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ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 Polytechnics Pula Accredited higher technical business school Riva 6 52100 Pula Academic year: 2010/11 SYLLABUS COURSE: ELECTROTECHNICS 2 Study: Regular and irregular, attended on the 2nd year of study in 1st – winter semester Number and mark of the course: 79676 Web site of the course: www.politehnika-pula.hr, Elektrotehnika ECTS grades: 5 ECTS grades. Class hours per semester: 30 (P) + 30 (AV) + 15 (S) + 15 (LV) + 12 (DZ) + 47 (SU) = 150 h Location of classes: Riva 6, lectures – small classroom no 1, laboratory for electrotechnics and electronics, room no. 6 Main lecturer: Scientific title, name, vocation: Prof. Luciano Delbianco,Ph.D., Higher education professor and scientific associate Room number:5 Time of consultations: Tuesday from 12 to 1 p.m. in the room no 5 Phone: 099 218 4103 e-mail: [email protected] Web site: www. politehnika-pula.hr (elektrotehnika) Associate: Zlatko Gašparović, eng., lecturer Room number: Time of consultations: Phone: 098 855 224 e-mail: [email protected] Web site: www. politehnika-pula.hr (elektrotehnika) Associate: Radovan Jokić, M.Sc., eng Room number: Time of consultations: Phone: 091 237 4468 e-mail: [email protected] Web site: www. politehnika-pula.hr (elektrotehnika) 1 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 1. PRECONDITIONS AND CORRELATIVITY Expected general and specific competences of the students for application of the course Electrotechnics 2 For the successful participation in the course Electrotechnics 2, the following is required: - To have knowledge of the basic high school contents from elementary mathematics, physics and informatics; - To finish the courses Electrotechnics 1, Mathematics 1 and 2, Physics 1 and 2 and Implementation of the electronic computers - To adopt elementary mathematics, derivation, differential equations, integrals, vectors, matrix calculus, orders and sequences and complex calculus; - To know how to use Widows (Word, Microsoft Office Outlook, Microsoft Office Excel, Microsoft Office Power Point) and Internet. Preconditions Before the attendance of the course, Mathematics 1 and 2 and Physics 1 and 2 have to be finished. Correlativity and correspondence of the course There is no correlativity and correspondence with other first year courses, except partially with Physics 2 in LC and RC oscillator in the course unit: electromagnetic waves, nonsilenced and silenced oscillations. The course is correspondent to the similar programs at the higher education schools in Croatia and EU. 2. GOALS AND METHODS Course goals Within the course of Electrotechnics 2, the students are introduced to the basic notions, laws and methods of analysis of the electronic circles of temporally alternating currents, and with the laws which describe phenomenon and effects of the magnetic field from the qualitative and quantitative, application aspect. Learning outcomes and general competences 2 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 After finishing and passing of the course, the students will be able: 1. To solve simpler and more complex networks of alternating currents; 2. To use the acquired knowledge in the similar courses (electronics, measurement, automatization, electro-energetics etc.) 3. To use the acquired knowledge for independent learning 4. To follow the development of the electro-energetics and telecommunications 5. To participate or to innovate the electrical devices ; 6. To foresee and to solve the problem of electrical current dangers 7. To calculate the simpler electricity lines regarding the heating and drop of the voltage; 8. To calculate and construct small transformers (up to 1000VA); 9. To understand and to participate in solving the problems about the quality of the electric energy; Methods and ways of encouraging the achievement of the learning outcomes and the general and specific competences To realize the learning outcomes and related competences, the technology of the classes is based upon the lectures, observatory-experimental methods, auditory exercises, practical and laboratory exercises, seminary works, homeworks and the field classes (for example, the visit of the electroenergetics museum Karojba). The lectures and the auditory exercises are implemented every week in two terms, according to the time schedule 2 + 2 hours. Laboratory exercises are implemented in 2 cycles for now, according to the plan of course realization. 3. COURSE IMPLEMENTATION Lectures The lectures are conducted according to the executive teaching program. The content of the course is divided into the thematic units which are processed in weeks of classes. The topics are grouped in three cycles, and the content of the course is, along with the theoretical explanations, exercised also through the solving of the numerical equations, so that, through the individual numerical examples, the theoretical knowledge is supplemented by practical examples, and the general laws are established. After each cycle, a written examination is conducted (inter-examination – partial examination). For each topic, the students can read a document with detailed description of the contents which will be the topic of the lectures. Laboratory exercises 3 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 During each cycle of lectures, the classes in laboratory are conducted, where the students are introduced to the practical electrotechnics. In our web sites, the students can find the most important data for preparation of these exercises (laboratory papers with the required introduction, preparatory tasks and the manner of implementation of exercises etc.) Before attending the exercises, the students have to be prepared (by making the preparatory tasks), which will be evaluated by the exercise facilitator. One group consists of maximally 2 students. Each cycle of exercises can be the subject of evaluation on the final examination or on the following partial examination. Homeworks During the semester, the students are given harder tasks from the field of alternate networks (symbolic calculus), bridges of alternate current, magnetic circles, calculus of transformers and silencers etc., which have to be solved according to the given instructions and submitted according to the deadline defined by the plan of execution of specific activities. As a rule, 2 homeworks have to be done. Seminary During the semester, the students are given one seminary paper from the field of alternating networks, bridges of alternating current, magnetic circles, calculation of transformers and silencers etc., which have to be solved according to the given instructions and submitted according to the deadline defined by the plan of execution of specific activities. Seminaty paper is a teamwork of theoretic and practical contents, and the results of the work are presented in public. Tests/exercise tasks Beside the testings made with the goal of grading and ranking, the students have at their disposal tests (tasks) for self-examination of knowledge for every unit of the course; these are a part of preparation for the inter-examinations (partial examinations). The tests are solved independently, or in cooperation with the teachers. Although every question can be part of examination, it is still useful and necessary to answer the questions from the previous examinations. When the students prepare for examination, it is recommended to solve such question individually. Simulations and virtual laboratory For better physical and mathematical explanation of individual parts of the course content, there are adequate programs (these are the programs intended for the „transport“ within the Internet), which can help in understanding of the individual physical-phenomenological events related to electrotechnics. Individual „visualization“ contains the adequate description of the physical phenomena, as well as the instruction for program operation. Contemporary teaching methods include the computer technology in various manners. Beside the large number of educative programs at the local level, in recent times, global systems of teaching have been developed, which are based upon the implementation of Internet. By distribution of the interactive teaching contents through the Internet network, their availability and actuality is increased. Traditional forms of the classes are supplemented or even replaced 4 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 by the so called distance learning, where the notion „distance“ is to be understood in the sense that the student is not at the same place as the teacher. Here we have shown the part of the course content Electrotechnics 2 which relate to the simulations and animations of the experiment, i.e. to the visualization and explanation of some physical phenomena. Computer technology enables the so-called virtual experiment. Of course, the virtual experiment, i.e. simulation cannot replace the real experiment completely, but it can help in preparation of execution of the real experiment, or it can be the supplement of the real experiments. Certain real experiments, especially those from the fields of magnetism, which require expensive equipment and specific environment, can be replaced by the virtual experiments, with additional explanations. With the use of Internet, the experiment can be transferred and reproduced in every location. Consultations For all questions and issues related to the course content, the students can ask other students, assistants and professors. With this purpose, they are given the e-mails of the teaching personnel and the possibility of personal consultation with the teachers in the defined terms. Poll questions On the initial page, there are poll questions with the goal of improvement of the classes. Poll questions are changed during the semester (teaching process). Since the poll questions are a part of the teaching process, the students are obliged to answer them (polls are anonymous). Student obligations During the individual cycle of the classes, the obligations of the students are: - regular attendance and participation in classes; - making of all laboratory exercises; - writing and timely submitting of homeworks; - teamwork in writing and making of the seminary paper; - preparation for the examination (inter-examination), as well as for other tests of knowledge. For preparation of the inter-examinations and final examinations and other tests of knowledge, the students have, beside their notes from the lectures, the following course materials on their disposal: - slides from the lectures on Web; - numerical tasks for exercises (Collection of exercises from Electrotechnics 2) as the written material in the form of scripts, which can be acquired in the School administration department. - consultations with the teacher in accordance with the published weekly schedule. Various course materials can be found on the WEB sites of Electrotechnics. Evaluation of the achieved outcomes in learning (grading of the acquired knowledge) 5 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 Each cycle is completed with the written examination (inter-examination or partial examination). The examination is taking place in the week after the class cycle, simultaneously for all students. After the last cycle of lectures, the students are obliged to pass the final examination. The final examination envelops the questions from the total course content, and it consists of written and oral part. 4. FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE EVALUATION AND GRADING During the semester, the attendance of the students on the classes is monitored, and the execution of the obligations is evaluated. After each course unit, the evaluation of the students' knowledge is conducted through the oral examinations and through the quick tests; these tests are not graded. After each cycle of lectures, students have to pass the inter-examination. A student who does not achieve the required minimal result is obliged to repeat the inter-examination. At the end of the course, the students approach the final examination. The criteria for approaching the final examination for the students are following. - Regular attendance on the classes (of 30 classes, they can be absent 8 times); - Activity on classes; - Passing of all laboratory exercises; - Writing the homework on time; - Writing, making and presenting the team seminary work; - Passing of all three inter-examinations. The students who have not achieved enough number of points on the final examination to get the positive grade will be enabled to approach another evaluation of knowledge on repeated final examination. Repeated final examination can be approached also by the students who have achieved positive grade on the first final examination, but are not satisfied with the grade. Each student who approaches the repeated final examination will have his/her points achieved on the first final examination erased. The students who have not achieved positive grade on the repeated final examination will be enabled to approach another repeated examination in April. All the previously mentioned activities and obligations in the course are evidenced in the students' diary. Elements of knowledge evaluation and the allocated points 1. Class attendance 0 to 5 points • Up to 4 absences 5 points • 5 to 8 absences 3 points 6 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 • more than 8 absences 0 points 2. Homeworks 0 to 5 points • 1 homework – magnetism 0 to 2,5 points • 1 homework – alternate current 0 to 2,5 points The number of points depends upon the accurary of the answers, upon the articulation and orderliness, timely submittal etc. 3. Seminary paper 0 to 5 points 4. Inter-examination 1 0 to 15 points 15 questions with 5 possible answers. Correct answer brings 1,0 point, incorrect answer -0,5 points, non-answering 0 points. Interexamination lasts 75 minues. For passing grade, the student has to achieve at least 8 points. 5. Inter-examination 2 0 to 15 points 15 questions with 5 possible answers. Correct answer brings 1,0 point, incorrect answer -0,5 points, non-answering 0 points. Interexamination lasts 75 minues. For passing grade, the student has to achieve at least 8 points. 6. Inter - examination 3 0 to 15 points 15 questions with 5 possible answers. Correct answer brings 1,0 point, incorrect answer -0,5 points, non-answering 0 points. Interexamination lasts 75 minues. For passing grade, the student has to achieve at least 8 points. 7. Laboratory exercises: 0 to 10 points Execution, processing and submittal of 5 laboratory exercises. Each exercise carries 0 to 2 points. _____________________________________________________________________________ Total of points during the classes: (1 ÷ 7): maximum 70 points 8. Final examination: Final examination consists of oral examination. 0 to 30 points TOTAL (1÷8): 100 points (100%) The student can acquire a total of 100 points. The number of points is also shown in percentage (%). 7 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 The final (oral) examination can be approached by the students who have, during the semester, acquired at least 35 points – at least 8 points on each of the interexaminations; they are also required to attend the classes regularly, to make homeworks and seminary paper, to conduct the laboratory exercises and to submit the laboratory papers; the students cannot have 0 points from any of the above mentioned elements. To pass the examination, the student has to acquire at least 50 points. The questions in the oral part of examination can be asked from any part of the course content, laboratory exercises, homeworks or inter-examinations (partial examinations). The students are given the list of possible questions. Formation of the final grade: Numerical system of the points is compared with the ECTS system of grades, as follows: 90 to 100 points 77 to 89 points 64 to 76 points 51 to 63 points 0 to 50 points excellent very good good satisfactory unsatisfactory A B C D,E FX,F 5 4 3 2 1 5. CONTENT OF THE COURSE, LABORATORY EXERCISES AND EXAMINATIONS Content summary Basics of magnetis, inductivity and inter-inductivity. Periodically alternate electrical units. Principles of solving of the circles of alternate current in the complex area. RLC circles. Frequential characteristics. Power in the circles of alternate current. Circles of alternate current with several sources. Three-phase systems. Circles with harmonically placed units. Transfer phenomenon. Content of laboratory exercises: 1. Oscilloscope measurement of the network voltage parameters and the half-wave and twowave corrected network voltages. 2. Serial resonance. 3. RLC connectors ( measurement of the important parameters of the inductive connector FC) 4. Measurement of the magnetic flow density (laws of field distribution in the vicinity of small transformer). 5. Connection into star and triangle. 6. LITERATURE Obligatory 8 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 V. Pinter: Osnove elektrotehnike, part I and II, seventh issue, Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 1989. L. Delbianco: Lectures from Electrotechnics 2 published on the Web sites of the Higher technical school – Polytechnics study Pula) ( www.politehnika-pula.hr ) R. Čuturilo et al.: Zbirka zadataka iz Elektrotehnike 2, Temporal issue, Visoka tehnička škola-Politehnički studij Pula, 2000. (skriptarnica VTŠ-e). Additional literature E. Šehović, M. Tkalić, I Felja: Osnove elektrotehnike - zbirka primjera, part I, fifth issue, Školska knjiga, Zagreb,1992. Tony R. Kuphaldt: Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume I - VI , Fifth Edition, last update October 18, 2006. R. Boylestad: Introductory Circuit Analysis, Fifth Edition, Merrill Publishing Company, 1987. B. Kuzmanović: Osnove elektrotehnike I i II, Element, Zagreb, 2000 (2002). B. Jajac: Teorijske osnove elektrotehnike, svezak II i III, Graphis, Zagreb, 2007. Links There exist an enormous number of links related to the notions from electrotechnics. Some of these are: http://webphysics.davidson.edu/ http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/ http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11d/ http://www.k-wz.de/ http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/ http://users.skynet.be/orbus/history1.htm http://www.ocw.mit.edu/index.html http:evangelion.mit.edu/802teal3d/ http://www.falstad.com/ http://www.circuit-magic.com/ http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/java/index.html http://www.dwiarda.com/scientific/Bridge.html http://www.ngsir.netfirms.com/ http://www.virtual-oscilloscope.com/ http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits/index.htm http://www.hazelwood.k12.mo.us/~grichert/sciweb/electric.htm http://lorentz.cc.fer.hr/ http://www.valdosta.edu/~cbarnbau/math_demos_folder/ 9 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 7. OPERATIONAL PLAN OF CLASSES Plan of lectures from ELECTROTECHNICS 2 per weeks and hours 10 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 Week Hour Topic 1 2+2 ELECTROMAGNETISM. Permanenet and electro magnets. Magnetic force fields, flow and density, magnetic permeability and excitation, law of flow. 2 2+2 Biot – Savart's law. Helmholtz yokes. Electromagnetic induction. Faraday's law. (Lenz's law). Shift voltage. Self-induction. Inter-induction. 3 2+2 Forces in the magnetic fields. Amper's law in elementary form. Hall's voltage. Coulomb's law. 4 2+2 Matter in magnetic field. Absolute and relative permeability. Curve of iron magnetization. Magnetic hysteresis. Magnetic circle, serial connection. Parallel connection of magnetic voltages. 5 2+2 Energy of the magnetic flow. Connection of the inductive yoke to the direct voltage. Energy of the yoke system. Sheme of energy transformation in (p,t) and (B,H) diagram. Attractive force of magnets. Permanent magnets. 6 2 2 1st inter-examination ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES. Basic considerations about the changeable currents. Alternate currents Sinusoid changeable currents. Effects of alternate current. Medium and effective value. Electrolitical medium value. Proportional factors. 7 2+2 Connection of the omic, inductive and capacity resistance of inductive resistance. Power, energy and power factor of alternate current. The angle of the phase shift of current and voltage. Triangle power. Pseudo power 8 2+2 Vector image of the sinusoid values. Složeniji strujni krugovi izmjenične struje. Serijski spoj R i L i R i C. Serijski spoj R, L i C. Paralelni spojevi. Djelatna i jalova komponenta napona i struje. 9 2+2 Simbolički način rješavanja mreža izmjenične struje. Serijski spoj R, L, C. Kompleksna impedancija. Paralelni spoj R, L, C. Kompleksna vodljivost. 10 2+2 Ohmov zakon i Kirchhoffova pravila u kompleksnom obliku. Mješoviti spojevi R, L, C. Proračun mreža izmjeničnih struja. Mostovi izmjenične struje. 11 12 2 2nd inter-examination 2 Polyphase currents. Three-phase current. Non-related three-phase systems. Symmetric three-phase systems in star connection. Relation of phase and line values. Triangle connection. Star connection. 2+2 Order of phases of 3-phase system. Artificial nul-point. Rotating magnetic field of three-phase current. Two- and four-phased system. Power of threephase current. 13 2+2 Inter-inductivity in alternate current 11 networks. Air transformers, general equation and supplement sheme, constructions. DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 14 2+2 Non-sinusoide alternate currents, effective values and power of nonsinusoide values, disfigurement factor. Response of RC, CR, RL and LR 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 CONTENT OF THE COURSE ELECTROMAGNETISM. Introduction, permanent magnets and electromagnets. Magnetic field, image, types, direction. Values for the quantitative description of the magnetic field, analogies: Coulomb's law, absolute and relative permeability, measuring unit. Magnetic field of straight conductor and yoke. Biot-Savart’s law and its applications to simpler cases, Helmholtz’s yokes. Forces on the straight current conductor in magnetic field. Electrodynamic forces, resistance of the electric facilities and devices, electrodynamic instruments. Laws of electromagnetic induction, shift voltage, induction of voltage by change of the flow, self-induction. Self-inductivity. Lenz’s law. Calculation of inductivity for simpler practical cases. Mutual induction, inter-inductivity, factor of connection, transformers. Switching on and off of the yoke with R and L in direct electricity circle. ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES. Basic considerations about changing currents. Changing values in general. Meaning of the reference direction. Signifying by the double indeks. Quantity of the electricity flow. Periodically changeable currents. Alternating currents. Sinusoid changeable currents. Phase angle and phase shift of the changeable values. Effects of the alternating current. Electrolisis or chemical effect. Electrical heat. Creating of the magnetic field. Measuring of the changeable electric values. Medium value. Effective value. Electrolitical medium value. Proportional factors. Principle of generators of alternating voltage. Current and voltage relations in the alternating current circles. Connection of the om resistance. Connection of the inductive resistance. Connection of the capacitor. Power and energy of the alternating current. Angle of the phase shift of current and voltage. Power of the alternating current and power factor. Graphic image of the power of alternating current. Triangle of powers. Pseudo power. Graphical image of energy in temporal domain. Vector image of the sinusoid values. Mathematic basics of vector imaging. Adding and subtracting of the alternating values. Complex electric circles of alternating current. Serial connection R and L. Serial connection R and C. Serial connection R, L and C. Parallel connections. Functional and barren component of voltage and current. Real yokes and capacitors. Symbolic manner of solving the alternating current networks. Use of the complex calculus in solving the alternating current networks, forms of complex numbers. Serial connection R, L, C. Complex impendancy. Parallel connection R, L, C. Complex conductibility. Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's rules in complex form. Examples of symbolic calculus in networks of the alternating current networks. Mixed connections R, L, C. Alternating current networks (method of contour currents, Thevenin's method etc.) Bridges of alternating currents. Power imaged in complex area. Theorem of maximum of useful power in the alternating current networks. Resonance in power circles of alternating current. Serial resonance. Characteristics of frequency. Parallel resonance. Frequency characteristics. Polyphase currents. Three-phased currents. Principle of three-phase generator construction. Non-related three-phased systems. Symmetrical three-phased systems in star connection. Relation of phase and line values. Triangle connection. Star connection. Order of phases in 3-phased system. Artificial nul-point. Rotational magnetic field of three-phased current. Symmetric component of non-symmetric systems. General data about polyphase systems. Two-phase and four-phase system. Power of three-phase current. Inter-inductivity in alternate current networks. General considerations about directions of the induced voltages with the application of L and M coefficients. Application of the magnetic flows to the voltage calculation. Resultant inductivity, of the serially connected yokes. Air transformers. General equation and supplement sheme. Reduction of the secundary values of transformers. Making, safety transformers. Non-sinusoid alternating currents. Basic notions, origin, frequent analysis. Effective values and power of the non-sinusoid values, factor of deformation. Reduction and removing of higher harmonics. Response of RC and CR network to right-angled and sequence of right-angled impulses. Response of RL and LR network to right-angled and sequence of right-angled impulses. . 12 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 15 2+2 SELECTED CHAPTERS Electro-energetics. 16 2 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 17 x 3rd inter-examination Final examination Sadržaj međuispita i završnog ispita 18 2 Repeated inter-examination Inter-examination 1 : Magnetic fields Inter-examination 2: Periodically changeable currents and vector imaging of the 19 x sinusoid values. Repeatedthree-phase final examination Inter-examination 3 : Symbolic calculus, systems and non-sinusoid values. Final examination : Consists of oral examination and envelops total course content, including the laboratory exercises and homeworks. Questions from Electrotechnics 2: Notion: Every question includes: 1. Physical image of the problem 2. Practical – experimential foundations 3. Analitical expressions (mathematic) and extrapolation of simpler formulas 4. Explanation of the problem through drawing, if needed 5. Vectorial images, if needed Magnetism 1. What are the magnets, types, poles, attraction and repulsion 2. Magnetic field, notion, image, direction, types 3. Magnetic flow, notion, units and measurement 4. Coulombo's law for magnetism, abs. and rel. permeability 5. Power of the magnetic field, magnetic induction, magnetic voltage, units, measurement, relations 6. Magnetic field of the straight conductior, field of more conductors 7. Magnetic field of yoke 8. Helmholtz's yokes 9. Force on straight current conductor in magnetic field 10. Force on the current curve in magnetic field, principle of electromotor operation, instruments with movable yoke 11. Electrodynamic forces, damages in facilities and use for electrodynamic instruments 12 .Induction of voltage by „cutting“ the force fields, principle of work of generator 13. Induction of voltage by change of the flow 14. Voltage of self-induction, inductivity 15. Lenz's law and applications 16. Calculation of inductivity of cylindrical yokes 17. Mutual induction, inter-inductivity, connection factor, principle of work of transformer 18. Switching on and off of yoke with R and L in the direct current circle 19. Serial, parallel and mixed connection of inductivity 20. Forces in magnetic field on the charges in motion, directing the electronic spout, Hall's generator 21. Iron magnetizing, curve of first magnetizing 22. Hysteresis 23. Division of matter in magnetic sense 24. Laws of magnetic circle, law of magnetic flow, magnetic resistance 13 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 25. Serial, parallel and mixed magnetic resistance (examples) 26. Permanent magnets 27. Biot – Savart's law, calculation of B in the center of the circular curve 28. Energy of the magnetic field 29. Bearing force of the magnets Alternating currents 30. Origin of synus voltages, analitical expression of sinus voltage, phase-shifted voltages 31. Characteristic values of the alternate units 32. Proportional factors 33. Skin effect 34. Functional device in the alternate current circle, vector images 35. Ideal coil in the alternate current circle, vector images 36. Ideal capacitor in alternate current circle, vector images 37. Operational power, energy and work 38. Futile power, energy and work 39. Pseudo power, triangle of powers 40. Power factor (first harmonics) 41. Repairing of power factor 42. Serial connection R and L 43. Serial connection R and C 44. Serial connection R, L and C 45. Multiplex serial connections R, L and C 46. Parallel connections RLC, vector images, conductibility, power 47. Triangle of currents, resistance, power and voltage, conductibility 48. Serial resonance 49. Parallel resonance 50. Real yoke 51. Real capacitor, angle of losses 52. Alternating units shown in complex numbers 53. Algebraic, exponential, polar and trigonometric form of the complex number and mat. Operation 54. Bridges of alternate current, equation of bridge balance for the single type of bridge 55. Two-phase system, line and phase values, neutral conductor 56. What is three-phase voltage and current, origins 57. Non-related three-phase system 58. Connection of gen. and transformera into star, line and phase values 59. Connection of gener. and transf. into triangle 60. Connection of devices into star and triangle 61. Symmetric burdening 62. Non-symmetric burdening – connection into star with nul-conductor, calculation of current through nul-conductor 63. Non-symmetric burdening: connection into star without nul-conductor, calculation of voltage of devices 64. Determining the voltage of nul-point according to Millman 65. Power of three – phase system (for connection into star and triangle) 66. Symmetric components of non-symmetric systems, factor of non-symmetry 67. Revolving magnetic field, principle of asynchronic and synchronic motors, sliding and number of torns of the motor 68. One-phase real transformer: principle, physical image, transferial proportion 14 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009 ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 69. Backlash, short circuit and transformer load 70. Basics of the transformer calculus, basic equation of the calculus 71. Yoke with iron – silencers, application 72. Types of transformers, autotransformers 73. Non-synusoid values: origins, frequent analysis 74. Power of non-synusiod values, effective value of current 75. Distortion factor 76. Reduction and removal of higher harmonics 77. RC network: response to the right-angled impulse 78. CR network: response to right-angled impulse 79. RL and LR networks: response to right-angled impulse 80. Compensation of power factor in the three-phased system 15 DINP: ELEKTROTEHNIKA 2 2009