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Transcript
1001
Technical Article
Only One Name Means ProTek’Tion™
Transient Voltage Suppression Diodes
By: Ivan G. Lawson
Silicon TVS diodes contain a P/N junction similar to a Zener diode but with a larger cross section, which is proportional to its surge power rating. These diodes
are clamping devices that limit voltage spikes by the low impedance avalanche
breakdown of the P/N junction.
The V-I curve shown in Figure 1 is similar to that of a Zener diode. TVS diodes are
designed and characterized for transient voltage suppression, while Zener diodes
are designed and specified for voltage regulation.
CURRENT I
IFPP
+
P-N
-
IF
Vc
BV
VR
VOLTAGE V
IR VF
-
P-N
Deciphering TVS Electrical Characteristics
• Stand-Off Voltage (VWM) - the maximum continuous dc or peak voltage which
may be applied over the standard operating temperature range. VWM is
normally 10% below the breakdown voltage (VBR).
• Breakdown Voltage (VBR) - the voltage measured across the device at a specified pulsed dc current (IT or IBR) on the V/I characteristic curve at or near to
where the breakdown (avalanche) occurs. Also known as the voltage across
the device in the breakdown region prior to the switching point at a specified breakdown current (IBR).
• Leakage Current (ID) - the maximum current that flows through the device at
the rated stand-off voltage (VWM) for a specified temperature. Also known
as Reverse Leakage Current (IR).
• Capacitance (C) - this parameter is associated with high data rate applications
and is measured at specific frequency and bias. High capacitance degrades
signals.
• Forward Voltage (VF) - the voltage across the device in the forward conducting
state at a specified current IF.
• Clamping Voltage (VC) - The peak voltage measured across the device during
the application of a pulse current (IPP) for a specified waveform.
Note that Leakage Current and Capacitance should not effect the performance of
a circuit.
+
Suppressor Types
IPP
Figure 1. Unidirectional V-I Curve
Clamping Devices
Longer duration pulses can be suppressed by the TVS diode by increasing the die
size and head dissipation. Both voltage and power capability can be increased by
stacking parts in series or parallel.
A transient is clamped instantaneously and diverts the damaging current away
from the protected device. Figure 2 shows a transient current being diverted to
ground.
8kV Positive and Negative Transient
Suppressors limit voltage spikes to tolerable levels by either clamping or crowbar
action. A suppressor that clamps, begins conducting when its threshold voltage
is exceeded, then restores to a non-conducting state when the voltage drops below the threshold. Voltage spikes are clipped off to safe level through clamping.
Transient Voltage Suppressors are examples of clamping devices.
There are two major categories of clamping device:
a) those that attenuate transients, thus preventing their propagation into a sensitive circuit - Standard TVS Arrays as shown in Figure 6.
VOUT
VIN
1
1
2
UNIDIRECTIONAL
2
BIDIRECTIONAL
I1
I2
12V Positive and 0.6V Negative Clamped
Waveform for Unidirectional Device
Figure 2. Unidirectional Device (Asymmetrical Clamping)
1001.R1 4/11
Figure 6. TVS Diode Array - GBLC Series
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1001
Technical Article
Only One Name Means ProTek’Tion™
b) those that divert transient away from sensitive loads, so limiting the residual
voltages - Steering Diode Arrays as shown in Figure 7.
1
7
2
6
3
IPP - Peak Pulse Current - % of IPP
8
120
5
4
40
td = t/(IPP/2)
20
0
RTip
e-t
60
Crowbar Devices
TIP
TEST
WAVEFORM
PARAMETERS
tf = 8µs
td = 20µs
Peak Value IPP
80
Figure 7. Steering Diode Array - DALC112S1
Crowbar devices conduct when threshold voltages are exceeded and then trigger to an on-state voltage drop for only a few volts, hence the name “crowbar”.
These devices restore to a non-conducting state when the driving voltage and/or
current is reduced with the passing transient. Examples of crowbar devices are
Gas Discharge Tubes (GDT) and Thyristors. Figure 8 shows metallic and longitudinal protection using Thyristors (TSS).
tf
100
0
5
Front
Time
10
15
t - Time - µs
20
25
30
Fall
Time
Figure 4. 8/20µs Pulse Waveshape
A TVS diode can have a peak pulse power rating (PPP) ranging from 30 kilowatts
to as low as 25 Watts. The power rating is derived from the product of the peak
pulse current (IPP) and the clamping voltage (VC). Figure 5 shows a 400 Watt
8/20µs rated curve. As the surge pulse width decreases the peak pulse power
increases logarithmically. For shorter pulse widths, the TVS can handle higher
peak pulse currents.
10K
PPP - Peak Pulse Power - Watts
To Protected
Equipment
1K
400W, 8/20µs Waveform
100
RING
10
0.1
RRing
1K
10K
A 3µs surge will have a peak pulse power of approximately 1kW. When the surge
pulse is increased, as in the 10/1000µs curve, the peak pulse power will decrease
to 60 Watts.
Package Configurations
Waveform Characterizations
TVS diodes are available in a variety of sizes from large modules
to minature surface mountable flip chips. These devices
protect single to multiple line
applications in unidirectional or
bidirectional configurations.
Most TVS diodes, which are used in low power protection applications are
specified according to an 8/20µs waveform as shown in Figure 4. Higher power
applications are measured with the 10/1000µs surge waveform.
1001.R1 4/11
10
100
td - Pulse Duration - µs
Figure 5. Peak Pulse Power vs Pulse Time
Figure 8. Metallic and Longitudinal Protection - Thyristor (PP-SM Series)
Three equal TSS devices are used in this application for metallic (tip-to-ring) and
longitudinal (tip-to-ground and ring-to-ground) protection.
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1001
Technical Article
Only One Name Means ProTek’Tion™
company information
COMPANY PROFILE
ProTek Devices, based in Tempe, Arizona USA, is a manufacturer of Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) products designed specifically for
the protection of electronic systems from the effects of lightning, Electrostatic Discharge (ESD), Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP), inductive switching and EMI/RFI. With over 25 years of engineering and manufacturing experience, ProTek designs TVS devices that provide
application specific protection solutions for all electronic equipment/systems.
ProTek Devices Analog Products Division, also manufactures analog interface, control, RF and power management products.
CONTACT US
Corporate Headquarters
2929 South Fair Lane
Tempe, Arizona 85282
USA
By Telephone
General: 602-431-8101
Sales: 602-414-5109
Customer Service: 602-414-5114
By Fax
General: 602-431-2288
By E-mail:
Sales: [email protected]
Customer Service: [email protected]
Technical Support: [email protected]
Web
www.protekdevices.com
www.protekanalog.com
COPYRIGHT © ProTek Devices 2011 - This literature is subject to all applicable copyright laws and is not for resale in any manner.
SPECIFICATIONS: ProTek reserves the right to change the electrical and or mechanical characteristics described herein without notice.
DESIGN CHANGES: ProTek reserves the right to discontinue product lines without notice and that the final judgement concerning selection and specifications is the buyer’s and that in furnishing engineering
and technical assistance. ProTek assumes no responsibility with respect to the selection or specifications of such products. ProTek makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of
its products for any particular purpose, nor does ProTek assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit and specifically disclaims any and all liability without limitation special,
consequential or incidental damages.
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY: ProTek Devices products are not authorized for use in life support systems without written consent from the factory.
1001.R1 4/11
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