
If you added too much colour to the brush, use the clear
side of your wedge to blend it in more until the colour is
faded out a bit. Your cheeks should have a hint of colour.
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10. Contour your face, especially if you have “hidden”
cheekbones. To do so you will need a brown tone of
powder, don’t make it ultra brown, but a milk-chocolaty kind
of colour. Apply a bit on the brush and apply it under your
cheek bones, starting from the temple and going down until
underneath the apple of your cheek. Don’t make it too
obvious as it’s meant to look like a shadow. Then, on top of
your cheek bones take a white or really light skin tone powder
and apply it, right between your eye and your cheek bone,
again until the temple, and voila. You have cheek bones.
11. Take a fluffy powder brush and blend everything
together, so that there are no visible lines or excess
Applying eye makeup
1. Line your eyes. Line it with a brown or soft black liner.
For a more appealing look, apply liner with very light strokes
to the upper lid, stroking toward the outer corner of the
eye. To blend, use an angle brush. For a more natural look,
dip the angle brush in some of your darker eye shadow.
Use a very light amount, or use the applicator tip. For the
bottom lid, use a very light amount on the outer
2. Put on the eye shadow. Most eye colours come with two
or three colours on the palette. The lighter colour is for the
lid. The darker colour is for the crease on the lid, just below
the eye bone. Apply the lighter tone first to the lid, spreading
upwards to near the crease. For this, use the applicator that
came inside the package. For the darker colour, using your
eye shadow brush, dip into eye colour and tap the brush to
lose the excess. Apply inside the crease of the eye. You can
find the crease by looking straight ahead. Your eye makes its
own crease.
Blend the colour toward the outer corner of your eye. Sometimes you can blend it around to
the bottom lid, but very lightly. The lightest colour is for under the brow bone. Use the applicator
to apply right on the brow bone just under the brow line. Make sure to use the larger eye
shadow brush to blend all the colours.
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3. Use eyebrow pencil colour that is very close to your
natural eyebrow colour. Here you just want to fill in
missing areas. Your eyebrow should look very natural.
If you do apply eyebrow pencil to any part of your
eyebrow, use the angled brush to lend it into your brow
with very light strokes.
4. Use a lash curler before applying any mascara. There
are several mascaras to choose from depending on the look
you want. If you have short lashes, use mascara that will
add length; if you have thin lashes, use volumizing mascara.
Never pump your mascara brush in and out of the mascara.
This causes air pockets. Dip the brush in the mascara once
and lightly wipe off the excess onto a paper towel. Looking
downward, apply to the top lash with upward strokes. Start
with the inner part and work your way outward. Do both
eyes with two coats, then let dry. After a few seconds, do the bottom lids. It’s better to apply to
the very outer part of the lash on the bottom lid. This will open your eye more. An inexpensive
way to curl your eye lashes is to take the brush from older mascara, and use it, after you’ve
washed most of the mascara off.
Apply lipstick
1. Apply lip balm, primer, or sealer. This will help make
all lip products applied last longer and much more
2. Line your lips with a liner that matches your lip
colour. Make sure your lip liner pencil is sharpened, but
not too sharp. Line around the natural line of your lips.
Trying to create a fuller lip by dragging the lip pencil
outside your lip line is for professionals. Usually it makes
you look like you’re just plain bad at applying makeup.
After applying your lip pencil to your lip line, rub your lips together so the lip pencil colour
spreads inside your lips. Apply lipstick or lip gloss with a brush. It will spread it evenly. It’s
a good idea to brush your lip brush in your lipstick, then some of your lip gloss for a nice light
shine. Blot your freshly painted lips lightly with a tissue. This will make it last longer.
3. Use a pressed powder to lightly powder the rest of your face, and the area under your
eyes. Use very light pressure. Keep your pressed powder in your purse for touch ups.
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Ideal Face Proportion
The Ideal Face Shape
The oval face is considered the ideal face shape e.g.: The oval face of
Mona Lisa
How to Analyze Face Shapes
Measuring the Width of the Face
1. The width of the face is divided into five sections about the width of
an eye
2. Identify unequal sections such as narrow set eyes or wide cheeks
3. The face may be either too wide or too narrow when compared to the
oval ideal
4. A narrow fifth between the eyes indicates that the eyes are close together
5. A wide fifth between the eyes indicates wide-set eyes that are farther
6. Frames are chosen to make the eyes appear further apart or closer together to restore facial
Measuring the Length of the Face
1. The face is divided into three horizontal sections:
a. Hairline to browline
b. Browline to tip of nose
c. Tip of nose to chin
2. Identify unequal sections
3. The face may be either too long or too shortwhen compared to the oval
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Dots to Determine Face Shape
1. Visualize dots placed on each side of a person’s brow, cheek, and jaw
2. The dot method will help to identify the shape and size of the face
3. The dots can also help identify strong and weak points
4. Photographs of faces can be used to practice placing dots and identifying
face shapes
5. Use snapshots of persons face to demonstrate the system of analyzing
face shapes and balance
Face shapes
Diamond Face:
1. Diamond-shaped faces are narrow at the eyeliner and the jaw line with
a small forehead and chin
2. Cheekbones are frequently high and dramatic.
3. The diamond is the rarest face shape
Square Face:
Thesquare face is characterized by a strong jaw line, a broad forehead, and
a wide chin and cheekbones
Round Face:
1. The round face is full with few angles
2. The width and length are in roughly equal proportions
Long face:
1. It islonger in length compared to the width.
2. The length may be in the fore head or of the total face
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Corrective Make-Up
What is corrective makeup?
Corrective makeup is to accent a person’s best features while minimizing a person’s unflattering
features or flaws
Corrective makeup is applied using light and dark colours to highlight and contour our
features, creating the illusion of better balance and proportion
Basics to be kept in mind while working with it
Highlighting emphasizes a feature
Shadowing minimizes a feature, making it less noticeable
Blend, blend, blend your makeup to create a seamless transformation between areas
Corrective make up supplies
A variety of foundation colours and shades
Concealers in light and darker shades
Light to dark eye shadows and eye liner pencils, including browns
and greys
Translucent powder
Makeup sponges; brushes and applicators
Face makeup (corrective makeup)
The forehead is broad with an angular jaw
The aim of the makeup is to narrow the forehead and jaw line, reducing
the squareness of the bone structure
Shade the lower jaw and forehead
Blusher can be spread upwards towards the temples
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This is known as the perfect shape face (not because it is perfect, but
most contouring make-up aims for this)
The aim is to accentuate the bone structure and balance the contours
Shader is applied below the cheek bones
Highlighter is applied above the shader
Blusher is applied towards the temples.
This is the face shape that has a curved forehead with a rounded chin
and few angles
Aim is to give the appearance of length downwards
Shade is applied to the lower half of the face and at the temples
Highlighter blend in strips narrowly down the nose and face
Blusher is applied on the cheekbones and towards the temples
This is where the forehead is wide with a thin jaw line
The aim with this face shape is to widen the jawline and reduce the
forehead slightly
Shade is applied to the sides of the forehead and temples
Highlighter is applied to the angles of the jaw line
This is the long, thin face shape
With this shape you have to reduce the illusion of length and create
Shade is applied to the tip of the chin and narrowest part of the face to
reduce length
Highlighter is applied to the sides of the temples to create fullness
Blusher is applied to the fullness of the cheeks
Eye and Lip makeup (corrective makeup)
Corrective make up tips for eyebrows
High arches make your face appear more narrow, which could be a good thing for a round face,
but not as desirable for a face that’s already very narrow. To adjust a high arch, remove extra
hair from its top and fill-in under the eyebrow with pencil or shadow.
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Add visual height to a low forehead by decreasing the arch.
Make your eyes appear farther apart by widening the distance between the brows and extending
the brows slightly outward.
Corrective make up tips for lips
Make a thin upper lip appear fuller by lining it with a lip lining pencil (stay on the outermost
area of the lip — extending too far looks artificial) and then filling in with lip colour; reverse
the procedure for a thin lower lip
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When both lips are thin, line both with a pencil (do not go far past the natural lip line) and fill
in with light lipstick to make lips appear larger
Too-full lips: use a lip liner to draw a line just inside the natural lip line; fill in with soft colours,
avoiding frosty or glossy lipsticks that attract attention
Drooping corners: line the lips, focusing on building up the corners; fill in with a soft colour.
Using a concealer over the edges of lips before enhancing their shape.
For the disappearing lips older women must sometimes contend with: “Stick to light-to-medium
shades of lipstick and gloss, which will make your lips stand out. Choose creamy, shiny formulas;
they reflect light, creating the illusion of fullness. Finally, strengthen your lip line by tracing the
outer edge of your natural border using a liner that’s one shade deeper than your lip colour.
Corrective makeup for undertone skin
1. FOR FLORID SKIN TONES - a greenish beige foundation cuts down the reddish tones in
the skin.
2. FOR SALLOW PALE SKIN - foundation with a rosy tone will add colour and make it look
3. BLEMISHED SKIN - Use a shade darker than the skin to even up the complexion.
BASE IS AVAILABLE AND is applied under the actual foundation. YELLOW BASE
FOUNDATION WILL TEMPORARILY be applied and a rosy foundation will be applied
{thin layer} so as to give the illusion of smoothness.
Corrective makeup for wrinkled skin
Mature skin is very different from young skin. The skin is less elastic & looser, shows signs of lines
& wrinkles and needs to be hydrated. It also tends lose colour and becomes very thin. The makeup
should always look radiant and not dry. It should bring out the natural glow of the skin, not hide it.
Caking on foundation doesn’t look good on anyone especially mature skin. In fact, makeup for mature
skin should always be less heavy. The more makeup, the more it tends to settle into fine lines and
wrinkles making your canvas look older.
Use the primer to have a flawless makeup, applying a layer of primer between your skin and makeup.
It will make your foundation look smooth and will stay for longer. Use a concealer or highlighter and
then tinted moisturiser, medium coverage foundation and a yellow base foundation for a fair skin.
Green to cover reds and orange to cover brown and blues.
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Special Make-Up Techniques
Day Makeup
A very soft, natural-looking effect is best for daytime. The makeup should enhance the natural
beauty but should not appear artificial. For office setting, makeup tones should be slightly warm (pink)
to offset the effects of lighting. Makeup application varies according to the time of day and the occasion.
Face type & different parts of face
Neck strips
Cleansing milk / Cream
Skin tonner / Astringent
Eye shadow
Eyebrow pencil
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Eye liner
Face powder / Loose
Lip liner / Pencil
Makeup brushes
Drape the client, cover hair line with headband.
Clean the face and neck thoroughly with cleansing cream or milk.
Remove the cleanser with wet cotton pads.
Apply astringent (for oily skin) or skin tonner (for dry skin) with the help of cotton on face and
neck. Apply moisturizer.
Use foundation as per the tone of the skin color with dot method to the cheeks, nose, forehead
and chin. Spread evenly with the help of sponge and blend on the face and neck without
forgetting the sides of the face near ear, hairline and neck.
Blush-on / Blusher to be used according to the face tone. Place dot of color along the lower
ridge of the cheekbone. The cheek color should be applied on the prominent zone of cheekbone.
With the help of finger tips blend the cheek color up and out of the cheekbones to the hairline.
Blush-on to be applied as outlined above, beginning at least
½ to 1 inch away from the nose.
Don’t blend blush-on into the eye socket area.
Blush-on should not extend on the cheek below the top of
the lips.
Apply eye-shadow with brush on the upper lid. Blend it
out to the corner of the eyes. Smudge the edges for a softer
Apply face powder / loose face powder with sponge to set
the base.
Apply eyeliner (liquid or pencil), draw a fine line close to the upper eyelashes. If desired use
eyeliner of lighter shade on the lower lid at the outer corner of the eyes.
Apply mascara with the rolling brush to curl lashes upward and downward to make eyes wider.
Apply lipliner, use outline pencil or liner before filling lips with the help of lipstick.
Evening Make-up
The evening makeup principles are the same as for the day time makeup. However, more color can
be used on the cheeks and lips and around the eyes. Frosted colors (Shimmering) may be used on the
cheeks and around the eyes. Frosted colored blush-on, eye shadow and lipstick gives shinning effect in
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the presence of artificial lighting. Gold and silver color may be used on eyelids. Artificial lashes may
be used for evening make-up.
Step by step evening makeup
Artificial Eyelashes:
Also known as false lashes to give more dramatic look. For longer lasting effect one can apply with
the help of adhesive.
Bridal Make-up
The bridal makeup is a makeup to be used in Indian marriages. There are many states in India and
makeup for the brides is little different from each other for eg.:- sequences on the forehead and cheeks.
Bridal makeup should be according to the occasion (day or evening) weather. This kind of makeup
should be waterproof especially foundation (pancake), eye shadow, mascara, eye liner etc…
Procedure :
Prepare the client as for day makeup. Check the face shape skin color tone apply the concealer
according to the skin tone to conceal dark circles or spots present on the face.
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Makeup applicators
Eye makeup for different types of eyes
Use pancake on all over face and neck with the help of moist
sponge according to the tone of the skin, as pan cake help to
close the pores and give even look, which last longer.
Use translucent powder as per the tone of the skin.
Eye shadow should match with the costume of the bride and use
high lighter under the ends of the brows to highlight the color
Define eyebrow with the help of eyebrow pencil.
Use waterproof eyeliner and mascara .
Use silver or golden color of eye shadow in the middle of the eye
lids to highlight the color of eye shadow and make the face more
clear and clean, at the end of the eye lids use green (frosted) eye
shadow to make eyes more dramatic.
Apply lip liner to define lip shape and fill lips with the help of
Application of lip liner /
Complete bridal makeup
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Fantasy Make-up
Fancy dress parties, makeup for special occasion particular character to make a different look apart
from natural appearance. For eg.Pussycat :
This incredible makeup is drawn with charcoal and black and white eyepencils.
It takes over an hour to do but it is real work of art.
A witch makeup :
This stunning creation instantly turns you into a rather beautiful witch: team
it with a long black dress and a broomstick and there you are ready to bewitch
all at the party.
Ramp makeup
This makeup is more elaborate and exotic than is the usual daytime or evening
makeup. Eyebrows may be winged or arched in a dramatic fashion. Eyeliners
may be wider and the eyelashes longer. Eyeliners tend to vary with the fashion
trend. Colors, too, may be used in an unusual manner. A mixture of golds,
silvers, mauves, bright blues, browns, pinks, greens, and whites may be applied
to the eye area. The cheeks may be devoid of color or may be covered with
intense color. Lip colors usually blend with the cheek color. To complete the
high-fashion or trend look successfully, the hairstyle and wardrobe must be
compatible. Trend makeup techniques change to keep up with new trends in
Theatre and television makeup
Lightning of the stage drains the color from the face. Very pale shades of makeup are not
suitable for stage makeup.
Distance between the character and the audience throws the character into the background.
Bolder makeup and coloring as well as highlighting for theatre. Film and T.V. camera travel
toward the artist. Everything is exaggerated and magnified. Even the smallest defects are visible.
It is difficult to visualize, what the photographer or the director has in mind. So, for T.V.
makeup equal amount of meticulous finish should be emphasized for the minute details.
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For stage makeup the look is more pasty and chalky,
whereas, nearer to skin tones are used for T.V. and film to
give natural finish. Shading is done because the camera
picks up red color easily.
Lipstick color are bright for stage. Only medium brown
shade are used film and T.V. unless the character demands
gaudy effects.
Outline of the eyes and eyesbrows is darker for stage. For T.V. harsh lines give and artificial
effects and mixture of brown and black is more commonly used.
Photographic makeup
For Photographic makeup depends on the selection of
color to be used, types of lighting, used for photograph
and the filters use for giving color or dullness or brightness
influence the choice of makeup.
Color and style of the wardrobe influence the choice of
makeup because clothes reflect in the face and the makeup
The costumeis a great deciding factor on the type of image
of the character to be reflected and makeup should
enhance that image.
Makeup for mature skin
Before we decide makeup for matured skin we have to have a look at the natural structure of
bones muscles skin.
The age lines broken veins and laughter lines are emphasised without camouflage.
A deep golden beige foundation gives a soft glow to the saggy skin because as person grows
skin loses its elasticity and fineness and makes skin look leathery.
By the age of forty laughing lines become prominent, upper eyelid is heavier the mouth start
Use only waterproof pancake, mascara, eyeliner, to hide bad points.
Eyes are simply enhance with dark charcoal grey kohl pencil or brushed with eye shadow
Amber blusher lightly applied under cheek bones and soft rose lipstick.
Basic body art / Tattooing
Body art / Tattooing is very popular among the upper middle and rich class in India.
For this technique various brushes and colors areuse to highlight the particular design.
Golden and sliver tattooing used with sparkles to make outline of the design and filling with
the color is very popular among the youngster.
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Body art and tattooing is available in two types:1. Temporary (for the occasion)
2. Permanent (Using silver, black, brown, green, red, orange color under the upper layer of
skin which last one to two years).
Unit 6
Hair Studies
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Disorder of Hair & Scalp
A. Hair Loss – Types, reason and treatment
What Causes Hair Loss
It is normal to lose between 50-100 hairs a day, this is part of the hair renewal process. However
most people suffer from excessive hair loss at one time in their life. There are many reasons for this
including medication, radiation, chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals, hormonal and nutritional factors,
thyroid disease, generalized or local skin disease, and stress.
Many of these causes are temporary and few are permanent. These are some of the more common
reason for hair loss.
Since hormones both stimulate hair growth and cause hair loss, hormonal changes by far have the
biggest impact on hair loss. These can affect both men and women in the following ways.
This is the most common cause of thinning and affects both men and women. Men generally have
hair loss concentrated in a specific pattern from the front through to the crown. Women tend to have
thinning throughout their head without being in any specific pattern. This type of hair loss is caused by
the androgen DHT, or Dihydrotestosterone. Since everyone has DHT that is produced by their bodies
and only some people suffer from hair loss there has to be another factor involved. This other factor is
having follicles that have a greater number of Androgen receptors for the DHT to attach to. This is the
component that is inherited through the genes. To date the most effective preventative treatments are
anti androgens, drugs that prevent the creation of DHT. In the future gene therapy will one day be able
to alter the genes to prevent the folicies from being affected by DHT.
After pregnancy many women experience a loss of hair, this is caused many hair simultaneously
entering the resting (telogen) phase. Within two to three months after giving birth, some women will
notice large amounts of hair coming out in their brushes and combs. This can last one to six months,
but resolves completely in most cases. This condition is caused by the hormonal changes that take
place after a woman’s body recovers from her pregnancy.
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Birth control pills
Women who have a genetic predisposition to suffer from Androgenic Alopecia can have it occur at
a much younger age by taking birth control pills. The hormonal changes that occur trigger the onset of
the Androgenic Alopecia.
Homemade remedy for Baldness & Greying of hair
1. An age-old remedy is using til-seeds (sesame and its products) at least during winters. This
treatment makes your hair silky, dense, soft and long.
2. A pregnant woman must consume at least one piece of Murabba of Amla every day to check
hair-loss due to hormonal changes.
3. Boil a good quantity of Neem and Ber (a kind of berry fruit available in winters) leaves in a
jugful of water. Wash your hair with this concoction after straining and cooling it. This is also
a very effective remedy.
4. Take the leaves of Basil (Tulsi), soak them overnight in water and then grind the soaked leaves
and dried and crushed Amla fruit. Now add their concoction in a bucketful of water and wash
your hair with this water. This also helps in effectively checking the hair loss. But you must
ensure that this water does not enter your eyes as it would cause irritation and might also
damage your eye-sight.
5. Take a handful of green Amla fruits, grind their pulp to a paste form and apply this pulp to the
root of your hair. This remedy not only checks the hair-loss but also strengthens the root of
hair. Wash the paste off with a mild shampoo only then it has dried.
6. Take about five or six Nimbolis (the yellow fruit of the Neem trees). Grind their pulp and
apply the same to the root of your hair to provide them strength.
Disease or Illness
Since the follicle is a very sensitive it does respond to imbalances in the body. Most hair loss causes
by disease or illness is temporary and resolves itself after the body has returned to a healthy condition.
High fever, severe infection, severe flu
Sometimes one to three months after a high fever, severe infection or flu, a person may experience
hair loss. This is usually temporary and corrects itself.
Thyroid disease
Both an overactive thyroid and an underactive thyroid can cause hair loss. Thyroid disease can be
diagnosed by your physician with laboratory tests. Hair loss associated with thyroid disease can be
reversed with proper treatment.
Deficient diet
Some people who go on low protein diets, or have severely abnormal eating habits, may develop
protein malnutrition. To help save protein the body shifts growing hair into the resting phase. If this
happens massive amounts of hair shedding can occur two to three months later. A sign of this is if the
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hair can be pulled out by the roots fairly easily. This condition can be reversed and prevented by eating
the proper amount of protein. Its very important when dieting to maintain an adequate protein intake.
Some prescription drugs may cause temporary hair shedding in a small percentage of people.
Examples of such drugs include some of the medicines used for the following: gout, arthritis, depression,
heart problems, high blood pressure, or blood thinner. High doses of vitamin A may also cause hair
Cancer treatments
Chemotherapy and radiation treatment will cause hair loss because it stops hair cells from dividing.
Hairs become thin and break off as they exit the scalp. This occurs one to three weeks after the
treatment. Patients can lose up to 90 percent of their scalp hair. The hair will regrow after treatment
ends and patients may want to get wigs before treatment. There are some drugs in development to help
prevent this hair loss from occurring.
Alopacia is the most common complaint
Normal hair fall should not be confused with excessive hair fall. Normal hair fall is about forty to
hundred hair a day.
There are different types of Alopacias.
1. Alopacia Totalis: This condition is rare can is characterized by total hair loss of hair all over
the body the cause is not known and is believed to be metabolic.
2. Alopacia senilis: Loss of hair in old age. The loss is permanent and sets in gradually.
3. Alopacia Prematura: This form of baldness occurs before the age of forty. It starts with a
extra oily scalp. The hair that is shed replaced with a weaker hair till it gradually disappears. The
thinning is more in front and top. The cause is believed to be hormonal. Hot spicy and oily
food and humid climate are belived to be contributing factors. Hair fall in these cards is more
generalized than localized.
4. Alopacia Areata: It is the sudden falling of hair in round patchs in various size starting from
½” to 3" inch patches. The area of hair loss is slightly depressed smooth and pale compared to
the rest of the scalp. The cause is not exactly known but is believed to be of nervous origin
leading to lack of blood supply to the area. Sometime anaemia scarted fever, typhoid fever &
nervous shocks may result is alopecia areata.
There is no known specific treatment for alopecia. However care taken before the hair is lost helps
to prevent the loss to an extent. Contributing factors to hair growth can be divided into three categories.
1) Heriditary factors: It plays a very important place in the amount and type of hairs.
a) Thickness of the scalp: Thick scalp has a richer network of blood supply and connective
tissue which keeps the hair papilla well nourished. People with thin scalp have unhealthy
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hair care should start from childhood in cases where there is known history of baldness
among many members of a family. These may consist of oil massage, vibratory massage,
infrared lights, steam & high frequency treatments for healthier growth of hair a healthy
loose and vascular scalp are a must.
b) Hormones: Have a distinct influence on the hair growth as well as on the secretory
function of the sebaceous glands. Extra eosterogen means good hair growth extra
testosterone increase the secretion of sebum and makes the skin and hair extra oily. If
care is taken at this stage it is possible to save some hair. The first thing is to keep the hair
and scalp oil free. Frequent washes with tap water and not hot water will remove the
excess oil. High frequency treatment may be given some doctors use sulphur and cortisone
and have found these quite useful.
2) A high protein diet with suppliments of iron and vitamins are believed to improve hair growth.
3) The hair should be dried thoroughly scrubbing with a towel, brushing or combing twice a day.
Avoid making tightly pulled back ponytails or plaits.
Type of Hair Loss
B. CANITIES (Grey Hair)
Untimely greying of hair is a problem that has of late, growing rampant, Now even young lads of
17-18 face this problem which used to afflict only at the middle age greying of hair in fact takes away
the entire charm of a person in odd age.
There are many reason for this problem. Heriditary factor sudden trauma and the lack of Vitamin
A and D are some of the major factor that give rise to this problem.
Take a 100gm of castor oil, 1 ounce sandal powder even amount of coffee seeds powder. Heat all
three over five about 20 minutes when cool strain and fill it up in a clean bottle. Massage this on hair
every night in your scalp and wash your hair early in the morning. This would not only turn your grey
hair into black but also prevent the graying of hair. Another hair lotion to keep your hair black is:
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Take a spoon full of heena powder equal amount of dry amla and tea leaves. Put these ingrediants
into a cupful of hot water. Now add ¼ spoonful of salt and ½ spoonful of rosewater. On the top of
it mix two tea spoonful of fresh lime juice. Let this whole solution be as it is for about 5 hrs. then start
applying in the root of the hair leave the solution on far about two hours. Use this twice a week to keep
your dark hair & lustrous.
Lice and tiny lice (called leekhen) in common parlance, problems is hardly paid any attention in
these kind of books. Neverthless it is a bitter problem particularly with the long hair. Hence its victims
are generally the girls but gradually these problems have also started troubling the male folks.
About Lice one thing is very clear. Their breeding ground is always the fifth that get accumulated if
the hair are not combed frequently you must remember that combing or brushing of the hair is not
wanted only for setting your hair right but also for giving your hair a much needed massage and brushing
out the fifth gathering on them. Hence the first and foremost step of getting rid of these lice is to
comb your hair frequently.
1. Add a bit of camphor to your coconut oil and massage your hair frequently with this solution.
Every time you do so you should add a fresh piece of camphor to your coconut oil. Keeping
camphor mixed coconut oil for long duration would nullify the camphorial effect. After
massaging your hair with camphor mixed coconut oil, wash them with Retha based shampoo.
In the final, rinse add a spoon full of Dettol or Savlon in a mug full of clear water and give a
final wash to your hair with this solution
2. Add a little oil with black pepper powder and massage this on your scalp. Then after 10 to 15
minutes comb your hair vigorously with a metal comb iron comb for this purpose. The teeth
of this iron comb should be very closely placed.
3. There are now a variety of anti lice lotions and creams that are now available in the market.
Apply a little of them on your hair then cover your hair with a light cloth and retire. In the
morning remove the cloth and wash your hair with a mild shampoo.
Famous western trichologist, Philip kingsley advises, “Most of us at sometime have a flaky or itchy
scalp. The most common cause of itching is “dandruff ” which describes all kinds of scalp flaking”.
Dandruff is the single most common problem that can occurs on every head. To have a few white
flacked cells in normal for it is simply the sloughing off matured skin cells and waste material through
the pores of the scalp.
As a matter of fact, dandruff is produced when sweat and oil secretions change; the micro organism
which are controlled by these secretions then multiply, causing the skin on the scalp to be shed faster.
Always remember that Dandruff is rarely the result of a dry scalp. It is usually oily because the flaks
absorb oil. Dandruff can get worse with stress or before menstruations and can vary with seasons. The
food you eat can also affect the problem.
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Two types of dandruff:
1.) Oily (Pity riasis steatoids)
2.) Dry (Pity riasis capitis)
1) The dry dandruff appears as loose as white flakes, and the scalp itches a great deal.
2) The oily dandruff is sticky and yellow in colour and the scalp with oily dandruff smell bad. The
oily farms is found most among adolescents and adults with an exclusively oily skin & scalp.
Generally the basic causes of dandruff are faulty diet, emotional tension and stress harmonal
disturbances, infection due to disease, in fury to scalp and unwise or excessive use of hair
creams lotions etc. In adolscents age, it is physiologically a time when they secrete an excess of
androgen harmones which cause sebum, the skin oil. Hence it is to some extent natural.
Possible cures of Dandruff problem
Apart from other treatments, always remember that massage and daily brushing are extremely
helpful in treating dandruff. If you have dry dandruff use an oil to massage your scalp especially before
washing your hair.
Eat less animal fat and more poly-unsaturated vegetable oils. Avoid nuts, chocolates, fried food
shell fish and excessive intake of iodised salt. Body get an extra dose of vitamins A, E and B complete
through your diet.
Try some tested formula for getting rid of Dandruff
1. Buy some ‘Triphala’ from the market mix 1 teaspoon of it is one glass of water and boil. Let it
simmer for about three minutes. Cool it and strain it mix with equal quantities of cider vinegar
or malt vinegar and massage the lotion in the scalp gently and leave it on. Use the treatment in
nights and shampoo with a mild one early next morning. [ Treatment for oily dandruff ].
2. On oily dandruff soak two spoon full of fenugreek seeds in water overnight. In the morning
make a paste of the seeds and apply on the head. Leave it on for half an hour. Then wash your
hair use herbal shampoo follow this routine at least twice a week
Dry Dandruff
1. 1 Teaspoon coconut oil
1 Teaspoon sesame oil
Mix it well
Massage your scalp. Leave it on for about half an hour and then shampoo it out.
2. Take a cupful of sour when (Mattha) and apply it gently on to the roots of your hair. Then
wash it with plain water.
3. Take two spoonful of ‘besan’ (gram flour without hust) add a little of plain curd and half
spoon of lime twice and rub it on your hair roots.
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Advanced Cutting & Styling
Many beauty professionals utilize the four basic face shapes. Using four face shapes instead of
more simplifies the process, making it easier to learn and utilize. All classifications of face shape-either
four, seven, or either-include the basic four of oval, long, square, and round.
The following is a detailed description of each of the face shapes, beginning with the four basic
face shapes. Each face shape description is followed by a simplified list of corrective techniques that
are often performed to make that particular face shape appear more oval.
1. The Oval Face Shape
This shape resembles an egg, with the smallest width of the egg in the lower zone. The hairline is
rounded and is wider than the lower zone. The middle zone is the widest.
2. Round Face Shape
The round face shape has a length and width that are approximately the same. Unlike the square
shape, the round face shape is characterized by a rounded jaw line and hairline. A round face shape is
not necessarily found only on a heavier set person, so take care not to make this generalization.
3. Square Shape
The square face shape characterized by a squared jaw line and hairline, this face shape is similar to
the long face shape. The difference is the square-shaped face has a length and width that are approximately
4. Long Face Shape
The long face shape. The face shape is sometimes referred to as “oblong.” All three zones have the
same approximate width. The hairline is horizontal and goes from temple to temple. This face shape
always has a length greater than its width.
5. Diamond Shape
The Diamond-Shaped Face: Characterized by a hairline and a chin that are equally narrow this
shape has a middle zone that is clearly the widest of the three zones.
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6. Geart Shape
The Heart or Inverted Triangles Face
Shape: The upper zone is the widest the
middle zone is less wide than the upper
zone and the lower zone is the narrowest.
The lower zone at the chin is more
pointed than flat or round. The hairline
is horizontal and wide from temple to
temple. this wide hairline causes the face
to take on the inverted triangle shape as
opposed to the diamond or oval shape.
The length of the zones is often
approximately the same.
7. Pear Shape
The Pear-Shaped Face: This is the
widest at the chin and the narrowest at
the hairline. The jawline is very full and
rounded. This is the least common of the
face shapes and is sometimes referred to
as the triangle-shaped face (Note that a
triangle face shape has the point at the
top, whereas the inverted triangle has the
point at the bottom.)
8. Hexagonal Face Shape
The Hexagonal Face Shape: This face shape is quite similar
to the oval-shaped face except that it is angular where the oval is
more rounded. Angles exist at the temples and the jawline and
the cheekbone area as well. This face shape appears to have six
straight sides with the hairline horizontally flat. The hairline does
not go from temple to temple, making it less wide than the middle
zone, which is the widest.
Basic Principles of Cutting
Anatomy of the skull
Head form: The shape of the head or skull.
Reference points: The points on the head that mark where the surface of the head changes or the
behavior of the hair changes. these points are used to establish design lines that are proportionate.
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Parietal ridge: the widest area of the head, starting at the temples and ending at the bottom of
the crown.
Occipital bone: the bone that protrudes at the base of the skull.
Apex: the highest point on the top of the head.
Four corners: corners of the top of the head.
Area of the head:
Top: area above parietal ridge in the front of the head.
Top: area in front of the line connecting the apex to the back of the ear
Sides: all hair from the back of the ear forward and below the parietal ridge
Crown: area between the apex and the back of the parietal ridge
Nape: the back part of the neck and consists of the hair below the occipital bone
Fringe: is the triangular section that begins at the apex and ends at the front corners
Straight: horizontal lines build weight, vertical lines remove weight and diagonal lines create
stacking and to blend short layers to long layers.
Angles: used in elevation and cutting line
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Elevation: the angle or degree at which a subsection of the hair is held, or elevated, from the head
when cutting
Section: the hair is parted into uniform working areas for control
Subsections: each section is further divided into smaller parts
Cutting line: the angle at which the fingers are held when cutting and ultimately the line that is cut
Guideline: (a guide) is a section of hair that determines the length the hair will be cut. Two basic guide
lines are stationary and traveling.
Stationary guideline is a guideline that does not move. All other sections are combed to the
stationary guideline and cut at the same angle and length. (blunt haircut)
Traveling guideline is a movable guideline. It moves as the haircut progress (layered haircut)
Overdirection: is a unique action that can best be understood by comparing it to elevation.
You’re sitting in the beauty salon’s waiting room leafing through style books hoping to find the right
look. You select a style that looks amazing on the model and then ask your hairdresser to replicate it for
you. Unfortunately, it turns out that it doesn’t look so stunning on you. So what went wrong? As a
hairdresser’s daughter, I can answer that for you. It could be that neither you nor the stylist took into
account the top factors that make a person’s hair style a success or a failure. Don’t know what those
factors are? Here’s breakdown on some of them:
Growth Pattern
Before selecting a style, you’ll want to conduct an honest analysis of your hair’s growth pattern. In
my experience, there are three main patterns to contend with. The first is often referred to as hair
stream. That means your hair grows in a predictable direction (i.e. straight down). The other two are
referred to as cowlicks and whorls.
One of my son’s has a cowlick. It’s a little section of hair that is located along his hairline. It grows
straight up into the air. As such, he chooses hair styles that involve spikes and lots of gel. My late
grandfather had a whorl. It was located on his crown and looked like a crop circle. Thus, he chose
comb over hair styles that involved circular patterns. If either one of them had chosen styles contrary
to their hair’s natural pattern, they would have experienced difficulties achieving the desired look.
Wave Pattern
Knowing what wave pattern you have is important too. it is one of the thing that determine how
well your hair takes curl. The three main types are curly, wavy and straight. I have straight hair, which
resists curl. Therefore, if I want to adopt a hair style that includes lots of long lasting curls, I have to
schedule a perm or body wave first. Otherwise, I’ll end up with a mess.
Texture and Density
Your hair’s texture and density should also be factored into your selection. texture refers to the
thickness of each shaft whereas density refers to how thick or thin your hair is. There are three texture
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categories that your hair may fall into. my hair is considered to be fine textured. It is not thick at all.
Thus, I tend to choose styles that give my hair the appearance of thickness and volume. The other two
categories are medium and course.
Hair Porosity and Elasticity
Two other factors to consider are your hair’s porosity and elasticity. They help to determine how
well your hair absorbs substances and resists breakage. Unfortunately for me, I have porous hair that
breaks easily. That means that my hair responds to perms and dyes quickly. Therefore, I have to watch
adopting styles that require extensive, chemical processing. Otherwise, I’ll end up with a head full of
split end and funky looking hair.
Hair colouring is not a new concept. In ancient India, heena walnut, bark, Amla and Katha have
been used for darkening grey hair. Grey hair is considered to be a sign of ageing, efforts are made to
restore the hair to its natural colour for giving youthful appearance.
C. Types of Colour
Temporary Hair Colours
They are solutions of certified colours and are used from wash to wash they only coat the cuticle.
a) Colour Rinse – Are applied on moist hair and combed through the hair. They are used for
brightening up the grey hair or in between links when the hair has not grown enough for a
b) Highlighting Shampoos – They fall in two categories. One which contains a shampoo and
certified colours and the others that contains hydrogen peroxide.
c) Hair Crayons – Also known as dye sticks are used to cover the new growth temporarily in
between the tints. They are sticky, Stain clothes and come off easily and are not very practical.
d) Hair sprays – Colour is incorporated in the sprays. All colours are available but gold is the most
commonly used.
e) Mascara – Used for colouring the eye lashes.
Semi Permanent Hair Colour
These last from 4 to 6 washes and do not require the use of hydrogen peroxide. Vegetable tents
Heena and some aniline tints fall into this category. The tint enters the cuticle and gets deposited on the
cortex but does not penetrate the cortex. The advantage is that they fade out gradually and evenly and
do not produce a demarcation line like the permanent tints. They do not damage the hair but give extra
bounce and thickness to the hair. They enter through the cuticle coat the cortex but do not enter the
Like Heena dye
For giving highlights
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For brightening up dull looking hair
To give bounce and Shine to hair
As a conditioner
For covering or camouflaging a few grew hair
Hair Darkening Oils
In India there are oils available which contains vegetable dyes examples are Loma and Jabakusum.
The oils do not give instant colour. If they are used over a period, the colour keeps getting deposited
on the hair and the hair starts looking like new are naturally black.
For dramatic effects, the hair is first bleached and then the colour is applied advantage – you can
produce any shade from yellow and red to blue and a green. They do not damage the hair. they are not
Permanent Hair Dyes
Oxidation or para dyes or aniline tints. these are the most commonly used today. They have certain
They give a near natural finish.
The number of shades available is vast and they give the client a lot of choice.
They are easy to apply and quick to develop and are less time consuming.
They give a longer lasting colour only the new growth needs to be touched up.
Colour is an important factor in every one’s life. colour is all around us in nature and its effects
different people differently. Basic colour theory is ancient and has been known to the artists for ages
when the light hasses through a prisin different colour appear known as VYBGIOR
Violet, Yellow, Blue, Green, Indigo, Orange and Red.
Primary Colours
All colours start with three basic colour known as primary colour.
1. Red
2. Blue
3. Yellow
Secondary Colours
When equal amount of primary colours are combined, they produce secondary colours.
1. Red + Blue = Violet
2. Blue + Yellow = Green
3. Red + Yellow = Orange
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Combination of primary & secondary colour is used to create an infinite number of shades in each
1. Red – Orange Red, Red and Blue Red.
2. Yellow – Green Yellow, Yellow and Orange Yellow
3. Blue – Greenish Blue, Blue, Violet Blue
4. Orange – Red Orange, Orange and Yellow Orange
5. Green – Yellow Green, Green, Blue Green
6. Violet – Red Violet, Violet, Blue Violet
Complementary Colours
Same colours when placed against each other (not mixed) act as complementary colours and are
used freely in designing.
1. Blue & Orange
2. Green & Red
3. Violet & Blue
The colour in the hair is due to presence of a colour pigment. Melanin is responsible for black to
brown shades. Oxy melanin is responsible for red to yellow shades. The colour may be removed from
the hair in two ways.
1. As a process of ageing and illness or by exposure to sun.
2. By use of chemicals. People who go swimming often find the hair lightening. Because of
chlorinated water. These two methods produce a very mild change. By use of products which
break down melanin & oxy melanin, greater changes can be achieved. The active ingredient for
lightening hair is hydrogen peroxide. The strengths vary but most commonly used in 6% or 20
volumes. This means that the solution is capable of liberating oxygen at the rate of 20 times its
volume. To enhance the action, the PH is raised by adding liquid ammonia (usually 28% ).
Some sort of base is used to give body to the mixture as both the solutions are thin watery and
evaporate quickly, various preparation are available.
a) Oil lightness
b) Cream lightness
c) Powder lightness
Colour strippers – are also similar to lightness and are used when a tint
previously given needs to be taken out. Oxidising agents reduce the size of
the large colour molecules so that they can be removed easily.
Strand Test
It is better to take a strand before lightening the whole head.
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a) It eliminates the possibility of a skin allergy. Although extremely rare, allergy to a bleach has
been known to exist.
b) It gives you an idea as to how long the bleach should be kept on the hair to get the required
amount of lightening.
c) For porous and damaged hair, it will give you an idea whether the hair can be safely blacked
d) The client can see the result & decide whether she likes the change it is not possible to reverse
the process in any other way except colouring it back to it takes a long time for the whole hair
to back natural
Patch Test
Allergy to aniline tints in susceptible subjects is known to occur. Patch test 24 hours before the
actual application of the tint. The test should be done with the same tint that is going to be applied.
1. Patch test may be given either in the bend of the elbow or behind the ear clean the area with
soap & water.
2. Dry the area with cotton wool pads.
3. Prepare the tint in a tiny amount and apply it on the cleaned areas, approximately ½ inch
square should be covered.
4. Let dry & ask the client to come back & show it after 24 hrs.
5. She should be advised about the possibility of a reaction and in case it does occur the area
should be washed with water & cold cream applied.
6. Check the area after 24 hours for a positive or negative reaction.
7. Positive reaction will produce redness, burning, swelling, itching and eruptions in which case
the tint should not be applied on the other hand a negative test does not produce any reaction.
In the case, it is safe to apply a tint.
1. Bleach should not be applied when there are cuts, abrasions, eruptions or injected condition of
the scalp.
2. Bleach should not be applied if there is a history of allergy to the product.
3. It should not be applied on damaged hair since it damages the hair further. Hair is considered
to be damaged.
a) When it is over porous with sough cuticle.
b) When it is excessively dry.
c) Lacks elasticity and breaks easily.
d) After the bleach, hair is damaged it feels like straw, matts easily and either takes in colour
too readily or rejects the colour in which case it needs to be conditioned before colour is
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Tips before Coloring
Before coloring it’s best to practice sectioning off thin
parts of hair ¼ to ½ inch in width depending on the density
of the hair.
Apply conditioner to your hair a few days before doing
the actual colouring to get the hang of handling a hair color
applicator bottle.
In the case of thick long hair, get a friend to help.
A clarifying treatment to remove buildup in the hair
should always be done before coloring. Always follow the
manufacturer’s instructions.
Colour Wheel
On long hair, the ends are always more porous than the rest.
Apply color to the mid lengths from about 1 inch from the scalp
and apply the color to the ends as the last step.
Follow this procedure because the scalp will process faster
due to the heat of the body and the insulating effect of long
hair on the scalp. Here there is no help
like experience.
Even just doing the rest strands
or working on your friends will teach an amateur colorist a lot if you will be
observant and patient.
Very thick, long hair, may have to be colored in sections, rinsed and the
uncolored hair dried to allow color to be applied to the rest.
Be sure not to re-color already colored hair and observe timing exactly.
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Different Hair Styles
Here the front hair is
divided into 5 parts and
they are plaited and
pinned on top. And on
the back side, hair is
tied in pony and four
rolls are made from
The front hair has been
divided into five parts
and plaited in different
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This is a simple but
attractive style, where
hair has been dried with
a blower. Then they
have been combed
towards back side and
simply pinned.
Here after making 5
plaits from front,
back hair is tied in
pony and a ribbon
is also tied around
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The hair is divided jus t
leaving the centre.
They are gently
combed behind, then
they are pinned.
All the hair is combed
towards back side and to
give the height, they are
pinned. Back hair is also
pinned in French role
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In this hair style, plaits are
decorated differently.
This is French-role. Here all
the hair is taken on one side
and have been pinned, then
they are tied in a large bun.
Here hair is divided from left
side and back hair is curled
and pinned beautifully.
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If you have a long face and
you want to hide it, choose
this hair style. Here hair is
cut from shoulders. On
front-side they are cut just
above the eye-brows giving
a little uneven shape, so
that it looks natural.
To give a gentle and
innocent look, divide your
hair into two equal parts,
plait them behind your
ears, then tie with rubber
bands and pin them.
Leave rest of the hair on
your front.
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Divide your hair from centre
and make plaits,tie pony.
After dividing the pony into
three parts, make plaits
(choties) and tie them.
Here plaits are tied in
different style, which
are hanging to the left
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Unit 7
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Human Body
he human body is the entire structure of a human organism, and consists of a head, neck, torso,
two arms and two legs. By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to
100 trillion cells, the basic unit of life.
Musculoskeletal system
Cardiovascular system
Digestive system
Endocrine system
Urinary system
Lymphatic system
Immune system
Respiratory system
Nervous system
Reproductive system
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest
unit of life that is classified as a living thing (except virus, which consists only from DNA/RNA
covered by protein and lipids), and is often called the building block of life. [1] Organisms
can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including most bacteria)
or multicellular (including plants and animals)
Types of cells:1)
prokaryotic :- The prokaryotes (or) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon),
or any other membrane-bound organelles.
Example: bacteria and blue green algae
2) eukaryotic :- A eukaryote (or) is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed
within membranes.
Example-plants and animals
Both the cell type have DNA,ribosome and have similar basic metabolism.
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Subcellular components of cell:
1. Membrane:- The cytoplasm of a cell is surrounded by a cell membrane or plasma membrane. The
plasma membrane in plants and prokaryotes is usually covered by a cell wall. This membrane
serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly
from a double layer of lipids (hydrophobic fat-like molecules) and hydrophilic phosphorus
molecules. Hence, the layer is called a phospholipid bilayer, or sometimes a fluid mosaic
2. Cytoskeletal:- The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell’s shape; anchors organelles
in place; helps during endocytosis, the uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesis,
the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of
growth and mobility.
3. Genetic factor :- Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Most cells use DNA for their long-term information storage. The
biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence. RNA is
used for information transport (e.g., mRNA) and enzymatic functions
(e.g., ribosomal RNA). Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used to add amino acids during
protein translation
1. CELL NUCLEUS :- eukaryotes only - A cell’s information center, the cell nucleus is the most
conspicuous organelle found in aeukaryotic cell. It houses the cell’s chromosomes, and is the
place where almost all DNA replication and RNA synthesis (transcription) occur. The nucleus
is spherical and separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.
The nuclear envelope isolates and protects a cell’s DNA from various molecules that could
accidentally damage its structure or interfere with its processing.
2. MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLAST :- eukaryotes only-the power
generators: Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes,
and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria play a critical role in generating
energy in the eukaryotic cell.
3. Endoplasmic reticulum:- eukaryotes only: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the transport
network for molecules targeted for certain modifications and specific destinations, as compared
to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm.
4. Golgi apparatus:- eukaryotes only : The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process
and package the macromoleculessuch as proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell
5. Ribosome:- ribosome is a large complex of RNA and protein molecules. They each consist
of two subunits, and act as an assembly line where RNA from the nucleus is used to synthesise
proteins from amino acids.
A group of cells that are similar in structure and function
1. Lines body cavities and covers the body’s external surface – epithelial tissue
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Pumps blood, flushes urine out of the body, allows one to swing a bat – muscular tissue
Transmits waves of excitation – nervous tissue
Anchors and packages body organs – connective tissue
Cells may absorb, protect, or form a filtering membrane – epithelial tissue
Most involved in regulating body functions quickly – nervous tissue
Major function is to contract – muscular tissue
The most durable tissue type – connective tissue
Abundant nonliving extracellular matrix – connective tissue
Forms nerves – nervous tissue
Skin appendages are skin-associated structures that serve a particular function including sensation,
contractility, lubrication and heat loss.
Skin appendages are as follows:1.
Arrector pilli
Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands
Our largest organ
Accounts for 12%of body weight
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It is divide into 3 layers :a) Epidermis
b) Dermis
c) Hypodermis-lies deep to the dermis
1. Barrier against loss of body fluid
2. Protection and excretion.
3. Sensory function
4. Metabolic fuction
5. Temperature regulation
A) Stratum basale:
The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest
layer of the five layers of theepidermis, which is the outer covering of skin in mammals. The stratum
basale is a continuous layer of cells.
B) Stratum spinosum:
The stratum spinosum (or spinous layer) is a layer of the epidermis found between the stratum
granulosum and stratum basale. This layer is also referred to as the “spinous” or “prickle-cell” layer. This
appearance is due to desmosomal connections of adjacent cells.Keratinization begins in the stratum
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C) Stratum granulosam:
The stratum granulosum (or granular layer) is a thin layer of cells in the epidermis. Keratinocytes
migrating from the underlyingstratum spinosum become known as granular cells in this layer. These
cells contain keratohyalin granules, which are filled with proteins that promote hydration and crosslinking
of keratin.
D) Stratum lucidum:
The stratum lucidum (Latin for “clear layer”) is a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in
the epidermis named for its translucent appearance under a microscope. It is readily visible by light
microscopy only in areas of thick skin, which are found on the palms of the hands and the soles of the
E)Stratum cornium:
The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes)
that lack nuclei and organelles. The purpose of the stratum corneum is to form a barrier to protect
underlying tissue from infection, dehydration, chemicals and mechanical stress.
a) Melanin:- dark brown pigment
b) skin thickness:- bood vessels seen
c) hemoglobin
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the dorsal aspect
of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes in humans,
most non-humanprimates, and a few other mammals. Nails
are similar to claws in other animals. Fingernails and toenails
are made of a tough protein calledkeratin, as are animals’
hooves and horns
Nearly transparent nail plate and the thin epithelium of
nail bed provide a useful window on the amount of oxygen
in the blood by showing the color of bold in the dermal
GROWTH RATE:-1-3mm/month
Nail develop from the thickened areas of epidermis at the tip of each digit called NAIL FIELD
Later these nail field migrate onto the dorsal surface laterally and proximally by old of epidermis
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It is keratinized elongated structure derived from invagination of epidermis(hair follicle).
Hair act for thermoregulation and sensory function.
Hair appear by 3rd month over eyebrows and upper lip
Distribution of hair after puberty indicate distinctive sex differences.
Hair is made up of shaft and root.
Hair follicle is a tubular structure consisting of 5 concentric layer of epithelial cells
1. Anangen phase-fast growing phase
2. Catangen phase-involution phase
3. Telogen phase-rest phase.
1. Laungo hair-foetal hair
2. vellus hair-infant hair and fine hair on body
3. terminal hair-coarse hair.
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Skeletal System
he skeletal system in an adult body is made up of 206 individual bones. These bones are arranged
into two major divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton runs along
the body’s midline axis and is made up of 80 bones in the following regions:
Auditory ossicles
Vertebral column
The appendicular skeleton is made up of 126 bones in the ollowing regions:
Upper limbs
Lower limbs
Pelvic girdle
Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
The facial skeleton serves to protect the brain; house and
protect the sense organs of smell, sight, and taste; and provide
a frame on which the soft tissues of the face can act to facilitate
eating, facial expression, breathing, and speech. The primary
bones of the face are the mandible, maxilla, frontal bone,
nasal bones, and zygoma. Facial bone anatomy is complex,
yet elegant, in its suitability to serve a multitude of functions.
The image below provides an overview of the anterior features
of the skull.
The neck is the part of the body that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk.
The adjective (from Latin) signifying “of the neck” is cervical (though this more frequently used to
describe the cervix)
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The cervical portion of the human spine comprises seven
bony segments, typically referred to as C-1 to C-7, with
cartilaginous discs between each vertebral body. The neck
supports the weight of the head and protects the nerves that
carry sensory and motor information from the brain down
to the rest of the body. In addition, the neck is highly flexible
and allows the head to turn and flex in all directions.
In the middle line below the chin can be felt the body of
the hyoid bone, just below which is the prominence of
the thyroid cartilage called “Adam’s apple”, better marked in
men than in women.
JOINTS are a point of contact between two or more bones. It is also known as ‘articulation’
1. Ball and socket joint:-greatest freedom of movement
Example: hip and shoulder
2. Hinge joint:-Move in one direction or plane
Example: knees,elbows and outer joint of fingers.
3. pivot joint:-An extension rotatingin a second arch shaped bone
Example: radius and ulna
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4. Gliding joint: nearly flat surface glide across each other
Enable the torso to bend forward, backward, sideway and rotate
Example: hand bones
b) Amphiarthroses joint : partially movable joint with cartilage between their articular surface.
EX : ribs to spine
c) Synarthroses joint : immovable joint connected by tough fibrous connective tissue.
EX : cranial joints.
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Muscular System
he muscular system is an organ system that permits movement of the body, maintains posture,
and circulates blood throughout the body. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through
the nervous system, although some muscles (such as the cardiac muscle) can be completely autonomous
1. SMOOTH MUSCLE:- This muscle tissue is called involuntary because it is NOT under
conscious control. Involuntary means you do not have to think about it. Involuntary muscle
tissue is found in the internal organs; namely the digestive tract, respiratory passages, urinary
and genital ducts, urinary bladder, gallbladder, walls of the blood vessels
2. STRIATED MUSCLE:- This muscle tissue is found in all skeletal muscles, and movement is
under conscious control. It also occurs in the tongue, pharynx, and upper portion of the
3. CARDIAC MUSCLE:- his muscle tissue is only found in the heart. The fibers branch and
form a continuous network. At certain intervals, there are prominent bands or intercalated
disks that cross the fibers.
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Respiratory System
he human respiratory system consists of a complex set of organs and tissues that capture oxygen
from the environment and transport the oxygen into the lungs. The organs and tissues that comprise
the human respiratory system include the nose and pharynx, the trachea, and the lungs.
Nose and pharynx
The respiratory system of humans begins with the nose, where air is conditioned by warming and
moistening. Bone partitions separate the nasal cavity into chambers, where air swirls about in currents.
Hairs and hairlike cilia trap dust particles and purify the air.
The nasal chambers open into a cavity at the rear of the mouth called the pharynx (throat). From
the pharynx, two tubes called Eustachian tubes open to the middle ear to equalize air pressure there. The
pharynx also contains tonsils and adenoids, which are pockets of lymphatic tissue used to trap and filter
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After passing through the pharynx, air passes into the windpipe, or trachea. The trachea has a
framework of smooth muscle with about 16 to 20 open rings of cartilage shaped like a C. These rings
give rigidity to the trachea and ensure that it remains open.
The opening to the trachea is a slitlike structure called the glottis. A thin flap of tissue called
the epiglottis folds over the opening during swallowing and prevents food from entering the trachea.
At the upper end of the trachea, several folds of cartilage form the larynx, or voicebox. In the larynx,
flaplike pairs of tissues calledvocal cords vibrate when a person exhales and produce sounds.
At its lower end, the trachea branches into two large bronchi These tubes also have smooth muscle
and cartilage rings. The bronchi branch into smaller bronchioles, forming a bronchial “tree.” The
bronchioles terminate in the air sacs known as alveoli.
Human lungs are composed of approximately 300 million alveoli, which are cup-shaped sacs
surrounded by a capillary network. Red blood cells pass through the capillaries in single file, and oxygen
from each alveolus enters the red blood cells and binds to the hemoglobin.
When a person inhales, the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, thereby increasing the volume of
the chest cavity. This increase leads to reduced air pressure in the chest cavity, and air rushes into the
alveoli, forcing them to expand and fill.
Unit 8
Diet and Nutrition
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Diet and Nutrition
Definition of health, food and nutrition
Function of food – Physiological, social and psychological
Food nutrients – Function, sources, deficiency and excess – protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals
(iodine, iron, calcium, phosphorous, potassium & sodium), Vitamins (water soluble B & C and
fat soluble a, D, E & K), water, fiber
Food groups, concept of balance diet and meal planning
Diet for different age groups, food fads and fast foods
Definition of health, food and nutrition
Food is that which nourishes the body. Food may also be defined as anything eaten or drunk, which
meets the needs for energy, building, regulation and protection of the body. In short, food is the raw
material from which our bodies are made. Intake of the right kinds and amounts of food can ensure
good nutrition and health, which may be evident in our appearance, efficiency and emotional wellbeing. Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins,
that can be eaten or drunk by an animal or human for nutrition or pleasure. Items considered food may
be sourced from plants, animals or other categories such as fungus or fermented products like alcohol.
Although many human cultures sought food items through hunting and gathering, today most cultures
use farming, ranching, and fishing, with hunting, foraging and other methods of a local nature included
but playing a minor role.
Nutrition has been defined as food at work in the body. Nutrition includes everything that happens
to food from the time it is eaten until it is used for various functions in the body. Nutrients are components
of food that are needed by the body in adequate amounts in order to grow, reproduce and lead a
normal, healthy life. Nutrients include water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. There
are several nutrients in each of the groups: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins; hence
the plural form of these words has been used. Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the
provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life.
Technically, nutrition is defined as “The sum of the processes involved in eating, absorbing, and using
nutrients”. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with good nutrition. The
diet of an organism refers to what it eats. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human
nutrition, meal planning, economics, preparation, and so on. They are trained to provide safe, evidencebased dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions.
Poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy, beriberi,
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and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and such common
chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.
Health the word health refers to the condition of the body, good health not only implies freedom
from disease, but physical, mental and emotional fitness as well.
Functions of Food
Physiological functions of food
The first function of the body is to provide energy. The body needs energy to sustain the involuntary
processes essential for continuance of life, to carry out professional, household and recreational activities,
to convert food ingested into usable nutrients in the body, to grow and to keep warm. The energy
needed is supplied by the oxidation of the foods consumed.
The foods we eat become a part of us. Thus second and one of the most important functions of food is
building the body. A newborn baby weighing 2.7-3.2 kg can grow to its potential adult size of 50–60 kg if
the right kinds and amounts of food are eaten from birth to adulthood. The food eaten each day helps
to maintain the structure of the adult body, and to replace worn out cells of the body.
The third function of food is to regulate activities of the body. It includes regulation of such varied activities as:
Beating of the heart
Maintenance of the body temperature
Muscle contraction
Control of water balance
Clotting of blood
Removal of waste products from the body
The fourth function of food is to improve our body’s resistance to disease.
The Social Functions of Food
Food has always been a central part of our social existence. It has been a part of our community,
social, cultural and religious life. Special foods are distributed as a benediction or prasad in the religious
functions in homes, temples and churches. Feasts are given at specific stages of life such as birth,
naming ceremony, birthdays, marriages, etc. Most of the religious festivals also call for feasts and
feeding of specific segments of the population. Certain menus are associated with most of these feasts
in each region. Food has been used as an expression of love, friendship and social acceptance. It is also
used as a symbol of happiness at certain events in life, for example, pedhas are distributed to announce
success in examinations, or the birth of a baby; laddus are associated with the celebration of Deepavali
and marriages, cakes are associated with Christmas and birthdays and tilgul with sankranti the festival
of friendship.
As food is an integral part of our social existence, this function is important in daily life. Refreshments
served at get-togethers or meetings create a relaxed atmosphere. The menu for such get-together should
bring the people together, rather than divide them. This basic aspect should be considered in planning
menus for such occasions (Figure 1).
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Figure 1: functions of food
The Psychological Functions of Food
In addition to satisfying physical and social needs, food must satisfy certain emotional needs. These
includes a sense of security, love and attention. Thus familiar foods make us feel secure. Anticipating
needs and fulfilling these are expressions of love and attention. These sentiments are the basis of the
normal attachment to the mother’s cooking. Sharing of food is a token of friendship and acceptance.
In a friendly gathering we try unfamiliar foods and thus enlarge our food experiences. It must be noted
that even a nutritionally balanced meal may not be satisfying to the individual, if the foods included are
unfamiliar or distasteful to him/her. With time and repeated experience, strange foods become familiar
and new tastes are formed. These aspects are important in food acceptance and must be considered in
planning meals, which are not only nutritionally adequate, but also enjoyable for the group for whom
they are intended.
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Food Nutrition
he foods which we use daily include rice, wheat, dal, vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, fish, meat, sugar,
butter, oils, etc. These different foods are made up of a number of chemical components called
nutrients. These are classified according to their chemical composition.
Each nutrient class has its own function, but the various nutrients must act in unison for effective
action. The nutrients found in foods are — carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and water.
Fibre is also an essential component of our diet. The functions of nutrients are given below.
Carbohydrates: Starch found in cereals and sugar in sugarcane and fruits are examples of
carbohydrates in foods. The chief function of carbohydrates is to provide energy needed by our body.
Those not used immediately for this purpose are stored as glycogen or converted to fat and stored, to
be obilized for energy supply when needed.
Fats: Oils found in seeds, butter from milk, and lard from meat, are examples of fats found in
foods. Fats are concentrated sources of energy, carriers of fat soluble vitamins and a source of essential
fatty acids. If excess fats are taken in the diet, these are stored as fat reserves in the body. Energy taken
in excess of body needs, is stored as fat in the body.
Proteins: Casein from milk, albumin in egg, globulins in legumes and gluten in wheat, are examples
of proteins occurring in foods. The main function of protein is the building of new tissues and
maintaining and repair of those already built. Synthesis of regulatory and protective substances such as
enzymes, hormones and antibodies is also a function of food proteins. About 10 per cent of the total
energy is supplied by proteins in the diet. Protein, when taken in excess of the body’s need, is converted
to carbohydrates and fats and is stored in the body.
Minerals: The minerals calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, sodium, potassium and others are found
in various foods in combination with organic and inorganic compounds. Minerals are necessary for
body-building, for building of bones, teeth and structural parts of soft tissues. They also play a role in
regulation of processes in the body, e.g., muscle contraction, clotting of blood, nerve stimuli, etc.
Vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and also water-soluble vitamins C and B group are
found in foods. These are needed for growth, normal function of the body and normal body processes.
Water: We get water in foods we eat and a major part from the water we drink as such and as
beverages. Water is an essential part of our body structure and it accounts for about 60 per cent of our
body weight. Water is essential for the utilization of food material in the body and also for elimination
of food waste. It is a regulator of body processes such as maintenance of body temperature.
All individuals need the same nutrients for the same body function. The only variation is in the
amounts of each nutrient required according to age, size, activity, etc. For example, all persons need
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energy for work, but a man, who carries loads may need more energy than a man, who works in an
office at a desk job.
As you know, we get the nutrients from the foods and the beverages we consume. Most foods
contain the nutrients in varying amounts. Let us understand the nutrient composition of the foods we
use everyday.
Sources of Nutrients
Deficiency and Excess of Nutrients
Nutritional deficiency is one of the most basic types of malnutrition, and occurs in people who do
not have enough nutrients in their diet. It is best to obtain vitamins and minerals through food sources.
Excessive intake of vitamins and mineral supplements can cause serious health problems. Likewise,
eating too much of one type of food, as can happen with fad diets, can be harmful. The key to
nutrition is moderation. If a person feels they are short on iron, for example, he or she should not go
too far to the extreme in getting more iron through diet and supplements. Too much stored iron in the
body has possibly been linked with heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
The following is a list of possible effects resulting from deficiency of vitamins and minerals:
Vitamin A: rough, dry, or pimply skin, digestive problems, lowered resistance to infections Pntkh7LR
Vitamin B1: anemia, fatigue, very sensitive skin,
Vitamin B6: nerve damage such as tingling sensations and numbness
Vitamin C: inflamed gums, slow wound healing, stomach disorders, reduced resistance to colds
and infections.
Vitamin D: Near-sightedness, Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease, Cognitive
impairment in older adults
Phosphorus: Weight loss and decreases in bone density
Zinc: Compromised immune system, Diarrhea, Hair loss and skin lesions. The following is a list of
possible effects resulting from excessive doses of vitamins and minerals:
Vitamin A: birth defects, irreversible bone and liver damage
Vitamin B1: deficiencies in B2 and B6
Vitamin B6: damage to the nervous system
Vitamin C: affects the absorption of copper; diarrhea
Vitamin D: hypercalcemia (abnormally high concentration of calcium in the blood)
Phosphorus: affects the absorption of calcium
Zinc: affects absorption of copper and iron; suppresses the immune system
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Starvation, marasmus
Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular
Low energy levels
Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular
Micronutrient deficiency
Obesity, cardiovascular disease (high
glycemic index foods)
Rabbit starvation, ketoacidosis (in diabetics)
Saturated fat
Low testosterone levels,
vitamin deficiencies
Obesity, cardiovascular disease
Trans fat
Obesity, cardiovascular disease
Unsaturated fat
Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency
Obesity, cardiovascular disease
Vitamin A
Xerophthalmia and night
Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair loss)
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Skin and corneal lesions
Vitamin B12
Pernicious anemia
Vitamin C
Diarrhea causing dehydration
Vitamin D
Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration,
vomiting, constipation)
Vitamin E
Neurological disease
Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant:
excessive bleeding)
Vitamin K
Omega-3 fats
Cardiovascular Disease
Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic
stroke, reduced glycemic control among
Omega-6 fats
Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer
Cardiovascular Disease
Dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias,
birth defects
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Osteoporosis, tetany,
carpopedal spasm,
laryngospasm, cardiac
Fatigue, depression, confusion,
nausea, vomiting, constipation,
pancreatitis, increased urination,
kidney stones
Weakness, nausea, vomiting, impaired
breathing and hypotension
Hypokalemia, cardiac
Hyperkalemia, palpitations
Hypernatremia, hypertension
Cirrhosis, Hereditary
hemochromatosis, heart disease
Goiter, hypothyroidism
Iodine toxicity (goiter, hypothyroidism)
Trace minerals
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Food groups, concept of balance
diet and meal planning
Food groups
food group is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological
classifications. Nutrition guides typically divide foods into food groups and recommend daily
servings of each group for a healthy diet.
Common food groups
Dairy: also called milk products and sometimes categorized with milk alternatives or meat, is
typically a smaller category in nutrition guides. Examples of dairy products include milk, yogurt and
cheese. Though they are also dairy products, ice cream is typically categorized with sweets and butter is
typically classified with fats and oils in nutrition guides.
Fats and oils: sometimes categorized with sweets, is typically a very small category in nutrition
guides, if present at all, and is sometimes listed apart from other food groups. Examples include
cooking oil, butter, margarine and shortening.
Fruit: sometimes categorized with vegetables, is typically a medium-sized category in nutrition
guides, though occasionally a small one. Examples include apples, oranges, bananas, berries and lemons.
Grains: also called cereals and sometimes inclusive of potatoes and other starches, is often the
largest category in nutrition guides. Examples include wheat, rice, oats, barley, bread and pasta.
Meat: sometimes labeled protein and occasionally inclusive of legumes, eggs, meat analogues
and/or dairy, is typically a medium- to smaller-sized category in nutrition guides. Examples include
chicken, fish, turkey, pork and beef.
Sweets: also called sugary foods and sometimes categorized with fats and oils, is typically a very
small category in nutrition guides, if present at all, and is sometimes listed apart from other food
groups. Examples include candy, soft drinks, cake, pie and ice cream.
Vegetables: sometimes categorized with fruit and occasionally inclusive of legumes, is typically a
large category second only to grains, or sometimes equal or superior to grains, in nutrition guides.
Examples include spinach, carrots, onions, peppers, and broccoli.
Water: is treated in very different ways by different food guides. Some exclude the category, others
list it separately from other food groups. Water is sometimes categorized with tea, fruit juice, vegetable
juice and even soup, and is typically recommended in plentiful amounts.
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Concept of balance diet
The key to a healthy balanced diet is not to ban or omit any foods or food groups but to balance
what you eat by consuming a variety of foods from each food group in the right proportions for good
Fruit and vegetables
These should make up about a third of your daily diet and can be eaten as part of every meal, as
well as being the first choice for a snack. You should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables
each day. Research suggests this can help to protect against cancer, obesity and various chronic diseases
such as heart disease. This is because of the unique package of nutrients and plant compounds they
Bread, rice, potatoes and wheat
This food group should also make up about a third of your diet and contains the starchy carbohydrates
that are the body’s main source of energy. When selecting products from this food group, choose
unrefined carbohydrates over those that have been refined, as they will contain the whole of the grain.
Wholegrain foods are rich in fibre and other nutrients that have many health benefits, and people who
consume wholegrains seem to have a reduced risk of certain cancers, diabetes and coronary heart
disease. These food groups also contain nutrients essential to our diet, so it’s important not to leave
them out altogether.
Milk and dairy foods
These should be eaten in moderation because of their high saturated fat content, but they’re an
important source of calcium, which is essential for healthy bones and teeth. Choose low-fat or reducedfat versions.
Meat, fish, eggs and beans
This food group includes both animal and plant sources of protein, which is a major functional and
structural component of all cells. Protein provides the body with between 10 and 15 per cent of its
dietary energy, and is needed for growth and repair.
Figure 2 A plate with balanced diet
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How to eat a balanced diet
Eat a variety of foods to obtain all of the essential nutrients
Too much as well as too little can be bad for you – balance is required
Everyone’s plate will look slightly different as we all have different requirements depending on
our body’s shape and size, and our levels of activity.
Maintaining a healthy, balanced diet
Base meals on starchy foods
Eat lots of fruit and vegetables
Eat more fish
Cut down on saturated fat and sugar
Try to eat less salt – no more than 6g a day
Get active and try to be a healthy weight
Drink plenty of water
Don’t skip breakfast
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Diet for different age groups,
food fads and fast food
Diet for different age groups
balanced diet is one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions so
that the need for calories, proteins minerals, vitamins and other nutrients are adequately met. A
small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short duration weakness. Everyone should
know about the requirements/needs of body in terms of nutrients/energy and on the basis of this
daily diet should be planned. Our diet requirements can be defined in to 4 groups namely: Adult Men,
Adult Women, Small Childs and Teenagers. The daily requirement of individual diet depends upon
growth status (age, sex, height and weight), physical activity and physical stress or illness.
A balanced diet has a major role in achieving long healthy life.
1. It helps in controlling body weight, heart rate and BP.
2. Increase in exercise capacity and muscle performance.
3. Improves blood sugar, lowers harmful cholesterol and triglycerides and increases the beneficial
HDL cholesterol.
4. Produces mental and physical relaxation.
Balanced diet for different age groups is presented below:
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Food fads and fast foods
Food fads The phrases food faddism and fad diet originally referred to idiosyncratic diets and
eating patterns that promote short-term weight loss, usually with no concern for long-term weight
maintenance, and enjoy temporary popularity
Fad diet” is a term of popular media, not science. Some so-called fad diets may make pseudoscientific claims, but others labeled “fad” are based on science. According to one definition, fad diets
claim to be scientific but do not follow the scientific method in establishing their validity. Among the
scientific shortcomings of the claims made in support of fad diets:
not being open to revisions, whereas real science is
observations that prompt explanations are used as evidence of the validity of the explanation
The term “fad diet” has been pulled into the debate in the scientific community over the physiology
of weight gain and loss. It has been used by proponents of established views to refute claims of nontraditional methods of weight loss such as low-carbohydrate diets. Some researchers hold to the
established belief that weight loss is strictly a function of a reduction in caloric intake, and that no
other strategy can help dieters achieve long term weight loss.
Food fad is a term originally used to describe simple, catchy diets that often focused on a single
element such as cabbage, grapefruit or cottage cheese. In 1974, the term was defined as three categories
of food fads.
1. A particular food or food group is exaggerated and purported to cure specific diseases.
2. Foods are eliminated from an individual’s diet because they are viewed as harmful.
3. An emphasis is placed on eating certain foods to express a particular lifestyle.
Food fad is also used by media and the scientific community to refer to diets that do not follow
common nutritional guidelines, regardless of their actual status as a fad; for example,
the Atkins and Paleo diets are commonly referred to as food fads, even though they have enjoyed
cycles of popularity for several decades. Thus, while called food fads, they are not actual fads (which
are defined by sharp but brief spikes in popularity).
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Fast foods Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While
any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food
sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a
packaged form for take-out/take-away.
Fast food is inexpensive relative to most other food choices. Fast foods contain lots of calories,
sugar, sodium and unhealthy fats — substances that increase your risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, high
blood pressure and heart disease. Increased health risks are directly associated with increased consumption
of fast foods. Yet, as prices for fast foods increase, consumption and health risks decrease. Eating
healthier foods may reduce your health risks and your costs.
Obesity Risk Fast food increases your weight. Body Mass Index, BMI, is an indicator of body fat
that is measured according to your weight and height. The higher your BMI, the higher your risk of
obesity and chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease,
gallstones and cancer.
Diabetes Risk Consuming fast food may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes
Stroke Risk Fast food restaurants use processed foods with high amounts of sodium to flavor
your meals. Sodium is a risk factor for high blood pressure and stroke
Unit 9
Yoga and its benefits
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The History of Yoga: Ancient or Present Practice?
By Michael Taylor
verything changes. Looking around in nature, this seems like an obvious thing to say. But we
weren’t always so sure. As an example, many scientists were once pretty certain that we (people)
were created as we are, and remained unchanged ever since. The idea of chimpanzees changing over
time to create less and less furry humans seemed crazy.
But most scientists now hold evolution as a pretty solid theory. If it’s in nature, it changes. The
more recent debate has been around how. Is it a slow progression over time, almost imperceptible
unless you look across millions of years? Or are long periods of business-as-usual occasionally interrupted
with abrupt change? What does this have to do with yoga? Well, yoga changes too. It evolves. And just
like the “punctuated equilibrium” model of evolution, it appears yoga has evolved in substantial leaps
from time to time. While we may often hear talk of preserving the ancient traditions of yoga “untouched”
– the real history might not uncover itself quite in this light.
A Brief History of Yoga
The beginning. About 5,000 year ago, yoga was invented. We think this happened in the Indus
Valley, on a sunny Tuesday afternoon. We know this because we’ve uncovered stone carvings that show
people sitting in meditative-looking positions. It’s worth nothing that this is well before Hinduism
came into being. Also of interest, ancient Egyptian images from over 5,000 years ago show some pretty
good tree-poses, among other things. Concluding things about ancient times can get a little wobbly,
especially without context.
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Vedic Period. Between 3,500 and 2,500 years ago the Vedas were written, which formed the basis
for Hinduism. Yogis at this time were often solitary types, living in forests. Their interests aimed at
enduring physical hardship by sharpening their minds.
Pre-Classical Yoga. About 2,500 years ago, the Upanishads were written. The Bhagavad Gita is left
as the oldest known yoga scripture, dating to 500 BCE. Yoga practice seems to soften a bit, becoming
more meditative and less reclusive.
Classical. Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras from the defining text here, outlining the Eightfold Path of yoga:
what to do and not do, how to relate with ourselves and others, how to sir, breathe, withdras, focus,
concentrate, meditate, and of course, enlighten. It’s worth noting there is only a single mention of
physical activity here, as preparation for proper sitting.
Today. Now we have iyengar, Ashtanga, Kundalini, Strala (where I spend my time)… many choice!
Yoga likely came to the US in the 1800’s, but its popularity really emerged in the 1960’s Along with LSD
and trips to India. Yoga now is substantially more active. it’s also apparently more fun to watch, as there
is some talk of adding it as an Olympic sport.
History in Context
We know from the fossil record that dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago. If we want
to know how, we have to dig a little left and right for context, which is often where we find the most
interesting parts of the story. It’s the same with yoga history. Here, the context gives us a constant that
has it all make sense. In fact, the one constant for yoga, throughout all its changes over all this time: it
has always made sense right where it is. The practices of yoga that left a lasting mark in the record all
made sense as the right creation for people in their own time and place.
Five thousand years ago in the Indus Valley, we were all farming. People worked pretty hard on
their feet, and moved around quite a lot. Where we call those stone carvings yoga or not, it makes sense
that people needed to sit down and rest. Sitting and getting quit has a way of uncovering some interesting
things for all of us. This may have lead to increasingly long walks in the woods, and some effort to test
just how far we can go inside.
Moving along to 2,500 years ago: this was about when we came in from the fields and started living
in cities. When we live so close to each other, pretty simply, we make each other sick! Respiratory
infections abound. It makes sense for breathing techniques to find their way into yoga practice now.
Once again, sitting and breathing gives way to more interesting discoveries and texts about how capable
we are. We have all kinds of powers just waiting to be explored.
Life is a little different today. Many of us are sitting at desks for many hours every day. Then we sit
in cars. At home we’re sitting in front of another computer, or maybe the TV. So we have plenty of
sitting in our lives. Also we have high-tech food – in the convenient size of a hockey puck – that gives
as much energy as the wooly mammoth eaten by an entire cave family, So what do we need today from
our yoga? We probably need to get up, reconnect with our bodies, and move! Unsurprisingly, the styles
of yhoga that are popular today are more physical, and circle around this need.
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What’s Next
Far from unchanging, yoga has evolved substantially over time. Even if we wanted to preserve it
exactly as it was thousands of years ago, really we couldn’t; too many puzzle pieces. Luckily, we don’t
have to. And unless we’re simply into studying ancient history, it doesn’t even make sense to try.
With each major (punctuated) change in yoga throughout history, there remained this constant: the
inventors were creating what was exactly right for them, at exactly that time and place. The originators
of yoga 5,000 years ago were not likely concerning themselves with what sort of yoga cave men were
doing, what clothes they were wearing, or what language they spoke. Originators have a way of creating
what is entirely their own, from the inside out. So they likely wore their own clothes, spoke their own
language, and designed what came to them through their own intuition and creativity.
Today, yoga is undergoing another punctuated step in its evolution. For the last several decades,
emerging new yoga styles directed a tremendous amount of attention on ancient history. What would
patanjali do? Well, if he was an originator, he probably wouldn’t be studying ancient history. he’d be
going inside to bring creation outside. In short, he’d be doing yoga.
With all the focus on studying old texts, languages, and customs, this important link – between
doing and creating – has slipped from center. Academic focus on yoga makes for great historians and
discussers of yoga; but if we get stuck in the academic, we create followers rather than originators.
Doing yoga creates originators – people who believe in themselves, in their ability to find their own
path and create their own best lives. What has always been most important in yoga isn’t the studying of
yoga, it’s the doing of yoga.
If we want to create a good life, it’s not the ancient practice of yoga that we’re looking to
discover; we’re looking to discover the current practice of our selves. Everything begins here,
and we have everything we need.
The great evolution of yoga today is returning focus from ancient things to present things: to what
we need right here, in this culture, in this time. As this is where we happen to be, we’re very well
positioned for this task. Everything we need is already inside of us. Doing yoga gives us a way of going
there – connecting with our selves, our intuition, our creativity. We just need to get a little quiet and
listen. Right here is the yoga we need for today.
History of Yoga
In modern times, Yoga is heading in a direction that concerns a great many people who honour and
respect this age-old tradition. The history of Yoga spans from four to eight thousand years ago to the
current day. The physical, mental and spiritual health benefits of yoga are vast and there is something
for everyone.
So, here is a quick look at the history of Yoga which will help us appreciate its rich tradition.
The origin of Yoga can be traced as long as 5000 years back. Although it is said to be as old as
civilization, there is no physical evidence to support this claim. The earliest reference to Yoga was
found when archeological excavations where made in the Indus valley – the most powerful and influential
civilization in the early antique period.
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Archeological findings from two of the largest cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, revealed a portrait
of a human being or God meditating in what looks like a Yoga posture of Yoga poses. The stone seals
place Yoga’s existence around 3000 B.C.
Many scholars believe that Yoga origin dates back over 5,000 years to the beginning of human
civilization. Scholars believe that yoga grew out of Stone Age Shamanism, because of the cultural
similarities between Modern Hinduism and Mehrgarh, a Neolithic settlement (in what is now
In Hindu literature, the term ‘Yoga’ first occurs in the Katha Upanishad, where it refers to control
of the senses and the termination of mental activity leading to a supreme state. Important textual
sources for the evolving concept of Yoga are the middle Upanishads, the Mahabharata including the
Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. For better understanding, we can divide Yoga into
four periods: the Vedic Period, Pre-Classical Period, Classical Period, and Post-Classical Period.
Vedic Yoga
The oldest written records of Indian culture and yogic activities is found in the Vedas, which are a
compilation of hymns and rituals over 3000 years old.
During this time, the Vedic people relied on rishis or dedicated Vedic Yogis to teach them how to
live in divine harmony.
Pre-Classical Period
This period in Yoga history spans about 2000 years, until year 200. The creation of the Upanishads
– a collection of text revolving around meta-physical speculation marks the Pre-Classical Yoga period.
In this period, Yoga was slowly finding its form. And as it started spreading from teacher to student,
the concept of an individual system of thought began to take shape.
Classical Yoga
The eight-limbed yoga described in the Sutras by Patanjali is usually referred to as Classical Yoga. It
was most likely written around year 100-200 A.C. and consists of about 200 aphorisms (words of
wisdom). Here Yoga is presented in a systematic and open minded way and many yogis see it as an
important source of yogic understanding.
Patanjali believed that every individual consists of two parts – matter (prakiti) and soul (purusha)
and that the goal of Yoga is to free the soul from the material world in order to take its original, pure
During this period, Yogis attempted to use Yoga t4echniques to changes the body and make it
Post-Classical Yoga
Post-classical Yoga differs from the first three since its focus is more on the present. The Yoga of
this era was characterized by non-dualistic nature. It doesn’t strive to liberate a person from reality but
rather teaches one to accept it and live in the moment.
During this period, Yoga took an interesting turn – the potential of the human body now became
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an interesting field of study. Earlier, Yogis never used to pay attention to the (physical) body, as their
main focus was on meditation and to re-unite with the soul.
But, it was during this period that the human body was started being recognized as the temple of
the immortal soul and not just a meaningless vessel to be dumped at the first opportunity.
Thus, we see that the Yoga as we know today is a result of a complex evolution that has been going
on for at least 5000 years.
Yoga and Body Care
Importance of Yoga in cosmetology & Holistic Health
Yoga, which has been practiced in India for over two millennia, is becoming increasingly popular
and relevant for people today. it is a philosophy, a science and an art, in short a way of life. Yoga leads
to physical, mental, emotional and spiritual development. With its holistic understanding of the individual
in the macrocosm, yoga offers a person a total approach to help cope with the stress of modern life
The term yoga is derived from the word yuj in Sanskrit. Yuj means to join. Yoga is that which joins.
According to the traditional yoga + exts. the entities which are joined by yuj are the individual self
(jivatma). with the universal self (parmatma). This implies that every aspect of human being, from the
innermost to the external must be integrated.
In yoga philosophy the body is made up of a series of five sheaths
Men do not know themselves
and have not learned to
distinguish the different parts
of their being for these are usually
jumped together by them as mind.
Yoga helps us to become conscious
of the great complexity of our nature,
and different forces that move it.
- Lightson Yoga
- Shri Aurobindo
One super imposed on the other. The outermost, physical sheath (annamaya kosa) is nourished by
the food we eat. The vital sheath (pranamaya kosa) refers to the air we breath and without which there
is no life. The astral sheath (manomaya kosa) refers to the coordinating functions of the brain.
The wisdom sheath (vijnamaya kosa) aids us in discriminating and exercising our free will. The fith
sheath, the anandmayha kosa, is the consciousness which links a person with the universal consciousness.
An awareness of this complexity by itself helps a person to feet that he is a part of an immense whole
rather than an isolated unit.
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The secret of yoga is the achievement of a sense of balance and control: control on the body
breath and mind. Apart from the atoms which make up our gross physical body, we possess breath
(prana), mind, intellect, emotions and spiritual dimensions. The body’s stamina has to be developed,
the breath should be balanced, the mind calmed, the emotions stabilized, the intellect held under
control and the mind made one with the self or atma. The practice of physical postures (asanas),
entailing physical exercise and breathing techniques are the means by which to achieve this control
which is essential to lead a worthy and satisfying life.
Knowledge about yoga predator the oldest Indian scriptures, called the Vedas. Further, elaboration
about yoga is found in the holy books of the Upanishads and their commentaries in the Puranas, and
in the epics (the Ramayana and the Mahabharata) the letter containing the famous Bhagavad Gita. But
it is the great rage patanjali from the pre-christian era who is considered to be the propounder of Yoga
Philosophy. The author of works on medicine, grammar and yoga, he took the essential feature and
principles of yoga indicated in the Upanishads and compiled them in his yoga sutras. The yoga sutras
is still considered an authoritative text today. It summarizes all the various aspects of Yoga.
According to Patanjali, Yoga consists of eight steps or ‘limbs’ (anagas) which are interrelated.
These are:
The five abstinences (Yamas), which are best expressed as positives instead of negatives: nonviolence, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence and non-covetousness.
The five observances or niyamas: purity, contentment, mortification (or austerity) study and
resignation to God.
Practice of postures or asanas. Regular and devoted practice of various postures of yoga to
promote physical fitness and slow relaxation.
Practice of breath control (pranayama)
Sense-withdrawal (pratyahara): by this practice the mind gradually with draws from the objects
perceived through the senses.
Concentration (dharana): the practice of focusing the mind on some object which is unmoving.
Concentration or meditation (dhyana): the mind is made one with the object it contemplates,
and a quiet, meditative state is developed.
Intuitive enlightenment or state of bliss (samadhi): this step leads to full integration or absorption
of the individual with the essence of the object contemplated, or with the divine.
All these steps are successive stages on the path of yoga, the ultimate aim being self-realisation.
yoga, through a part of Hindu Philosophy, is not a religion through advocating liberation, yoga employs
an approach which utilizes phycho-physiologal techniques and controls. Hence what even the metaphysics
behind the aim of yoga, there is no doubt that practical benefits accrue on many levels from the
practice of yoga. In other words. People of any religious faith or belief can practice yoga and experience
true peace of mind.
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The Asanas
A Way Towards General Well-being
The practice of asanas is the third of the eight steps indicated earlier which leads to the highest
stage of yoga philosophy, namely, meditation. The Indian texts mention 8,400,000 asanas, but generally
about hundred asanas are practiced in different conditions. One of the classic yoga texts, the Hatha Yoga
Pradipika, defines the use of asanas as poses to be practiced for gaining ‘steady posture, health and
lightness of body’.
The word asana literally means seat. Originally, it referred to the pose in which the saints sat in
meditation, but now the word has come to be associated with all yogic postures. Meant to be sustained
for a given duration of time, the postures encompass a number of lying, supine, standing, sitting,
twisting, prone, inverted and balancing positions. Based on a deep understanding of the principal areas
of control of the body, the
asanas specifically focus on
the spine, which keeps the body
upright and provides the vital
channel for the nervous system.
Keeping the spine flexible
and exercising the muscles of is supine. A few months later he turns the
tr unk
suppleness, improves the
functions of the digestive and
abdominal organs and the and when a year old. He steadies endocrine glands. This makes
for more effective breathing and himself on his feet and slowly starts clams the mind generally. The
postures are meant to be to walk and run. Similarly, first asanas relaxing and refreshing.
The asanas described here are practiced lying on the back, to be are listed in the order in which
they appear in the classic text followed by those to be done in face- like Hatha Yoga Pradipika,
Gheranda Samhita and Yoga down, sitting and then standing Kundalyaopanishad. They are
categorized according to the positions’.
arduousness of the pose, from
the beginning to the
advanced, and keeping in view the ability of the practitioner. In the Central Institute for Yoga, Delhi,
yoga classes start with simple asanas, to be followed by the more complicated ones, which are practiced
over a period of a month. Over forty asanas may be performed during the course of a single practice
session, according to Balmukand Singh, yoga teacher at the institute.
In recent years, medical practitioners in India have come to recognize and accept the therapeutic
value of specific asanas for treating specific ailments. These include bronchial asthama, heart ailments,
diabetes, spondylosis, hypertension, migraine, depression, and eye-disorders, among others. The asanas
may be used as a treatment in themselves, or as a supplement to other treatments.
Normally, persons of all ages, from seven to ninety, men and women alike, may practice yogasanas.
If you have a special health condition, consult a doctor or a qualified yoga teacher before commencing
a yoga course. Select an open, clean place or room, which is quit, free of dust and fumes, and has an
even temperature. Spread a thick sheet or carpet on the floor. Now you are ready to begin. Start
practicing gradually, a few asanas at a time. Begin with the Shavasana (page 24), which totally relaxes the
body, and finish the practice session with the same asana. Relax between two asanas. Allow the breath to
settle before starting the next asana. Avoid talking, laughing or questioning during the practice and be
completely calm. Closing your eyes and concentrating on your breathing or on some symbol, like OM,
or on God’s image, enhances concentration.
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Comfortable Posture
Those who have difficulty in meditating in the
Padmasana (lotus), Sidhasana (adept) or other
meditation postures, may simply sit cross-legged. It is
very important to keep the head and body very straight,
resting the hands on the knees and without straining.
Therapeutic Advantages
Identical to those gained in other meditation
Lotus Posture
This is probably the best-known among the yoga asanas and may be
performed by all with benefit. Also called the Buddha Posture, it is a
meditation posture used to achieve the higher stages of yoga.
1. Sit on the floor. Pull each foot onto the opposite thigh and in against
the groin, with the soles of the feet upturned.
2. The heels should be close together. The knees should touch the ground.
Straighten the spine; the head and neck should be poised in line with it.
Look straight ahead.
3. Rest the upturned palm of the right hand lightly in the left one, near the
navel, or on the knees with the palms facing upwards; the thumb and
index finger are held together in a circle.
Stimulates the digestive fire (jathrangni) and is particularly helpful in curing indigestion, poor appetite
and constipation.
Elderly people might find it difficult to do this asana in the beginning. In such cases, just keep one
leg straight, bring the heel of the other foot below the groin and gradually press the flexed knee to
touch the floor.
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Adamantine Posture
In this posture the vital energy flows upwards from below and gives the body great strength. It can
be used for the practice of pranayam or
breath control and for meditation. Many
other asanas start with the Vajrasana.
1. Kneel with your knees together.
Keep the heels apart but
interlock the big toes.
2. Sit on the heels keeping the
back straight. The inner edges
of the heels support the outer
edges of the buttocks. Place the
palms on the knees and look
straight ahead. Hold the pose
for 20-60 seconds.
Apart from aiding digestion, this asana also strengthens the knees, calves and things, making it
useful for chronic ailments of the knee-joints. It also helps in problems relating to sleep.
Cowface Posture
Go means cow mukha is face in Sanskrit. This pose resembles a cow’s face when viewed from the
1. Sit on the floor as in Vajrasana (see page 19). Bend forward and raise the body, so its weight
rests on the hands. Pass the right flexed knee over the left one.
2. Sit on the left heel, resting the body’s weight on it. The soles face upwards.
3. Bend the right arm, raising the elbow high. Stretch your hand over the right shoulder, as far
down the middle of the back, keeping the spine erect.
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4. Bring the left hand up the centre of the back from below so that the hands meet. The palm of
the right hand faces the back, and the palm of the left faces outwards. Look straight ahead.
As this asana expands the lungs, it is helpful for asthma, tuberculosis and other lung disorders, high
blood pressure and mental strain. It is useful for piles and prostrate gland problems.
Knee and Head Posture
In Sanskrit, Janu means ‘knee’, and shirsha is ‘head’; hence this pose is called the Knee and Head
1. Sit on the ground and stretch your legs forward. Flex the right leg and place the heel near the
2. Hold your left toe with both hands.
3. Bend forward so that the forehead touches the knee. The elbows should touch the ground.
Repeat, alternating the position of the leg.
Benefits all parts of the body, but is especially useful in hernia and diseases of the testicles. Helpful
also for women. It should be practiced only under expert guidance.
Persons suffering from backache and sciatica should not practice this asana.
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Tringle Posture
Stand with the legs apart. Inhale as in
complete Yogic breathing whilst raising the
arms bringing them up to a horizontal
Begin to exhale, bending the trunk to
the right until the fingers of the right hand
are touching the ground behind the right
foot. The arms should form a vertical line,
with the face turned upwards. After a few
seconds, stand up again inhaling at the same
time. Perform the same movement to the left, and finish the exercise by exhaling and slowly lowering
the arms. Direct the attention to the spinal column. Repeat the asana several times in succession.
Therapeutic Advantages
This Asana tones up the muscles in the back, the hips and legs, and ensures that the hip bones are
properly in place. It soothes the neck and back aches, and makes the legs more flexible.
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Palm Tree Pose
This basic asana can be performed by a
beginner. Though it looks easy, it is difficult to
master for it requires a fine balancing of the body
and mind.
1. Stand upright with your toes and heels
together. Raise your heels gradually so that
the entire body weight is borne by the toes.
2. Gradually raise both your arms, palms
facing outwards. Stretch them upwards as
if trying to touch the sky. Look straight
ahead, resting your vision on any point in
front. Hold the pose as long as you can.
Helpful in diseases of the respiratory tract, the joints, and for aching heels and soles. Also aids in
concentration. If practiced during pregnancy, it facilitates a smooth delivery.
Lumbar Wheel Posture
The Katichakrasana, one of the asanas which is useful for both men and women, is also very useful
for dancers, as it helps to promote stamina.
1. Stand upright, keeping your feet one-and-a-half to two feet apart. Raise your arms in front of
you at shoulder level.
2. Gradually swing leftwards from your waist without changing the position of the feet. Your
arms should be parallel to each other.
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3. Reach as far back as possible. Keep your gaze on your nose. Repeat, alternating the position of
the arms.
Helps to make the waist and ribs supple and is useful in backache, neck pain, high blood pressure,
heart diseases, constipation and intestinal disorders.
Cobra Posture
One of the classic poses of yoga which can also be performed by beginners – men, women,
children and the elderly alike. The asana gets its name its name from its final pose resembling a cobra,
with its hood spread out, ready to strike.
1. Lie on your stomach and chin. Bring the palms near your shoulders, parallel to the chin.
2. Lift the chest and upper part of your stomach away from the floor, while keeping the lower
portion of the abdomen on the ground.
3. Lift the body from the genitals upwards, so it rests on the thighs. The gaze is pointed towards
the sky.
Helps in backache, cervical spondylosis, indigestion, bronchial asthma and obesity, besides
strengthening the tonsils and the thyroid glands.
Person suffering from hernia should not practice this pose.
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The Locust Posture
The Sanskrit word Slabha means ‘locust’.
Lie on the stomach, with the chin or forehead touching the ground. Stretch the arms beside the
body and lightly clench the fists. Inhale as in complete Yogic breathing, tense the arms, clench the fists
tightly and raise the legs as high as possible. Hold the position for several seconds, retaining the breach
and directing the attention to the lombar region. Then exhale and lower the legs. Relax by lying on the
stomach. Repeat the exercise two or three times.
Care must be taken not to tire the lungs by prolonging the posture or raising the legs brusquely.
Therapeutic Advantages
This is an excellent exercise for the muscles in the back, arms and abdomen. It fortifies the latter
and has a beneficial effect on the digestive organs, curing the most stubborn constipation. This Asana
brings a large supply of blood to the kidneys, thus cleaning and regenerating them.
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What is a good Posture?
Posture is the position in which you hold your body upright against gravity which standing, sitting
or lying down. Good posture invokes training your body to stand, walk, sit and lie in positions where
the least strain is placed in supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight hearing
activities. Proper posture:l
Keeps bones and joints in the correct alignment so that muscles are being used properly.
Contributes a good appearance.
Prevents strain or overuse problems.
Prevents headache and muscular pain.
Helps decrease the abnormal wearing of joint surfaces that could result in arthritis.
Decrease the stresses on the ligaments holding the joints of the spine together.
Prevents fatigue because muscles are being used more efficiently, allowing the body to use less
Helps decrease the abnormal wearing of joint surfaces that could result in arthritis
Decrease the stress on the ligaments holding the joints of the spine together.
Prevents fatigue becauses muscles are being used more efficiently, allowing the body to use less
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Shoulder, hip, knee and
ankle joints vertically
aligned with gravity line
Head erect and straight
chin level
Efficiently bearing
weight in a body of
perfect balance as nature
intended it to be
Pelvis in neutral
alignment to support the
S-curve of the spine and
ready to move the body
Weight evenly
distributed from frontto-back in feet
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How to improve your posture?
Good posture is an easy and very important way to maintain a healthy mind and body. When you
practice correct posture, your body is in alignment with itself. This can alleviate common problems
such as back or neck pain, headaches, and fatigue. Being in good general health and standing (or sitting)
tall will also boost your bearing and self Confidence. This article will show you several ways to develop
and maintain good posture.
Standing Posture
Proper standing posture is about alignment and balance. It also lends an air of confidence. Here are
some tips for achieving the correct upright correct posture:
Place your feet about shoulder width apart, the same stance you would use for working out or
many other physical activities.
Stand up straight. This is of course, the key to good standing posture, and bears repeating. As
you develop good posture habit, this will become second nature.
Keep your weight on the walls of your feet when you rest on your heels, your natural tendency
will be to slouch. Instead stand up, and make an effort to stand on the balls of your feet
Keep your shoulders squared. It may feel unnatural at first, if you have not developed good
posture habits.
Pull your head back and up. Keep your head square on top of the neck and spine as you do this,
you will look taller and leaner
Walking Posture
Walking with good posture is simply on extension of standing with good posture, keep your head
up, shoulders back, chest out and eyes looking straight ahead.
Avoid pushing your head forward.
Sitting Posture
Sitting positions for short periods of time is fine, but most of your sitting time should be spent as
described below so there is minimal stress on your spine.
Keep both your feet on the ground or footrest (if your legs don’t reach all the way to the
Distribute body weight evenly on both hips. Bend knees at right angle. Keep knees even with
or slightly lower than hips. Your legs should not be crossed.
Keep feet flat on the floor
Try to avoid sitting in the same position for more than 30 minutes.
When standing up from the sitting position, moue to the front of the hair. Stand up by
straightening your legs.
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Poor Posture
Good Posture
Poor Posture
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Tips for correct posture
Don’t tighten up your muscles when you are assuming a straight posture. It will only stress the
joints and muscles themselves and this affects the skeleton, therefore your posture and even
the way you move and breathe
Be patient with yourself. Correcting poor posture can take a long time, especially if you’ve had
bad posture for years.
Keep your head at the level that allows you to look directly ahead without having to turn your
eyes up. It you cannot do this without feeling tensions in your neck, this means you are causing
unnecessary muscle tension.
Do not keep doing exercises if you feel pain, clicking joints, pulled muscles or more than a
slight fatigue. This will not get you there faster. Instead it will frustrate you & make you less
likely to continue the exercises, as well as risking serious injuries.
Anyone with current or previous back, neck, knee or pelvic injuries should not attempt to
correct their posture themselves. This could further damage the body.
Contact your doctor or other movement education professional before trying to tamper with
your alignment.
It is important to note that whenever a person begins trying to correct their posture that they
will most likely experience pain and soreness after exercising and being self-conscious of posture.
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AshtanqaVinyasa Yoga
Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, also known as Ashtanga Yoga, is a style yoga founded(1/2)
and popularized by K. Pattabhi Jois, and which is often promoted as a modern-day form of classical
Indian yoga. Pattabhi Jois began his yoga studies in 1927 at the age of 12, and by 1948 had established
an institute for teaching the specific yoga practice known as Ashtanga (Sanskrit for “eight-limbed”)
Vinyasa Yoga. Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is named after the eight limbs of yoga mentioned in the Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali.
Eight Limbs of Ashtanga
The sage Patanjali outlined eight aspects-or “Iimbs”- of spiritual yogic practice in his Yoga Sutras.
moral codes
self-purification and study
breath control
withdrawing of the mind from the senses
deep meditation
Union with the object of meditation
Yamas, and its complement, niyamas, represent a series of “right living” or ethical rules
within Hinduism and Yoga. These are a form of moral imperatives, commandments, rules or
goals. Every religion has a code of conduct, or series of “do’s and don’ts”, and the Yamas represent
one of the “don’t” lists within Hinduism, and specifically, raja yoga.
Yarna (Sanskrit), means self-restraint, self-control and discipline. The yarnas comprise the “shallnot” in our dealings with the external world as the niyamas comprise the “shall-do” in our dealings
with the inner world.
Ten yamas are codified as “the restraints” in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and
Varaha Upanishads, the Hatha Yoga Pradipikaby Gorakshanatha,[1] and the Tirumantiram of Tirumular.
Patanjali lists only five yamas in his Yoga Sutras.
Niyarna (skt.: niyama, “restraint”, “observance”, “rule”, “restriction”, (in abl.) “certainly”,
“necessarily,,) generally denotes a duty or obligation adopted by a spiritual aspirant (or community of
same), or prescribed by a guru or by scripture (notably, the niyamas of raja yoga). The semantic range
above reflects the breadth of the term’s application in practice, and in the Buddhist sense extends to
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the determinations of nature, as in the Buddhist niyama dhammas. In Pali the spelling niyama is often
Asana (Sanskrit: asana Sitting down’, as ‘to sit down,) is a body position, typically associated with
the practice of Yoga, originally identified as a mastery of sitting still. In the context of Yoga practice,
asana refers to two things: the place where a practitioner (or yogin, in general usage), yogi (male), or
yogini (female) sits and the manner (posture) in which he/she sits. In the Yoga sutras, Patanjali suggests
that asana is “to be seated in a position that is firm, but relaxed” for extended, or timeless periods.[4]
As a repertoire of postures were promoted to exercise the body-mind over the centuries, to the
present day when yoga is sought as a primarily physical exercise form, modern usage has come to
include variations from lying on the back and standing on the head, to a variety of other positions. [5]
However, in the Yoga sutras, Patanjali mentions the execution of sitting with a steadfast mind for
extended periods as the third of the eight limbs of Classical or Raja yoga,[6] but does not reference
standing postures or kriyas. Yoga practitioners (even those who are adepts at various complex postures)
who seek the “simple” practice of chair-less sitting generally find it impossible or surprisingly grueling
to sit still for the traditional minimum of one hour (as still practiced in eastern Vipassana), some of
them then dedicating their practice to sitting asana and the sensations and mind-states that arise and
evaporate in extended sits.
Asana later became a term for various postures useful for restoring and maintaining a practitioner’s
well-being and improving the body’s flexibility and vitality, with the goal of cultivating the ability to
remain in seated editation for extended periods.[5] Asanas are widely known as “Yoga postures” or
“Yoga positions”.
Yoga in the West is commonly practised as physical exercise or alternative medicine, rather than as
the piritual self-mastery meditation skill it is more associated with in the East.
Pranayama (Sanskrit : pranayama) is a Sanskrit word
meaning “extension of the pran or “extension of the life
force”. The word is composed of two Sanskrit words, Pral),
life force, or vital energy, particularly, the breath, and
“ayam”, to extend or draw out. (Not ‘restrain, or control’
as is often translated from ‘yam’ instead of ‘ayama’). The
origins of this yogic discipline lies in ancient Bharat (India)
and what is known as present day Hinduism.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pratyahara (Devanagari Tibetan Wylie so sor sdud pa) or the ‘withdrawal of the senses’ is the fifth
element among the Eight stages of Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga, as mentioned in his classical work, Yoga
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Sutras of Patanjali composed in the 2nd century BeE. It is also the first stage of the six-branch yoga
(saqarigayoga) of the Buddhist Kalacakra tantra, where it refers to the withdrawal of the five senses from
external objects to be replaced by the mentally created senses of an enlightened deity.
This phase is roughly analogous to the physical isolation (kayaviveka, Tib. Ius bden) phase of
Guhyasamaja tantra.
For Patanjali, it is a bridge between the bahiranga (external) aspects of yoga namely, yama, niyama,
asana, pranayama, and the antaranga (internal) yoga. Having actualized thepratyahara stage, a practitioner
is able to effectively engage into the practice of Samyama. At the stage of pratyahara, the consciousness
of the individual is internalized in order that the sensations from the senses of taste, touch, sight,
hearing and smell don’t reach their respective centers in the brain and takes the sadhaka (practitioner) to
next stages of Yoga, namely Dharana (concentration) and Dhyana (meditation), and Samadhi (mystical
absorption), being the aim of all Yogic practices.
Dharana (from Sanskrit dharana) is translated as “collection or concentration of the mind (joined
with the retention of breath)”, or “the act of holding, bearing, wearing, supporting, maintaining, retaining,
keeping back (in remembrance), a good memory”, or “firmness, steadfastness, ... , certainty”.[1] This
term is related to the verbal root dhri to hold, carry, maintain, resolve.
Dharana is the sixth stage, step or limb of eight elucidated by Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga or Raja
Yoga. For a detailed account of the Eight Limbs, refer to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
Dharana may be translated as “holding”, “holding steady”, “concentration” or “single focus”. The
prior limb Pratyahara involves withdrawing the senses from external phenomena. Dharana builds further
upon this by refining it further to ekagrata or ekagra chitta, that is single-pointed concentration and
focus, which is in this context cognate with shamata. Maehle (2006: p. 234) defines Dharana as: “The
mind thinks about one object and avoids other thoughts; awareness ofthe object is still interrupted.”
Dharana is the initial step of deep concentrative meditation,. where the object being focused upon
is held in the mind without consciousness wavering from it. The difference between Dharana, Dhyana,
and Samadhi (the three together constituting Samyama) is that in the former, the object of meditation,
the mediator, and the act of meditation itself remain separate. That is, the meditator or the meditator’s
meta-awareness is conscious of meditating (that is, is conscious of the act of meditation) on an object,
and of his or her own self, which is concentrating on the object. In the subsequent stage of Dhyana as
the mediator becomes more advanced, consciousness of the act of meditation disappears, and only the
consciousness of being/existing and the object of concentration exist (in the mind). In the final stage
of Samadhi, the ego-mind also dissolves, and the meditator becomes one with the object. Generally,
the object of concentration is God, or the Self, which is seen as an expression of God.
According to the Hindu Yoga Sutra, written by Patanjali, dhyana (meditation) is one of the eight
limbs of Yoga, (the other seven being Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, and
Sarnadlu). According to Patanjali, the founder of yoga philosophy, the final stage of meditation in
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dhyana is considered to be jhana. At this stage of meditation, one does not see
it as a meditational practice, but instead merges with the idea and thought.
One cannot reach a higher stage of consciousness without jhana.
The entire Eight Limbs of the Patanjali system are also sometimes referred
to as Dhyana, or the meditative path, although strictly speaking, only the last
four limbs constitute meditation Pratyahara, Dhyana, Dharana, and Samadhi.
The preceding steps are only to prepare the body and mind for meditation.
Samadhi (Sanskrit) in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools is a higher level of
concentrated meditaion, ordhyana. in the yoga tradition, it is the eighth and final limb identified in the
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
It has been described as a non-dualistic state of consciousness in which the consciousness of the
experiencing subject becomes one with the experienced object,[1] and in which the mind becomes still,
one-pointed or concentrated[2] while the person remains conscious. In uddhism, it can also refer to an
abiding in which mind becomes very still but does not merge with the object of attention, and is thus
able to observe and gain insight into the changing flow of experience.
In Hinduism, samadhi can also refer to videha mukti or the complete absorption of the individual
consciousness in the self at the time of death - usually referred to as mahasamadhi.
Sukshma Vyayama
Sukshma Vyayama is an ancient component of yoga not known to most of the schools of yoga
today in the world. This was developed, designed and propagated originally by his His Holiness Maharishi
KarthikeyaJi Maharaj of the Himalaya. He had great kindness and compassion for humanity and taught
Swami Dhirendra Brahmachari, who in tum propagated it to the modem world, including the Nehru
family. Dhirendra Brahmachari also produced books and established institutions in Delhi and travelled
throughout the country to teach a large number of people. Shri Surya Raghava Dikshitulu of
Secunderabad learnt from Shri Dhlrendrandra Brahmachari in the 1950s and I had the great fortune of
learning from Yogasana Acharya Shri Surya Raghava Dikshitulu from in 1964 onwards.
Yogic Sukshma Vyayamaawas developed by Maharishi Kartikeya Ji Maharaj on the basis of some
of the most essential but normally not understood, mysterious aspects of Hatha Yoga relating to the
Mudras and Bandhas. Though the Hatha Yoga literature is filled with references to the profound
importance attached to the Sandhas and Mudras, many of the modem yoga schools both in India and
abroad have comfortably ignored this aspect perhaps due to their own ignorance of this subject. It is
also true that the Bandhas and Mudras are very complex can be practiced by advanced yogis in the
original form as prescribed in the yogic texts namely Hathayoga Pradeepika, Siva Samhita and so on.
The science of yoga itself was restricted to the yogis who have renounced the wol1d and who have
given up all attachments and gone Into the forest or the Himalaya. Yoga was taught and practiced only
for them, by them and amongst them. But in the recent times some of the smaller, simpler and easier
components of the yoga system were brought out from the mystery and secrecy that shrouded them,
for the benefit of the modem society by Shri Dhirendra Brahmachari and various other yoga experts.
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So, in conformity with the approach of bringing to the common people and normal society, some of
the simplified and easier aspects of Hatha Yoga, this system of Sukshma Vyayamae was developed,
designed and propagated by His Holiness Maharishi Karthikeyaji Maharaj.
As mentioned earlier Yogic Sukshma Vyayamae is a unique system of exercises not available anywhere
in the world, in any other form either in the yogic domain or in the non-yogic, physical or cultural
domain. It is so sensitive, so powerful, so scientific so deep and yet so simple that even a child after
crossing the age of ten can easily practice it and derive benefit The benefits claimed are very great and
there are also experiences collaborated by lakhs of disciples of Shri Dhirendra Brahmachari, my own
teacher Sri Dikshtulu and my many of my students. The benefits of Yogic Sukshma Vyayamaa are so
great that even without practicing the rest of the aspects of Hatha Yoga such as Asanas it is possible to
derive extremely tangible benefi1s In a very quick manner.
The other beautiful and more important aspect of Yogle Sukshma Vyayamaa is, that it is the only
system of exercises in the world where each and every part of the body Including Each organ, each
joint and each muscle is taken into consideration, and a particular exercise or set of exercises associated
with a specific type of breathing in a specific type of position with a specific point of mental
concentration is prescribed. So, starting with the top that is the head, we cover: various parts of the
brain, the eyes, nose, ears, and neck, the shoulders, arms and arm joints, finger joints and even fingertips
the upper chest , middle chest and abdomen and trunk in different aspects the thighs and buttocks,
even organs like rectum/anus and the bladder (for which exercises are very rarely prescribed) the
knees, ankles, foot, foot muscle and joints, toes and finally the big toe. So, literally “From top to toe” is
the coverage in the above mentioned sequence which is something very unique in the entire world, in
the past, present and possibly the future too.
So the Yogic Sukshma Vyayamaa as Is implied by the name, is meant for the subtle body or Sukshma
Sarira. It is not meant for the gross body or Sthula Sarira. There is a separate set of exercises for the
gross body - Sthula Vyayamaa which succeeds Sukshma Vyayamaa but it is just about half a dozen
exercises of gross nature simillar to other gross exercises such as swimming and running or various
physical and cultural exercises. Yogic Sukshma Vyayamaa, however, is on a different footing. It is meant
for the subtle body of the human being, as per Indian traditional philosophy. As per the yogic
philosophical tradition there are five bodies for every individual - the physical and the subtle: the
annamaya sarira, pranamaya sareera, manomaya sareera, vigyanamaya sareera and anandamaya sareara.
So, Sukshma Vyayamaa deals with the second level, that is the subtle body or the pranamaya sareera.
The main features or components of Sukshma Vyayamaa are (1) breathing (2) concentration point
(3) actual exercise - which involves motion most of the times though not always. Breathing of different
types: very light or very fast or very deep, sometimes through the mouth although mosUy through the
nose. This is a brief about Sukshma Vyayamaa.
The benefits once again are immense and are direct and immediate. Within a month of regular
practice, preferably twice a day, morning and evening, or once a day in the morning, before bath if
warm water, or after bath if cold water, before any kind of food, with a tight underwear and shorts, on
a mattress, either open air or indoors, without any cold or heat or rain, will lead to development of
extraordinary levels of capabilities and faculties of various aspects of the personalities both menlal and
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For those who have maladies and problems of different kind, Sukshma Vyayamaa alone is capable
of curing and preventing without taking the help of asanas or other aspects of pranayama or kriyas.
Though we do not prohibit the other aspects, Sukshma Vyayamaa is solely capable of handling all
problems, both curing and preventing, and increasing the strength and vigour of different organs and
systems in the body. Sukshma Vyayarna, though it looks very simplistic, is also going to awaken the
Kundalini If performed correcUy for a long period of time on a regular basi&. The other aspec1s of
classical Hatha Yoga which have been incorporated into package of Sukshma Vyayama, by his Holiness
Maharishi Kartikeyaji are the Sambhavi Mudra, Shanmukhi Mudra and also Tralak. The eye exercises
are from Tratak, and the ear exercise is Shanmukhi Mudra which was used in the classical yoga to get
into the trance slate of deep meditation though in Sukshma Vyayama it is only used for calming and
quietening the mind for a common man.
So, to conclude, the mudras and bandhas are utilized along with the modem motion of exercises,
movement of the muscles and bones to the extent of each and every joint of the body, each and every
bone and the muscle and organ, being given an exercise to improve its’ vigour, to improve its’ capabilities,
faculties and the performance of the individual as a whole.
What is a Yogic Diet
A yogic diet is a balanced diet that ancient Yogis believed had
a huge influence not only over our physical well being, but
also over our thoughts, and ultimately our emotional and
spiritual well being. This diet can also be called lactovegetarian, which means that it is made up of non-animal foods
with the exceptions of dairy items and honey. With continued
awareness about the body through yoga you may find that
vegetarian foods become a natural choice. It can also help you
maintain the same energized, light feeling that is achieved
through yoga. Also, if you are going a more spiritual way you
may decide that your love for every living being out weight your need for animal foods. Non-animal foods
can help you attain a higher level of spirituality by generating positive energy. You don’t need to be a ‘Yogi’
to establish this diet in your life, just a desire to live healthier and happier.
Many believe it’s difficult to switch to a non-animal diet. The thing you need to remember is that you don’t
have to stop eating meat and fish all at once. But you can gradually reduce these foods from your diet. First
cut down on red meat, and then gradually eliminate it from your diet. As you find other vegetarian foods
you enjoy, you can give up poultry and fish as well. Eating the right kind of food is important in achieving
healthy balance in your body and mind.
In yogic literature, foods that are beneficial to us are said to be Sattvic, or pure. Sattvic foods form an ideal
diet, keeping the body nourished while being easy to digest. They create new energy, clarity and a clear,
calm mind, enabling us to use all our mental, physical, and spiritual abilities. Sattvic foods include cereal,
fresh fruit and vegetables, milk, butter, nuts, seeds, lentils, rice, grains and honey.
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Impure foods that can upset our physical or emotional balance are referred to as being Tamasic (stale) and
Rajasic (stimulating). Too much of these foods can cause restlessness, agitation and a distracted mind.
Foods in this category are sour or pungent foods, like onions, garlic, curry, fish, meat, eggs, salty or spicy
foods and beverages, such as alcohol, coffee and black teas.
How to start:
Eat as many fresh fruits and vegetables as possible. Cooking vegetables destroys vitamins so you
should try to eat some raw vegetables everyday.
Whole grain products are…
Sattvic diet
A sattvic diet, also referred to as a yoga diet or sentient diet, is a diet based on foods that—
according to Ayurveda and Yoga, are strong in the sattva guna, and lead to clarity and upeksa (equanimity)
of mind while also being beneficial to the body.
Such foods include water, cereal grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, nuts, unpasteurized and
unhomogenized fresh milk and fresh milk derivatives (mostly ghee, but also butter, cream, cheese
(paneer), and yogurt (lassi), and raw honey.
Foods that are kept overnight (leftovers) are considered tamasic, as they lose their vital essences
and may have grown microorganisms. Any foods that involve the harm of another being are also
considered tamasic, and overly-sweet foods are considered rajasic. Too much spice, sugar, or salt may
render what was a sattvic food to become rajasic or tamasic.
Foods that this system considers neither positive or negative are rajasic, while those that harm the
mind or body are tamasic.
Foods that are considered the most sattvic of all are fresh milk from a happy cow (see the dairy
section), and fruit fallen from a tree. This is because there is absolutely no harm done to the organism
from which the nutrients came, but the organism gave the food willingly and with blessings.
Sattvic foods
Nuts, Seeds, and Oils
Fresh nuts and seeds that have not been overly roasted and salted are good additions to the sattvic
diet in small portions. Choices include almonds (especially when soaked in water overnight and then
peeled), hemp seeds, coconuts, pine nuts, walnuts, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds and flax seeds. Oils
should be of good quality and cold-pressed. Some choices are olive oil, sesame oil and flax oil. Most
oils should only be eaten in their raw state, but some oils like ghee, sesame oil, palm oil, and coconut oil
can be used in cooking.
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Fruit is one of the most sattvic foods, along with milk and honey. The sattvic diet considers these
foods pure because they are obtained without hurting the organism they come from – in fact humans
help that other organism. We care for the fruit tree, and it provides life-sustaining nutrients. We care for
the cow, and the cow provides life-sustaining nutrients. We care for the honey bee hive, and so on. It is
also so sattvic because fruits are very tridoshic: they are sweet, sour, and astringent – in perfect
proportions. The fruit must be eaten on an empty stomach, by itself, and must be sweet and ripe.
The milk must be obtained from an animal that has a spacious outdoor environment, an abundance
of pasture to feed on, water to drink, is treated with love and care, and is not pregnant. The milk may
only be collected once the mother’s calf has its share. Dairy products like yogurt and cheese (paneer)
must be made that day, from milk obtained that day. Butter must be fresh daily as well, and raw; but
ghee (clarified butter) can be aged forever, and is great for cooking. Freshness is key with dairy. Milk
that is freshly milked from a happy cow, still warm, is nectar to man and woman. Milk that is not
consumed fresh can be refrigerated for one to two weeks in its raw state, but must be brought to a boil
before drinking, and drunk while still hot/warm. Pasteurization, homogenization, and the use of GMOs
and pesticides are all poisonous to humans. As is the consumption of milk from cows that are treated
poorly, and consuming cold milk.
Most mild vegetables are considered sattvic. Pungent vegetables like hot peppers, leek, garlic and
onion are excluded, as are gas-forming foods such as mushrooms (tamasic, as are all fungi) and potatoes.
Some consider the Solanaceae family (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes) as not sattvic, but
most consider the Allium family (garlic, onion, leeks, shallots), as well as fungus (yeasts, molds, and
mushrooms) as not sattvic. The classification of whether something is sattvic or not is defined largely
by the different schools of thought and even then individually understanding and needs of practitioners.
Sometimes the given nature of these foods can be neutralised by careful preparation. A practice is to
drink freshly made vegetable juices for their prana, live enzymes, and easy absorption.
Whole grains
Whole grains provide nourishment. Some include organic rice, whole wheat, spelt, oatmeal and
barley. Sometimes the grains are lightly roasted before cooking to remove some of their heavy quality.
Yeasted breads are not recommended, unless toasted. Wheat and other grains can be sprouted before
cooking as well. Some preparations are kicharee (brown or white basmati rice cooked with whole or
split mung beans, ghee and mild spices), kheer (rice cooked with milk and sweetened), chapatis (nonleavened whole wheat flat bread), porridge (sometimes made very watery and cooked with herbs), and
“Bible” bread (sprouted grain bread). Sometimes yogis will fast from grains during special practices.
Mung beans, lentils, yellow split peas, chickpeas, aduki beans, common beans, organic tofu, and
bean sprouts are considered sattvic if well prepared. In general, the smaller the bean, the easier to
digest. Preparations include splitting, peeling, grinding, soaking, sprouting, cooking and spicing. Legumes
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combined with whole grains can offer a complete protein source. Some yogis consider the mung bean
to be the only sattvic legume.
Some yogis use raw honey (often in combination with dairy) and jaggery, a raw sugar (not refined).
In some traditions, sugar and/or honey are excluded from the diet, along with all other sweeteners.
Sattvic spices are mild spices including basil, cardamom, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, fennel,
fenugreek, fresh ginger and turmeric. Rajasic spices like black pepper and red pepper are normally
excluded, but are sometimes used in small amounts, both to clear channels blocked by mucus and to
counter tamas. Salt is good in strict moderation, but only unrefined salts, like Himalayan salt or sea salt,
not iodized salt.
Sattvic herbs
Other herbs are used to directly support sattva in the mind and in meditation. These include
ashwagandha, bacopa, calamus, gotu kola, gingko, jatamansi, purnarnava, shatavari, saffron,
shankhapushpi, tulsi and rose.
Rajasic (stimulant) foods
Stimulant foods, also called mutative foods, mutable foods or rajasic foods, are foods that
often provoke mental restlessness. They are not completely beneficial, nor are they harmful, to body or
mind. Foods that cannot be categorized as either sentient or static are classified in this food group.
These foods are thought by some to cause aggressive and dominating thoughts, especially towards
Stimulant foods energize and develop the manipura (navel) chakra and body but do not promote
advancement in the higher chakras.
Such foods include: caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea (both black and green), cola drinks,
energy drinks, brown or black chocolate, gingko biloba, spicy food, salt, and unfertilized egg.
Tamasic (sedative) foods
Sedative foods, also called static foods, or tamasic foods are foods whose consumption, according
to Yoga, are harmful to either mind or body. Harm to mind includes anything that will lead to a duller,
less refined state of consciousness. Bodily harm includes any foods that will cause detrimental stress to
any physical organ directly or indirectly (via any physical imbalance).
They are, however, sometimes necessary during times of great physical stress and pain. They help
dull the pain and lower consciousness, allowing the body to repair itself. Such static foods may be
deemed necessary in times of war or great distress.
Static foods stimulate and strengthen the lower two chakras, but will not assist in beneficial
development of the higher chakras. In fact they are usually detrimental to the advancement of the
higher chakras.
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Such foods include: meat, fish, fertilized egg, onion, garlic, scallion, leek, chive, mushroom, alcoholic
beverage, durian (fruit), blue cheese, opium, and stale food.
Scriptural references
In Patanjali’s Yoga sutra, in the section on niyama, there is a word called tapas. Tapas here includes
ahara niyama—right food but in limited quantity. So, niyama, which is a personal discipline, includes
regulation of food habits. In other texts, like Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the author, before talking about
pranayama, insists on proper food habits.
Unit 10
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Naturopathy and Indian
Body Treatments
aturopathy, also called naturopathic medicine, is a whole medical system—one of the systems of
healing and beliefs that have evolved over time in different cultures and parts of the world.
Naturopathy is rooted in health care approaches that were popular in Europe, especially in Germany, in
the 19th century, but it also includes therapies (both ancient and modern) from other traditions. In
naturopathy, the emphasis is on supporting health rather than combating disease.
The practice of naturopathy is based on six key principles:
1. First do no harm. Naturopathic practitioners choose therapies with the intent to keep harmful
side effects to a minimum and not suppress symptoms.
2. Recognize, respect and promote the self-healing power of nature inherent in each individual
human being.
3. Treat the whole person. Practitioners believe a person’s health is affected by many factors,
such as physical, mental, emotional, genetic, environmental, and social ones. Practitioners
consider all these factors when choosing therapies and tailor treatment to each patient.
4. Treat the cause. Practitioners seek to identify and treat the causes of a disease or condition,
rather than its symptoms. They believe that symptoms are signs that the body is trying to fight
disease, adapt to it, or recover from it.
5. Prevention is the best cure. Practitioners teach ways of living that they consider most healthy
and most likely to prevent illness.
6. The physician is a teacher. Practitioners consider it important to educate their patients in
taking responsibility for their own health.
Naturopathy is a form of treatment of diseases through elements of nature. Nature is made of five
elements - Jal ( water), Vayu (air), Agni (fire), Akash ( sky) and Prithvi ( Earth). These elements also
constitute our body. We get sick when there is imbalance in these elements and body just reacts to this
imbalance by trying to get rid of impurities in form of cough, vomiting, fever etc. Therefore, it is
beneficial to cure diseases not through drugs or surgery, but with help of these five elements.
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Hydrotherapy is any treatment that incorporates water for therapeutic purposes The use of water
for therapy has been around for hundreds of years, as far back as the ancient Greeks and Romans, and
forms an integral part in many traditional medicine systems.
How Does Hydrotherapy work?
The healing properties of hydrotherapy are based on its mechanical and/or thermal effects. It
makes use of the body’s reaction to hot and cold stimuli, to the protracted application of heat, to the
pressure exerted by the water, and to the sensation of the water itself. Nerves carry what is felt by the
skin deeper into the body, where it is then vital in stimulating the immune system, influencing the
production of stress hormones, improving circulation and digestion, encouraging the flow of blood,
and lessening the body’s sensitivity to pain.
Generally speaking, heat is used to quiet and soothe the body, and to slow down the activity of
internal organs. Cold is used to stimulate and invigorate, increasing internal activity within the body. If
you are experiencing tense muscles or anxiety, heat is recommended in the shower or bath. For feeling
tired and stressed out, it is recommended to take a warm shower or bath followed by a short cold
shower to help stimulate the body and mind.
When submerged in a body of water such as a bath or a pool, there is a kind of weightlessness, as
the water relieves your body of much of the effects of gravity. Water also has a hydrostatic effect and
has a massage-like feeling as the water gently kneads your body. Water, when it is moving, stimulates
the touch receptors on the skin, increasing blood circulation and releasing tight muscles.
There are many types of hydrotherapy. Here is brief description of some of them.
Hydro-massage: This type of hydrotherapy involves use of warm water. This technique aims at
applying thermal, mechanical, or chemical massage to the body through the water. Hydro-massage
helps in relaxing and relieving pain and tension in the muscles, while improving blood circulation. In
addition, hydro-massage alleviates soft tissue and muscle injuries caused by arthritis, injuries from
activities like sports, chronic and acute pain, and pregnancy. It also helps in case of diseases and ailments
such as tendinitis, lupus, insomnia, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, Crohn’s Disease, spondolylosis
among others. Hydro-massage is also an effective treatment especially during stress management.
Colon hydrotherapy: Also known as colon cleansing, colon hydrotherapy involves infusion of
warm water into the rectum. The water contains no chemical, drugs or herbs. Colon hydrotherapy is a
painless and beneficial procedure that helps in cleansing the whole colon of aged and built up waste.
The procedure is carried out by a therapist who examines the pressure and temperature of the water
first before infusion. This type of hydrotherapy aims at improving the digestive system and overall
health of gastrointestinal tract.
Kneipp system: Developed by Sebastian Kneipp, the Kneipp system involves use of hot and cold
water on the skin and carried out in a Kneipp bath. Kneipp system helps in improving the immune
system through toughening and reinforcing it. Other treatments classified under Kneipp system include
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dew walking, water treading, and snow walking. The effects of Kneipp system are wide and include
positive segmental, consensual, immune system, and physiological responses. In addition, the system
helps relieve trauma, and muscle tension (local reaction).
Steam bath: Steam baths are used to treat bronchitis, asthma, skin problems, pain and allergies.
Steam inhalation: Here water is boiled in a large pot. Steam is inhaled. Steam inhalation provides
relief from sinus infections and nasal congestion. People with high blood pressure should avoid steam
Sitz bath: This is also called as hip bath. Here only the hip is soaked in water or saline solution. The
Sitz bath can either be cold or hot or can alternate between hot and cold. A Sitz bath is used to treat
hemorrhoids, uterine cramps, prostate problems, impotence, inflammation, vaginal discharge,
constipation and other abdomen related ailments.
Full immersion bath: Here the person is immersed in water (up to shoulder level) for around 20
minutes. The temperature of the water is maintained at around 90 degrees Fahrenheit. The water may
be plain or it may contain herbs, salts or oils. This form of hydrotherapy produces relaxation.
Cold foot bath: Here the feet are immersed in cold water (up to the ankles) for around one minute.
Cold foot baths provide relief to tired feet. It is also found to be effective against insomnia, headaches,
sprains and varicose veins.
Warm foot bath: In this type of foot bath, the feet are immersed in warm water (around 97
degrees Fahrenheit) for around ten minutes. Then it is followed up with a quick cold foot bath. This
treatment stimulates blood vessels. It is also found to be effective in treating bladder infections, cold
feet and insomnia. People with high blood pressure should avoid warm foot bath.
Hydrotherapy Also Categorized As:
Balneotherapy - The use of hot springs, mineral, or sea waters to restore and revitalize the body,
improving circulation, fortifying the immune system, as acting as a pain reliever and anti-stress treatment.
Iodine-Grine Therapy - Mineral baths, naturally rich in salt and iodine, used mostly in Europe for
recuperation and convalescence.
Kneipp Treatments - Combining hydrotherapy, herbology, and a diet of natural foods. Includes
the use of herbal bath oils, eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary, meadow blossom, spruce, pine, juniper,
chamomile, and hops to comfort body and mind.
Swiss Shower - Standing body massage delivered with high-pressure hoses. This invigorating shower
tones circulation by contracting, then dilating capillaries as water from 16 needle-spray shower heads
and two high-pressure hoses fluctuates from hot to cold to hot for several seconds at a time, aiding in
circulation and helping relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism.
Thalassotherapy - Using the therapeutic benefits of the sea, and seawater products for their
vitamins and minerals, which can heal and reinvigorate skin and hair. Treatments include: Individual
baths of fresh seawater equipped with powerful underwater jets for deep massage; or a therapist applying
manual massage to body with water pipes. A body wrap using seaweed or sea algae paste to eliminate
toxins, restore minerals and skin elasticity.
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Colour Therapy
This therapy makes use of the fact that sunrays comprise seven colours of varying wavelengths,
each affecting the body differently. There exists a balance of colors in human body. When we fall sick
this balance is disturbed. Color therapy is helpful in reestablishing the balance of colors in human body
and curing the disorder. These colours are employed through irradiation on body or by administering
charged water or oil and pills
Mud Therapy
Mud therapy is done with mud pack and mud bath. It is useful in curing skin conditions such as
boils, pimples and patches, and is also effective in improving digestion. Mud absorbs toxins from the
body, relaxes the body and reduces swelling.
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yurveda can be defined as a system, which uses the inherent principles of nature, to help maintain
health in a person by keeping the individual’s body, mind and spirit in perfect equilibrium with
Ayurveda is a Sanskrit term, made up of the words “ayus” and “veda.” “Ayus” means life and “Veda”
means knowledge or science. The term “ayurveda” thus means ‘the knowledge of life’ or ‘the science of
life’. According to the ancient Ayurvedic scholar Charaka, “ayu” comprises the mind, body, senses and
the soul.
The aim of this system is to prevent illness, heal the sick and preserve life. This can be summed up
as follows:
To protect health and prolong life (“Swasthyas swasthya rakshanam”)
To eliminate diseases and dysfunctions of the body (“Aturasya vikar prashamanamcha”)
Tridoshas and Prakruti of Body :
Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth, the five basic elements, manifest in the human body as three
basic principles, or humors, known as the tridosha. From the Ether and Air elements, the bodily air
principal called vata is manifested. (In Sanskrit terminology, this principle is called vata dosha.) The
Fire and Water elements manifest together in the body as
the fire principle called pitta. The Earth and Water elements
manifest as the bodily water humor known as kapha.
These three elements vata - pitta - kapha govern all the
biological, psychological and physiopathological functions
of the body, mind and consciousness. They act as basic
constituents and protective barriers for the body in its
normal physiological condition; when out of balance, they
contribute to disease processes. The tridosha are responsible
for the arising of natural urges and for individual preferences
in foods: their flavors, temperatures and so on. They govern
the creation, maintenance and destruction of bodily tissue,
and the elimination of waste products from the body. They
are also responsible for psychological phenomena, including
such emotions as fear, anger and greed: and for the highest
order of human emotions such as understanding,
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compassion and love. Thus, the tridosha are
the foundation of the psychosomatic
existence of man.In general, there are seven
types of constitutions: (1) vata, (2) pitta, (3)
kapha, (4) vata-pitta, (5) pitta-kapha, (6)
vatakapha and (7) vata-pitta-kapha. Among
these seven general types, there are
innumerable subtle variations that depend
upon the percentage of wta-pitta-kapha
elements in the constitution.
The constitution is called prakruti in
Sanskrit, a term meaning nature, creativity
or the first creation. In the body, the first expression of the basic five elements is the constitution. The
basic constitution of the individual remains unaltered during the lifetime, as it is generally determined.
The combination of elements present at birth remains constant. However, the combination of elements
that governs the continuous physiopatho-loyical changes in the body alters in response to changes in
the environment.
Threegunas :
In addition to the three doshas that form the physiological constitution, Ayurveda recognizes three
psychic energies, or gunas, that comprise the mind and determine your psychological character. When
the three gunas are balanced, they keep the mind and body healthy. An imbalance, however, can produce
mental and physical disorders.
We live in a magical universe filled with great forces of life and death, creation and destruction.
Divine powers can be found everywhere to lift us into a greater peace and understanding. But undivine
forces are also ever present, working to lure us down further into confusion and attachment. Truth and
falsehood, ignorance and enlightenment form the light and dark, the illumination and shadow of the
world. In this basic duality of creation we struggle not merely to survive but to find meaning in our
lives. We must learn to navigate through these contrary currents so that we can benefit by the ascending
spiritual force and avoid the descending unspiritual inertia.
Nature herself is the Divine Mother in manifestation and the universe is her play of consciousness.
She provides not only for material growth and expansion that moves outward, but supports our spiritual
growth and development, which moves within. Nature possesses a qualitative energy through which
we can either expand into wisdom or contract into ignorance. Nature functions through conscious
forces, spirits if you will, which can be either enlightening or darkening, healing or harming. Most of
these powers are unknown to us and we do not know to use them. Trained as we are in a rational and
scientific manner to look to the outside we lack the ability to perceive the subtle forces hidden in the
world around us. However for any real healing of the mind to be possible, we must understand these
forces and learn how work with them as they exist not only in the world but in our own psyche.
Ayurveda provides a special language for understanding the primal forces of Nature and shows us
how to work with them on all levels. According to Yoga and Ayurveda, Nature consists of three primal
qualities, which are the main powers of Cosmic Intelligence that determine our spiritual growth. These
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are called gunas in Sanskrit, meaning “what binds” because wrongly understood they keep us in bondage
to the external world.
1) Tamas – substance, creates inertia
2) Rajas – energy, causes imbalance
3) Sattva – intelligence, imparts balance
The three gunas are the most subtle qualities of Nature that underlie matter, life and mind. They
are the energies through which not only the surface mind, but our deeper consciousness functions.
They are the powers of the soul which hold the karmas and desires that propel us from birth to birth.
The gunas adhere in Nature herself as her core potentials for diversification.
All objects in the universe consist of various combinations of the three gunas. Cosmic evolution
consists of their mutual interaction and transformation. The three gunas are one of the prime themes
of Ayurvedic thought. They form a deeper level than the three biological humors and help us understand
our mental and spiritual nature and how it functions.
Tamas is the state of mind dominated by density and inertia. Tamas is the quality of dullness,
darkness, and inertia and is heavy, veiling or obstructing in its action. It functions as the force of gravity
that retards things and holds them in specific limited forms. It possesses a downward motion that
causes decay and disintegration. Tamas brings about ignorance and delusion in the mind and promotes
insensitivity, sleep and loss of awareness. It is the principle of materiality or unconsciousness that
causes consciousness to become veiled. An imbalance of Tamas causes apathy, lethargy, delusion, and
drowsiness. In severe instances, these can turn to hate, vindictiveness, addiction, perversion, and other
forms of self-destruction.
Rajas represents the world of action, movement from the darkness of Tamas into the light. But
the mind in Rajas is easily fooled by illusion, and those suffering from an imbalance of Rajas often
succumb to ambition, greed, lust, materialism, and a desire to control and dominate. Rajas is the quality
of change, activity, and turbulence. It introduces a disequilibrium that upsets an existing balance. Rajas
is motivated in its action, ever seeking a goal or an end that gives it power. It possesses outward motion
and causes self seeking action that leads to fragmentation and disintegration. While in the short term
Rajas is stimulating and provides pleasure, owing to its unbalanced nature it quickly results in pain and
suffering. It is the force of passion that causes distress and conflict. Our society is overwhelmed by the
Rajas mindset.
Sattva manifests itself as lightness of being, clarity of mind and purpose, perception of wisdom, and
acquisition of knowledge. Sattva is the quality of intelligence, virtue and goodness and creates harmony,
balance and stability. It is light (not heavy) and luminous in nature. It possesses an inward and upward
motion and brings about the awakening of the soul. Sattva provides happiness and contentment of a
lasting nature. It is the principle of clarity, wideness and peace, the force of love that unites all things
together. Sattvika individuals are spiritual leaders, teachers, and healers. Noble, spiritual, and wise, the
Sattva mind represents the culmination of human evolution. It is the mind illumined by the spirit.
While the three gunas are important for determining psychological health, physical health is dependent
on the physical constitution, known in Ayurveda as prakrti. The three doshas - Vata, Pitta, and Kapha
- determine by their predominance in an individual his or her prakruti.
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International Therapies
romatherapy is the name given to a unique branch of herbal medicine that uses the medicinal and
therapeutic properties of the oils found in various plants. These special oils are called essential oils
and are incredibly potent. The name “aromatherapy” is actually a little misleading, because it implies
that the “aroma” of essential oils is the primary healing agent. Actually, essential oils can be used in
many different ways: “The real beauty of aromatherapy is that the essences work on a cellular and
physical level, and also in the emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and aesthetic areas of your life”. “Essential
oils” are the therapeutic, volatile oils that come from plants. In aromatherapy, the word “volatile” is not
meant as “explosive” or “inconsistent.” Rather, this refers to the meaning: “evaporating readily at
normal temperatures and pressures...[an oil that] changes readily from solid or liquid to a vapor [as in]
‘it was heated to evaporate the volatiles’”. Essential oils may be found in leaves, rinds of fruit, seeds,
bark, heartwood of trees, flowers, and any other part of a plant, so long as the oil has medicinal or
otherwise therapeutic use.
10 Useful Essential Oil Profiles
Tea tree oil
Also known and sold as “melaleuka oil,” from its binomial Melaleuca alternifolia –is quite unique in
that it is one of the very few “neat” oils (which can be used undiluted on the skin) and simultaneously,
one of the most powerful therapeutic essential oils available. It can counteract bacteria, fungi, and
viruses, and can be used to eliminate parasites. It also inhibits inflammation, protects the skin, and
eases pain. Of note is that the oil “has also been shown to penetrate the outer layers of the skin and
attack infections, helping to heal wounds”.
Lavender may be the best-known essential oil on the market today. The most potent form of
lavender is the oil, which contains high concentrations of its active ingredients. According to The
Complete Guide to Natural Healing, “The finest oil is distilled from Lavandula officinalis, a variety of
lavender that grows only at altitudes above 3,000 feet and is particularly resistant to heat and cold”.
Where this particular kind of Lavender oil is concerned, the herb’s flower buds are harvested by hand
at midday, when the oil content is highest; the essential oil is then extracted using steam distillation.
The best-known active components in Lavender oil are geraniol, cineole, and coumarin. These
three compounds act strongly as cleansing and germicidal agents. It is believed that they are particularly
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valuable for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. And as you’ve likely heard, Lavender
oil has many uses: “It is a powerful antiseptic containing more than 200 compounds that are active
against fungi, viruses, and other microbes”. Lavender can be used to relieve nervousness, anxiety,
difficulty in falling asleep, stomachaches, middle-ear infections, burns, eczema, insect bites, and other
skin inflammations, among its many, many uses.
Another well-known oil, Peppermint is actually a hybrid of two mint species, Mentha aquatica and
Mentha spicata. Somehow, this translates into the binomial Mentha x piperita...though most essential
oil suppliers will simply label it as Mentha piperita. “In all its uses, Peppermint oil is refreshing to the
mind, body, and spirit” (The Complete Guide to Natural Healing, 3:14). It is especially well-known for
its use to improve concentration and focus. (This works, because the scent triggers the hippocampus, a
part of the brain linked to memory.) It’s also quite effective for easing colds, sinus infections, bronchitis,
fever, coughs, bad breath, headaches, intestinal cramps, diarrhea, and mental exhaustion.
The principal active ingredient in Eucalyptus oil is eucalyptol, which has strong germicidal and
disinfectant properties. Not so commonly known are its functions as a diuretic, and an agent to lower
blood sugar. “Eucalyptus oil is an effective analgesic and is often used in preparations designed to
relieve muscle, nerve and joint pain” . On an emotional and mental level, it can help to combat exhaustion
and sluggishness.
Cinnamon is one of the most commonly used spices in the world today; it’s been an ingredient in both
Indian and Arabic cooking for centuries. There are actually two different kinds of Cinnamon oil: that
from the bark, and that from the leaves. Though both oils have similar properties, it is commonly suggested
that the bark’s oil is particularly good for diffusing, while the leaf ’s oil is best used in topical treatments.
The Complete Guide to Natural Healing states that “the primary components of Cinnamon oil are
eugenic acid and cinnamic aldehyde,” and that “these constituents are highly antiseptic and have a warming,
stimulating effect on both body and mind”. Cinnamon oil is traditionally used to help alleviate muscular
pain and joint problems (including arthritis). It is also effective as a repellant for head lice, for battling
colds, and stimulating circulation. On an emotional level, Cinnamon essential oil can be used to “calm
your anxieties and strengthen self-confidence...[and is] useful for instilling emotional strength”.
Like other essential oils in the citrus family, Lemon oil comes from the peel of the fruit, not the
flesh. It has been used in laundry and cleaning products because of its clean and healthy smell.
Fitzsimmons and Bousquet suggest that “both the smell and appearance of lemon point to its strengths:
concentration, cleansing, and mental warming” (pg. 36). Indeed, Lemon essential oil is most commonly
used in aromatherapy to uplift and focus the mind. It’s also used as an aerial disinfectant. Lemon oil
contains such active ingredients as terpenes and citronellal, which have a strong germicidal and
antibacterial effect. This makes it particularly useful for treating colds, flus, and other infections. Lemon
oil can also positively affect varicose veins, poor appetite and exhaustion.
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Clary Sage
As an essential oil, Clary sage has antiseptic, deodorant, antispasmodic and antiinflammatory
properties (Fitzsimmons and Bousquet, pg. 72; The Complete Guide to Natural Healing, 3:25). It has
been widely used as a natural treatment for eczema and psoriasis, as well as for minor cuts and wounds.
Clary sage oil is also estrogen stimulating; “the oil’s ability to balance fluctuating hormones makes it a
highly beneficial remedy for PMS, painful menstrual cramps and the hot flashes and migraines associated
with menopause” (The Complete Guide to Natural Healing, 3:25). Apparently, the oil has even been
used during pregnancy to help minimize labor pains. Clary sage oil is comprised of such therapeutic
components as linalool, sclareol, monoterpenes and tannins, which give it its therapeutic qualities. Its
range of uses is wide, but it seems to be most commonly used for muscle aches and tension, labor
pains, menstrual cramps, psoriasis and acne, dandruff, dry hair, melancholy, and depression. Emotionally,
it is useful when dealing with fear, stress, and anxiety.
It is spicy, warm and sweet and “possesses antispasmodic, antiviral, and antiseptic effects” (The
Complete Guide to Natural Healing, 3:50). It also has analgesic qualities generations have used it
topically, for example, to treat toothaches. On an emotional and psychological level, clove oil “is a
mental stimulant...and helps romance” Clove oil’s mild anesthetic properties come from its eugenol,
acetyleugenol and oleanolic acid. These components in particular also make the oil a good treatment
for disinfecting canker sores and wounds. In general, aromatherapists use clove essential oil to treat
headaches, muscle pain, gum inflammations, stomachaches, gas, and diarrhea.
Yarrow essential oil lives up to its powerful reputation. The flavanoids present in the oil “dilate the
peripheral arteries and induce sweating, while alkaloids help to lower blood pressure” (The Complete
Guide to Natural Healing, 3:27). In addition, its tannins give it astringent properties, and the compounds
cyaniding, azulene, and salicylic acid make it an anti-inflammatory. But wait there’s more! “Yarrow oil
also contains the volatile oils borneol, camphor, isoartemesia ketone, cineole, and terineol as well as
amino acids, lactones, saponins, coumarins and sterols”. What this means for us is that yarrow essential
oil possesses valuable laxative, analgesic, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, stimulant and antiseptic
properties. The traditional usage of yarrow oil has been to treat cuts and abrasions; its antiinflammatory
and antibacterial properties make it a good choice for this. However, a truly versatile oil, it can also be
used to relieve muscle pain, stomach cramps, flatulence, painful menstruation, irregular menses, sinus
congestion, fevers, skin inflammation, stretch marks and varicose veins, and it can be used “to support
meditation and strengthen intuition”.
Sandalwood essential oil contains a high percentage of terpene-containing alcohols, primarily alphasantalol and beta-santalol; these compounds give the oil its antispasmodic, germicidal, and expectorant
effects. However, it must be said that the oil’s best-known use is more emotional in nature: “You can
use the healing aroma of the sandalwood tree to promote feelings of peace and serenity,” (Enhancing
Your Body, Mind, Spirit, 1:42) or use it as an aphrodisiac for “its highly relaxing and erotic effects”. The
oil is thick and yellow and is steam distilled from the heartwood of the tree. As such, it has a warm,
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balsamic, woody scent that both mellows and becomes more complex as the oil matures. It has been
used as spiritual protection, by Aromatherapists who work on that level. And, as suggested above, is
traditionally “associated with male energy and is used as an aphrodisiac for men” (Bowles, pg. 144).
Other medicinal uses include treating respiratory and urinary-tract infections, skin blemishes, dry skin,
eczema, tension, depression, and anxiety.
Stone Massage
Like all massage techniques, hot stone massage is a method for relieving soreness and relaxing
tension in the muscles of the body. The hot stones applied to the body penetrate deeply and the stones
used by the therapist make it easier to apply the therapeutic effects of manipulation. Hot stone massage
therapy has become popular only within the last five to ten years and has recently become all the rage
in spas and therapeutic centers. It is, however, a very old technique.
The hot stone massage is connected to ancient Mayan practices, but it is in India that we find its
true beginnings. According to, the hot stone massage dates back 5000 years to the
Ayurveda, a very old Indian healing tradition. This envisaged an energy called prana, or the “breath of
life.” Yogis worked with this energy through breathing techniques, exercise, and massage with the aim
of healing and increasing longevity. You will still hear therapists use Indian terms such as chakras, the
seven energy centers of the body somewhat akin to acupuncture nodes. The yogis also used “tools”
from the earth, such as herbs, crystals, flowers and stones. The stones have survived in hot stone
massage, as well as the herbs and flowers used in the massage oils. Heated stone massage is still a
relatively new massage therapy, and many may be a little wary of what is entailed in this massage
Massage Technique
Step One
The stones themselves are volcanic basalt often sourced from beaches in Mexico or Chile. Between
48 and 56 stones of varying sizes are heated to between 130 to 145 degrees Fahrenheit in a specially
designed water heater. It is important that the temperature of these stones be at this level, so that they
will be neither too cold nor too hot. If the water is too cold, harmful bacteria may form; too hot, and
the client will complain loudly. In most cases, eight flat stones are placed in pairs on the massage table
that will neatly align with your spine when you lie down. A linen cloth or towel will be placed between
you and the stones. There will also be a range of many massage oils available. Grapeseed, lavender,
olive, and rose oils are favorites.
Step Two
After a person lise down with the table stones bracketing her spine, the therapist will massage her
face with a light coating of oil and place a small massage stone on each cheek, one under his lip, and
another on her forehead. The forehead stone marks the “third eye”, betraying the therapy’s Indian
Step Three
Oil is massaged into her legs one at a time, then the therapist, using a suitably sized massage stone,
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will rub each side of herleg. The amount of pressure applied will depend on her. The harder the
pressure, the more deeply the muscles are affected. When the therapist is finished with her legs, then he
will place a small stone between each of the person’s toes.
Step Four
The arms will be oiled and massaged using medium stones. When each arm is completed, the
therapist will put a warm massage stone in your palm.
Step Five
After the arms are completed, the therapist will take back the palm stones, remove the stones from the
person’s face and from between the toes, and ask her to turn over. While she does this, therapist will also
remove the eight spinal stones. At this point, oil is massaged into the person’s back and the therapist will
also begin to massage with long strokes using a hot stone, paying particular attention to acupressure
points. He or she will then place a hot stone on each shoulder, one on each scapular area, and one on the
sacrum or lower back. She will also put another medium rounded stone in each of the person’s palms.
Step Six
After finishing the person’s back, the therapist will uncover her legs and place massage stones just
under the buttocks, on the back of the knees, and on the calves. This hot stone therapy will draw out
any remaining tenseness in the legs.
Step Seven
The neck and shoulders will be massaged now, and finally the scalp.
Step Eight
Now all the stones are removed and the therapist will go over the back and leg area with a nerve
stroke using just the tips of the fingers.
Some therapists are more closely involved with Indian prana and the seven chakras, or energy
centers, of the body, and they use the gemstone associated with each center in their therapy. There are
several gemstones for each chakra, but the most common are:
Garnet for the red chakra located at the base of the spine, which gives vitality to the body.
Carnelian for the orange chakra located in the navel area, and associated with procreation, sexuality,
and creativity.
Citrine topaz for the yellow chakra located at the solar plexus, which vitalizes the sympathetic
nervous system.
Rose quartz or jade for the pink and green chakra located at the center of the chest, which is
connected to love and devotion.
Aquamarine for the light blue chakra located at the throat and associated with speech and
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Lapis for the blue chakra located at the center of the forehead, the third eye, which vitalizes the
brain and nervous system.
Amethyst for the violet of clear chakra located at the crown of the head, which vitalizes the brain
and is connected to spirituality.
The advantages over any other type of massage therapy available are Firstly, it is the heat of the
larger stones placed around the body that helps to increase blood flow to the area being worked on. It
also relaxes the muscles. Increased circulation combined with heat accelerates the healing process. In
addition, the warmth generated in the body by the stones enhances mental tranquility.
The use of a hot stone in the actual massage also has advantages. It is much easier for the therapist
to adjust the pressure of the massage stroke using a stone instead of just his or her hands. It also
enables her to pinpoint more accurately spots that need that little bit of extra work. Last, but not least,
it is a massage method which is much less stressful to the joints of the therapist’s hands.
Hot stone massage therapy, with or without prana and chakras, offers something extra not available
with other massage methods. The warmth supplied by the heated stones helps release all of the tensions
and literally gives a deep down warm feeling in general.