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Unit 7 Considered a tissue because of all the different cells Has 3 main functions: Transport Regulation Protection Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide to and fro cells Nutrients to cells Waste from cells Hormones from glands to cells Heat What does it transport? pH Temperature Salt Balance Water Content What does is regulate? Clotting (loss of blood) Combatting toxins What does it protect? Blood Stats Made in bone marrow 7% of your body weight Lives approx. 120 days Has 4 components Plasma = Clear/yellow liquid Erythrocyte = RBC Leukocyte = WBC Thrombocyte = Platelets Bone Marrow-Overall View Plasma: Clear to yellow liquid Acts as the “vehicle” the cells travel in (dilute solution of hormones, sugar, amino acids, fat, urea, platelets, and salts) RBC (96%): Biconcave Disc with hemoglobin (protein) Transports O2 /CO2 Blood Components Where do the products carried by the plasma come from and go?? WBC (3%): Large, blue to purple cells Fight disease/”intruders”, 6 kinds--(Neutrophil most common, 55%, kills bacteria and becomes pus and dies) Platelets (1%) Tiny cells fragments Aid in clotting (internal and external) RBC WBC Platelets BLOOD TYPES Blood Type 1901 - Austrian Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups. Before this time, blood transfusions were performed, but doctors did not understand why patients would die. Blood Typing Genetics Review • Blood Type is Controlled by 3 Alleles: A, B, O -A and B are Co-Dominant (meaning??) -O is recessive Blood Typing Basics • Antigen: Protein on the surface of the red blood cell, gives blood type identity. • There are 3 total: A, B, Rh A is present = A B is present=B Both A and B present = AB None Present= O Rh= + or - Antigen Combinations Blood Typing Basics • Antibodies: Proteins found freefloating in the bloodstream, will attack antigens on the RBC • There are 3 antibodies: Anti-A Anti-B Anti-Rh Blood Testing and Transfusions - AGGLUTINATION (the clumping of red blood cells following a transfusion reaction; likely fatal - Antigens and Antibodies Combine Causing a Clot/Clump Facts About Blood Need Every two seconds someone in the U.S. needs blood. More than 41,000 blood donations are needed every day. A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in the U.S. The average red blood cell transfusion is approximately 3 pints. The blood type most often requested by hospitals is Type O. The blood used in an emergency is already on the shelves before the event occurs. Sickle cell disease affects more than 70,000 people in the U.S. About 1,000 babies are born with the disease each year. Sickle cell patients can require frequent blood transfusions throughout their lives. More than 1.6 million people were diagnosed with cancer last year. Many of them will need blood, sometimes daily, during their chemotherapy treatment. A single car accident victim can require as many as 100 pints of blood. Facts About Blood Supply The number of blood donations collected in the U.S. in a year: 15.7 million The number of blood donors in the U.S. in a year: 9.2 million Although an estimated 38% of the U.S. population is eligible to donate, less than 10% actually do each year. Blood cannot be manufactured – it can only come from generous donors. Type O-negative blood (red cells) can be transfused to patients of all blood types. It is always in great demand and often in short supply. Type AB-positive plasma can be transfused to patients of all other blood types. AB plasma is also usually in short supply.