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A look into our anatomy
Toward head
Toward bottom
Toward front
Toward back
Toward middle
Toward side
Away from surface
Toward surface
Toward main mass
Away from main mass
The circulatory system is composed of
the heart and blood vessels, including
arteries, veins, and capillaries. Our
bodies actually have two circulatory
systems: The pulmonary circulation is
a short loop from the heart to
the lungs and back again, and the
systemic circulation (the system we
usually think of as our circulatory
system) sends blood from the heart to
all the other parts of our bodies and
back again.
The circulatory system works closely
with other systems in our bodies. It
supplies oxygen and nutrients to our
bodies by working with the respiratory
system. At the same time, the circulatory
system helps carry waste and carbon
dioxide out of the body.
The Blood Flow Cycle -
Blood . . .
Bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients
and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products
away from those same cells. Made up of 4 components…
Plasma . . .
The liquid component of blood made up of water, sugar, fat, protein,
and salts. Transports blood cells throughout your body along with
nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical
messengers such as hormones, and proteins that help maintain the
body's fluid balance.
Platelets. . .
Fragments of cells that help the blood clotting process.
Red Blood Cells. . .
Most abundant cell in the blood, accounting for about 40-45
percent of its volume. Can travel through the smallest vessels. Live
up to about 120 days.
White Blood Cells. . .
Protect the body from infection. Much fewer in number than
red blood cells, accounting for about 1 percent of your blood.
Two types: T-CELLS attack cells (immune); B-CELLS create
antibodies to fight off pathogens.
Protein in blood, carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns
Hemoglobin. . .
carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled. Blood appears red because
of the large number of red blood cells, which get their color from the hemoglobin
Pathogen. . .
Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted when contaminated blood or body fluids enter
the body of another person
Blood Vessel. . .
Transports blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels:
the arteries, the capillaries, and the veins.
Artery. . .
Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They are the thickest blood
vessels, with muscular walls that contract to keep the blood moving
away from the heart and through the body. Oxygen-rich blood is
pumped from the heart into the aorta. This huge artery curves up and
back from the left ventricle, then heads down in front of the spinal
column into the abdomen.
Coronary. . .
Two coronary arteries branch off at the beginning of the
aorta and divide into a network of smaller arteries that
provide oxygen and nourishment to the muscles of the heart.
Pulmonary. . .
Carries oxygen-poor blood. From the right ventricle, the
pulmonary artery divides into right and left branches, on the
way to the lungs where blood picks up oxygen.
Vein. . .
Carry blood from the capillaries back
toward the heart.
Capillary. . .
Enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between
the blood and the tissues… Connect arteries and veins.
Artria. . .
HEART. . .
The key organ in the
circulatory system. As a
hollow, muscular pump, its
main function is to propel
blood throughout the body. It
beats from 60-100 /per
minute. It beats about
100,000 times a day, more
than 30 million times per
year, and about 2.5 billion
times in a 70-year lifetime.
The heart has four chambers
that are enclosed by thick,
muscular walls that lie
between the lungs and just
to the left of the middle of
the chest cavity.
Aorta. . .
The upper part of the heart is
made up of the other two
chambers of the heart, the right
and left atria. The right and left
atria receive the blood entering
the heart. A wall called the
interatrial septum divides the
right and left atria, which are
separated from the ventricles by
the atrioventricular valves. The
tricuspid valve separates the
right atrium from the right
ventricle, and the mitral valve
separates the left atrium and the
left ventricle
Ventricles. . .
The bottom part of the heart is
divided into two chambers called
the right and left ventricles, which
pump blood out of the heart. A
wall called the interventricular
septum divides the ventricles.
largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the
abdomen, where it bifurcates into two smaller arteries (the common iliacs). The aorta distributes
oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation
One complete heartbeat makes up a cardiac cycle, which consists of two phases:
1. SYSTOLE: the ventricles contract, sending blood into the pulmonary and systemic circulation. To prevent the flow of
blood backwards into the atria during systole, the atrioventricular valves close, creating the first sound (the lub). When the
ventricles finish contracting, the aortic and pulmonary valves close to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles. This is
what creates the second sound (the dub)
2. DIASTOLE: Then the ventricles relax (this is called diastole) and fill with blood from the atria.
Heart Rate. . .
How many times the heart beats in a unit of
time, nearly always per minute. The number
of contractions of the lower chambers of the
heart (the ventricles).
Pulse. . .
As the blood gushes through the artery from
a heart beat, it creates a bulge in the artery.
The rate at which the artery bulges can be
measured by touching it with your fingers,
as on the wrist or neck.
Blood pressure. . .
The force of blood against the walls of arteries. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers—the systolic
pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). The measurement
is written one above or before the other, with the systolic number on top and the diastolic number on the bottom.
For example, a blood pressure measurement of 120/80 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) is expressed verbally as
"120 over 80."
Think of thee BRAIN as a central computer that controls all the functions of
your body… the nervous system is then like a network that relays messages
back and forth from it to different parts of the body (via the spinal cord, which
runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves
that branch out to every organ and body part).
When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain
tells the body how to react.
Integrates the information that it receives from,
and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the
• Involves the spinal cord is a long bundle of
nerve tissue about 18 inches long and ¾ inch
thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain
down through spine. Along the way, various
nerves branch out to the entire body. (NERVES)
The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the
human brain, associated with higher brain
function such as thought and action.
The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections,
called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe,
occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to
the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres
and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This
structure is associated with regulation and
coordination of movement, posture, and
Underneath the limbic system is the brain
stem. This structure is responsible for basic
vital life functions such as breathing,
heartbeat, and blood pressure.
Consists of millions of nerve fibers which transmit electrical information to and
from the limbs, trunk and organs of the body, back to and from the brain.
 NEURONS: specialized to carry "messages" through an electrochemical
process. The human brain has approximately 100 billion neurons.
Dendrites bring
information to the cell
CELL BODY…Contains
the information processing
center and the nucleus of
the neuron
Axons take information
away from the cell body
Nerve endings on one end of each neuron are encased in a special
structure to sense a specific stimulus… (senses)
Cells that directly or indirectly controls the contraction or
relaxation of muscles.
When a receptor is stimulated, it sends a signal to the central nervous system,
where the brain co-ordinates the response. Sometimes, a very quick
response is needed, one that does not need the involvement of the brain.
This is a reflex action.
Defends people against germs and
microorganisms every day. Problems
with the immune system can lead to
illness and infection.
 LYMPH: a clear-ish liquid that bathes the cells with water and nutrients.
Lymph is blood plasma -- the liquid that makes up blood minus the red and
white cells. Each cell does not have its own private blood vessel feeding it, yet
it has to get food, water, and oxygen to survive. Blood transfers these materials
to the lymph through the capillary walls, and lymph carries it to the cells.
NODE: contain filtering tissue and a large number of
lymph cells. When fighting certain bacterial infections, the lymph
nodes swell with bacteria and the cells fighting the bacteria, to the
point where you can actually feel them. Swollen lymph nodes are
therefore a good indication that you have an infection of some sort.
• Once lymph has been filtered through the lymph
nodes it re-enters the bloodstream
 SPLEEN acts
primarily as a blood filter
 IMMUNITY = biological term that describes a
state of having sufficient biological defenses
to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted
biological invasion.
 THYMUS GLAND= The thymus gland is an
organ in the upper chest cavity that processes
lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that
fights infections in the body. This organ is part
of both the lymphatic system, which makes up
a major part of the immune system. People
who do not have this gland, or in whom it does
not function correctly, usually have
compromised immune systems and difficulty
fighting disease.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS…or “Lymphocytes”
• T-Cells - The main job of T-cells is to fight
infection. They directly attack and destroy
infectious agents and also guard the body against
infection. After they are produced in the bone
marrow, these cells spend some time maturing
and developing in an organ in the chest called the
thymus (why they are named T-cells). After
maturation, T-cells are present in the blood and in
lymph nodes.
• B-Cells - make antibodies against antigens
ANTIBODIES: Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used
by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such
as bacteria and viruses (antigens).
 ACTIVITY: Immune
Defense Comic Strip
• Write a cartoon or comic strip about immune cells
and their enemies. Immune cells such as white blood
cells are the body's defense system. This system
fights bacteria and viruses. Create an army of
defense cells. Use knowledge about how the defense
system works and write a small story using cartoon
figures to explain about how our body defends itself.
The defense army can remember some enemies but
not others and this makes a good plot for a cartoon.