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Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
December 15, 2014
A/A.P. U.S. History
Mr. Green
The students will analyze the advantages and
disadvantages of the North and South at the
beginning of the Civil War by evaluating the
resources of the Union and the Confederacy
Explain how the South’s firing on Fort Sumter galvanized the North
and how Lincoln’s call for troops prompted four more states to join the
Explain why the slaveholding Border States were so critical to both
sides and how Lincoln maneuvered to keep them in the Union.
Indicate the strengths and weaknesses of both sides at the onset of
the war, what strategies each pursued, and why the North’s strengths
could be brought to bear as the war dragged on.
AP Focus
The long coexistence of two conflicting economic systems—
planter-slaveholding and industrial capitalism—under one government
ends with the outbreak of war.
A month after taking the oath of office, Lincoln is confronted with a
serious question: whether to supply Fort Sumter, a major U.S. military
installation in South Carolina still in federal hands.
Maryland, Kentucky, Delaware, and Missouri, slave states that
border both free and slave states, stay loyal to the government, although
their citizens have divided loyalties. They provide many troops for both
sides, but probably more for the federal army than for the Confederacy.
The North effectively brought to bear its
long-term advantages of industrial might and
human resources to wage a devastating total war
against the South. The war helped organize and
modernize northern society, while the South,
despite heroic efforts, was economically and
socially crushed.
Lincoln’s skillful political leadership
helped keep the crucial Border States in the
Union and maintain northern morale, while his
effective diplomacy kept Britain and France from
aiding the Confederacy.
The problems with secession:
1. geography
2. national debt
3. federal territory allotment
4. Fugitive-slave issue
5. large democratic stronghold in the Western
6. European conquest
Seceding states seized:
1. U.S. arsenals
2. U.S. mints
3. public property
Fort Sumter-significant Southern fort
Lincoln sent to provision the fort, not reinforce
April 12, 1861-Union naval force sent to Fort
Sumter and the South began bombing the fort.
April 15-Lincoln issues call to states for
75,000 militia men
April 19-Blockade of Southern seaports
April 27-Blockade of Southern seaports
Viewed as an act of aggression in the South,
Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North
Carolina joined the Confederacy.
Border StatesMaryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri and
later West Virginia
In keeping the border states, Lincoln used:
1. martial law in Maryland
2. deployed Union soldiers in western Virginia
and Missouri
3. no mention of slavery
4. politics to push the purpose of saving the
Native Americans contributed to the war effort
Cherokees owned slaves and fought with the
Most Plains Indians and a faction of the
Cherokee fought for the Union
Northerners fought for the South and
Southerners fought for the North
South Advantages
Defensive Fight
Talented officers
Lee, Jackson
Ordinary Southerners
bred to fight
Seized Union weaponry
South Disadvantages
Shortages of shoes,
uniforms, blankets
Southern economyagrarian
North Advantages
North Disadvantages
Economy-3/4 of
Majority not prepared
nations track and
Inept generals
Controlled the seas
superior navy
South failed in getting support from Europe
England had cotton surplus
Once the war was fought for slavery, England
was not going to fight a war to defend slavery
when their own workers were earning pennies
Egypt and India increased cotton output
King Corn, King Wheat-Britain needed them
from the North and supporting the South
would have denied them access to Northern
Finish Chapter 20
Work on Charts.