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Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates? 1 of the 6 essential nutrients and your body’s main source of energy Sugars, starches and fibers in your diet How Much Do You Need? Follow the MyPyramid recommendations 2 cups of fruit per day, 2 ½ cups of vegetables per day, and 6 ounces of grains Simple Carbohydrates Sugars Natural sugars lactose in milk, fructose in fruit Accompanied by vitamins and minerals Refined sugars Table sugar. No nutritional benefit Candy, soft drinks, cookies, cakes Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Starch and fiber (found in plants) Excellent source of vitamins, minerals and fiber Breads, cereal, rice, pasta, vegetables Fiber Is the non-digestible portion of food that helps maintain regularity and keeps the digestive tract healthy. Some types of fiber may help prevent cancer, lower blood cholesterol and decrease risks of heart disease. Good food sources are breads, fruits, and vegetables (oatmeal, cabbage, carrots, beets, cauliflower) Carbohydrates Health benefits by choosing more complex and fewer simple carbohydrates Top 5 carb sources for US Adults Bread, soft drinks, cookies and cakes, sugar/syrups, potatoes Are these good choices? Objectives 1. List the functions of carbohydrates. 2. Explain how the body uses carbohydrates. Four Key Functions of Carbohydrates •Provide energy •Spare proteins •Assist in the breakdown of fats •Provide bulk in the diet Functions of Carbohydrates: Provide Energy •your body’s top priority is to provide enough energy for all cellular activities needed to sustain life •carbohydrates are the preferred source of energy WHY? Because your body can use them efficiently as a fuel supply If your diet does not provide enough carbohydrates, your body will draw mainly upon proteins for fuel needs Functions of Carbohydrates: Spare Proteins Background Information: •if needed, your body can use proteins as an energy source •your body is less efficient in using proteins •if you eat too little carbohydrates, your body will use proteins for its major functions By eating adequate amounts of carbohydrates, you spare the proteins— this means you allow the proteins to be used for their more vital roles Functions of Carbohydrates: Break Down Fats If the diet is too low in carbohydrates, the body cannot completely break down fats Incompletely broken down fats form compounds called ketone bodies Ketone bodies collect in the blood stream and become acidic—causing damage to cells and organs (ketosis) Functions of Carbohydrates: Provide Bulk in the Diet •fiber is the carbohydrate responsible for this task •fiber helps promote normal digestion and elimination of body wastes •fiber swells and makes you feel full •fiber also slows the rate at which the stomach empties Functions of Carbohydrates: Provide Bulk in the Diet Benefits of Fiber in the Diet: •Prevent appendicitis •Decrease risk of heart and artery disease •Lower risk of colon cancer •Controls diabetes soluble fiber: dissolves in water and develops a gel-like consistency—it helps lower blood cholesterol levels Example: oat bran, legumes insoluble fiber: does not dissolve in water—it helps reduce the risk of certain cancers Example: wheat bran and whole grains How Your Body Uses Carbohydrates •all carbohydrates must in the form of glucose for your cells to use them as energy sources •to get them in this form, your digestive systems first breaks down all poly-and disaccharides into monosaccharides How Your Body Uses Carbohydrates The monosaccharides are small enough to move across the intestinal wall into the blood They travel via the blood to the liver Any fructose and galactose in the blood is converted to glucose in the liver Functions of Carbohydrates Provide Energy Spare proteins Help in the breakdown of fats Provide bulk in the diet Provide Energy Carbohydrates provide 4 kilocalories per gram Body’s preferred source of energy So if I have a food with 10 grams of carbohydrates, how many calories would that food provide? Spare Proteins Proteins build and maintain cell structure If you do not eat enough carbohydrates, your body will begin to use proteins for energy If proteins are used as energy, they can’t be used to build and maintain cell structure Help in the Breakdown of Fats If you don’t consume enough carbohydrates, your body cannot completely break down fats Your body will begin to breakdown it’s own stored fat for energy This may lead to ketosis and this could cause a person to slip into a coma and die Complex Carbohydrates Starches and Fiber Too Much Carbohydrate Dental carries/cavaties Sticky carbohydrate foods like raisins, cookies, crackers and caramels tend to cling to teeth and cause tooth decay Weight gain Sugars and starches you eat are converted to glucose in the bloodstream and stored in the liver as glycogen. The liver can only store a limited amount of glycogen. When you consume more carbohydrate than the liver can store, it is converted to fat. The body can store an unlimited amount of fat. Too Little Carbohydrate Ketosis Associated with low carbohydrate diets o o Glucose is the preferred source of energy. When that is not available, the body begins to draw on fat stores for energy Symptoms include: o tiredness, headache, feeling thirsty all the time, bad breath, metallic taste in the mouth, weakness, dizziness, nausea or stomach ache, sleep problems Which would be a better source of energy for a distance runner? How did you come to your conclusion? OR Video A short video summing up what we’ve discussed Answering these questions: List 2 foods that contain starches What are healthy sources of sugars? Sugars are broken into __________ to be used as energy by the body. Types of Carbohydrates Saccharides (sugar units) Monosaccharides-single sugar units Disaccharides (2 sugar units) Glucose (blood), fructose (fruits) and galactose (milk) Sucrose (table sugar), maltose, lactose (milk) Polysaccharides (many sugar units) Starch, fiber (found in plant foods) Functions of Carbs Provide Energy Preferred source of energy; your body uses effeciently Spare Proteins Don’t eat enough carbs, have to breakdown proteins for energy Proteins are vital to build and maintain cell structure Functions of Carbs Break down fats Low carbs, can’t completely break down fats Can cause ketosis ( damage organs and make breath smell like nail polish remover) Provide bulk in the diet Fiber helps maintain a healthy digestive system Provide Bulk What is bulk? To increase in size; expand, swell When you eat fiber, it swells helping you stay full longer Starches Starches are our body’s preferred source of energy Starches are an excellence source of vitamins, minerals and fiber Examples include rice breads, cereals, pasta, dry beans Meeting Your Carbohydrate Needs: Starches •Starches are the preferred source of fuel for your diet. •Your body can burn them efficiently for energy and they have greater satiety value than simple sugars. •Many starchy foods are also excellent sources of vitamins, minerals and fiber. Meeting Your Carbohydrate Needs: Fiber Determining fiber needs •Take your age and add 5 to determine how many grams of fiber you should include in your diet daily Example: if you are 15 years old, 15+5= 20 grams of fiber per day Use this formula to age 20, then aim for 25 to 35 grams of fiber per day Meeting Your Carbohydrate Needs: Fiber How to increase your fiber intake •Choose whole grain products •Use fiber supplements supplement: a concentrated source of a nutrient, usually in a pill, liquid or powder form Increase your intake of fiber slowly and drink plenty of water. Using Food Labels to Meet Your Carbohydrate Needs Examples of refined sugars brown sugar invert sugar corn sweetener sucrose corn syrup lactose dextrose maltose fructose honey glucose molasses sugar Health Questions Related to Carbohydrates Does sugar cause hyperactivity? hyperactivity: a condition in which a person seems to be in constant motion and is easily distracted •Researchers have conducted many studies but have found NO proof that consuming sugars causes behavior changes in most people. •Sugar only gives children energy needed to fuel activity. Health Questions Related to Carbohydrates Is sugar addictive? •Some people seem to crave sweets all the time—some believe this type of craving qualifies as an addiction, or habitual need. •Experiments have shown that if animals have a poorly balanced diet, they will eat excessive amounts of sugar. •Research has shown people are born with a preference for sweet-tasting foods. •Researchers think the need for sugar is more psychological than physiological—in other words, people eat sweets because they enjoy them, not because they are addicted to them. Diabetes diabetes mellitus: a lack of or an inability to use the hormone insulin sugar and starch convert to glucose which enters the bloodstream insulin regulates the blood glucose level by stimulating cells to pull glucose from the bloodstream when the body does not make enough insulin or fails to use insulin correctly, glucose builds up in the bloodstream Diabetes Two types of diabetes Type I or insulin-dependent diabetes—the pancreas is not able to make insulin •Occurs most often in children and young adults •must use insulin injections Type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes—body cells do not respond well to the insulin the pancreas makes •More common •Occurs in adults over 40 •Can be controlled with diet Diabetes Symptoms of Diabetes •Excessive hunger and thirst accompanied by weakness, irritability and nausea •Changes in eyesight •Slow healing of cuts •Drowsiness •Numbness in legs, feet or fingers Hypoglycemia hypoglycemia: a low blood glucose level an overproduction of insulin causes blood sugar to drop sharply 2-4 hours after eating a meal the CNS depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood when sugar is too low, physical symptoms appear—sweating, shaking, headache, hunger and anxiety Lactose Intolerance lactose intolerance: an inability to digest lactose, the main carbohydrate in milk •This condition is caused by a lack of the digestive enzyme lactase, which is needed to break down lactose. •People who are lactose intolerant may experience gas, cramping, nausea and diarrhea when they consume dairy products. •Occurs more often among nonwhite populations and tends to develop as people age.