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Transcript
Science
SCI.IV.3.2
Grade: 2
Strand:
Using Scientific Knowledge in Physical Science
- Motion of Objects
Standard:
All students will describe how things around us move, explain why things
move as the do, and demonstrate and explain how we control the motions
of objects
Benchmark:
Explain how forces, pushes or pulls are needed to speed up, slow
down, stop, or change the direction of a moving object.
Constructing and Reflecting:
SCI.I.1.1 SCI.I.1.4 SCI.I.1.5 SCI.I.1.6 SCI.II.1.1 -
Generate reasonable questions about the world based on observation.
Use simple measurement devices to make measurements in scientific investigations.
Develop strategies and skills for information gathering and problem solving.
Construct charts and graphs and prepare summaries of observations.
Develop an awareness of the need for evidence in making decisions scientifically.
Vocabulary / Key Concepts
Context
Changes in motion – speeding up, slowing down,
turning. Common forces – push, pull, friction,
gravity. Size of change is related to strength of
push or pull.
Playing ball, moving chairs, sliding objects.
Knowledge and Skills
Students will demonstrate and describe the motion
of objects and investigate the force that makes it
move.
Descriptions should include:
• Friction – force that makes moving object slow
down due to surface contact
• Gravity – force that makes things fall to Earth
• Other Pushes or Pulls – forces exerted by
people, and machines
An object moves in a straight line & at a constant
speed as long as no force acts on it. When a force
acts on an object, it can speed up the object’s
motion, slow it down or change it’s direction. The
greater the force, the greater the change. Friction is
the force that makes objects stop moving when it
looks like there are no other pushes or pulls on it.
Resources
Coloma Resources:
Newbridge Early Science Program – ‘”Push
and Pull” Teacher’s Guide
Laws of Motion - chart
Balloon Car Race - activity
Critter Cars - activity
Magnets (from school kits – page 9 of the
Big Book)
Gravity Balls - activity
Friction Block - activity
Simple Machines Grade 1 & 2
In the Kit:
Pulley
Inclined Plane
Wheel & Axle
Lever
Fulcrum Balance
Geer Rack
Simple
Other Resources:
Nankivell, Sally. Science Experiments with
Force. Watts, 2000
Wells, Robere. How Do You Lift a Lion
Whitman, 1996
Instruction
Benchmark Question: What forces are needed to
impact the motion of a moving object?
Focus Question: Why do things move as they do?
Assessment
Teacher Notes:
Describe how things around us move, explain why things move as they do, and demonstrate and
explain how we control the motion of objects.
Young children should become acquainted with the scientific descriptions of the motion of objects, which
generally includes discussion of speed, direction and changes in speed or direction. The understanding of the
force/motion relationship can become increasingly quantitative, as the students get older. Instruction should be
included which will help students overcome a common belief that sustained motion always requires sustained
force.
As older elementary children study motion, they discover that an object moves in a straight line and at a
constant speed as long as balanced forces act on it. When a force acts on an object, it can change speed or
direction. The greater the force acting on the object, the greater the change in the object's speed and/or
direction. Scientists attribute all changes in motion to forces, pushes, or pulls exerted by people, machines,
magnets, friction and gravity. As students reach middle school level, they will continue to find the description of
motion challenging and need to be aware that changes in speed or direction are associated with unbalanced
forces.
Early elementary students can develop a foundation for understanding magnetic attraction through various
investigations of magnetism. Determining categories of objects that are attracted to a magnet, distances
through which a magnet will attract objects and how many small objects a particular magnet will attract helps
children consolidate their experiences into scientific knowledge.
Middle school students can analyze the attractive and repulsive forces exerted by electrical and magnetic
fields and experiment to create magnetic objects with the use of electric current. Experiences with
electromagnets, doorbells, speakers, and magnetic switches assist students in understanding the relationship
between magnetism and electricity. Simple electric motors work when a permanent magnet is combined with
an electromagnet. Electricity is converted into magnetic fields, which in turn causes something to move.
Electrical circuits are an aspect of electricity and magnetism encountered every day.
Elementary students should be able to understand that simple machines are devices controlling forces. A lever
can transform a small downward force into a large upward force thus making a task easier. Simple machines
help us to accomplish tasks that would otherwise be impossible. Young children can see simple machines all
around them. Homes and playgrounds offer rich experiences for children to experiment with concepts related
to simple machines. By middle school, students should be able to not only identify the types of simple
machines but also design applications for use of them. High school students should be able to analyze
patterns of force and motion in complex machines. They should be able to explain how the machine works and
predict the effect changing a component will have on the machine.