* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Science SCI.IV.3.2 Grade: 2 Strand: Using Scientific Knowledge in Physical Science - Motion of Objects Standard: All students will describe how things around us move, explain why things move as the do, and demonstrate and explain how we control the motions of objects Benchmark: Explain how forces, pushes or pulls are needed to speed up, slow down, stop, or change the direction of a moving object. Constructing and Reflecting: SCI.I.1.1 SCI.I.1.4 SCI.I.1.5 SCI.I.1.6 SCI.II.1.1 - Generate reasonable questions about the world based on observation. Use simple measurement devices to make measurements in scientific investigations. Develop strategies and skills for information gathering and problem solving. Construct charts and graphs and prepare summaries of observations. Develop an awareness of the need for evidence in making decisions scientifically. Vocabulary / Key Concepts Context Changes in motion – speeding up, slowing down, turning. Common forces – push, pull, friction, gravity. Size of change is related to strength of push or pull. Playing ball, moving chairs, sliding objects. Knowledge and Skills Students will demonstrate and describe the motion of objects and investigate the force that makes it move. Descriptions should include: • Friction – force that makes moving object slow down due to surface contact • Gravity – force that makes things fall to Earth • Other Pushes or Pulls – forces exerted by people, and machines An object moves in a straight line & at a constant speed as long as no force acts on it. When a force acts on an object, it can speed up the object’s motion, slow it down or change it’s direction. The greater the force, the greater the change. Friction is the force that makes objects stop moving when it looks like there are no other pushes or pulls on it. Resources Coloma Resources: Newbridge Early Science Program – ‘”Push and Pull” Teacher’s Guide Laws of Motion - chart Balloon Car Race - activity Critter Cars - activity Magnets (from school kits – page 9 of the Big Book) Gravity Balls - activity Friction Block - activity Simple Machines Grade 1 & 2 In the Kit: Pulley Inclined Plane Wheel & Axle Lever Fulcrum Balance Geer Rack Simple Other Resources: Nankivell, Sally. Science Experiments with Force. Watts, 2000 Wells, Robere. How Do You Lift a Lion Whitman, 1996 Instruction Benchmark Question: What forces are needed to impact the motion of a moving object? Focus Question: Why do things move as they do? Assessment Teacher Notes: Describe how things around us move, explain why things move as they do, and demonstrate and explain how we control the motion of objects. Young children should become acquainted with the scientific descriptions of the motion of objects, which generally includes discussion of speed, direction and changes in speed or direction. The understanding of the force/motion relationship can become increasingly quantitative, as the students get older. Instruction should be included which will help students overcome a common belief that sustained motion always requires sustained force. As older elementary children study motion, they discover that an object moves in a straight line and at a constant speed as long as balanced forces act on it. When a force acts on an object, it can change speed or direction. The greater the force acting on the object, the greater the change in the object's speed and/or direction. Scientists attribute all changes in motion to forces, pushes, or pulls exerted by people, machines, magnets, friction and gravity. As students reach middle school level, they will continue to find the description of motion challenging and need to be aware that changes in speed or direction are associated with unbalanced forces. Early elementary students can develop a foundation for understanding magnetic attraction through various investigations of magnetism. Determining categories of objects that are attracted to a magnet, distances through which a magnet will attract objects and how many small objects a particular magnet will attract helps children consolidate their experiences into scientific knowledge. Middle school students can analyze the attractive and repulsive forces exerted by electrical and magnetic fields and experiment to create magnetic objects with the use of electric current. Experiences with electromagnets, doorbells, speakers, and magnetic switches assist students in understanding the relationship between magnetism and electricity. Simple electric motors work when a permanent magnet is combined with an electromagnet. Electricity is converted into magnetic fields, which in turn causes something to move. Electrical circuits are an aspect of electricity and magnetism encountered every day. Elementary students should be able to understand that simple machines are devices controlling forces. A lever can transform a small downward force into a large upward force thus making a task easier. Simple machines help us to accomplish tasks that would otherwise be impossible. Young children can see simple machines all around them. Homes and playgrounds offer rich experiences for children to experiment with concepts related to simple machines. By middle school, students should be able to not only identify the types of simple machines but also design applications for use of them. High school students should be able to analyze patterns of force and motion in complex machines. They should be able to explain how the machine works and predict the effect changing a component will have on the machine.