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A look into our anatomy BODY PLANES TERM DEFINITION Superior Toward head Inferior Toward bottom Anterior Toward front Posterior Toward back Medial Toward middle Lateral Toward side Internal Away from surface External Toward surface Proximal Toward main mass Distal Away from main mass POSITION The circulatory system is composed of the heart and blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. Our bodies actually have two circulatory systems: The pulmonary circulation is a short loop from the heart to the lungs and back again, and the systemic circulation (the system we usually think of as our circulatory system) sends blood from the heart to all the other parts of our bodies and back again. The circulatory system works closely with other systems in our bodies. It supplies oxygen and nutrients to our bodies by working with the respiratory system. At the same time, the circulatory system helps carry waste and carbon dioxide out of the body. The Blood Flow Cycle - http://www.smm.org/heart/heart/circ.htm Blood . . . Bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Made up of 4 components… Plasma . . . The liquid component of blood made up of water, sugar, fat, protein, and salts. Transports blood cells throughout your body along with nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical messengers such as hormones, and proteins that help maintain the body's fluid balance. Platelets. . . Fragments of cells that help the blood clotting process. Red Blood Cells. . . Most abundant cell in the blood, accounting for about 40-45 percent of its volume. Can travel through the smallest vessels. Live up to about 120 days. White Blood Cells. . . Protect the body from infection. Much fewer in number than red blood cells, accounting for about 1 percent of your blood. Two types: T-CELLS attack cells (immune); B-CELLS create antibodies to fight off pathogens. Protein in blood, carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns Hemoglobin. . . carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled. Blood appears red because of the large number of red blood cells, which get their color from the hemoglobin Pathogen. . . Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted when contaminated blood or body fluids enter the body of another person Blood Vessel. . . Transports blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, the capillaries, and the veins. Artery. . . Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They are the thickest blood vessels, with muscular walls that contract to keep the blood moving away from the heart and through the body. Oxygen-rich blood is pumped from the heart into the aorta. This huge artery curves up and back from the left ventricle, then heads down in front of the spinal column into the abdomen. Coronary. . . Two coronary arteries branch off at the beginning of the aorta and divide into a network of smaller arteries that provide oxygen and nourishment to the muscles of the heart. Pulmonary. . . Carries oxygen-poor blood. From the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery divides into right and left branches, on the way to the lungs where blood picks up oxygen. Vein. . . Carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. Capillary. . . Enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues… Connect arteries and veins. Artria. . . HEART. . . The key organ in the circulatory system. As a hollow, muscular pump, its main function is to propel blood throughout the body. It beats from 60-100 /per minute. It beats about 100,000 times a day, more than 30 million times per year, and about 2.5 billion times in a 70-year lifetime. The heart has four chambers that are enclosed by thick, muscular walls that lie between the lungs and just to the left of the middle of the chest cavity. http://youtu.be/JA0 Wb3gc4mE Aorta. . . The upper part of the heart is made up of the other two chambers of the heart, the right and left atria. The right and left atria receive the blood entering the heart. A wall called the interatrial septum divides the right and left atria, which are separated from the ventricles by the atrioventricular valves. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle, and the mitral valve separates the left atrium and the left ventricle Ventricles. . . The bottom part of the heart is divided into two chambers called the right and left ventricles, which pump blood out of the heart. A wall called the interventricular septum divides the ventricles. largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it bifurcates into two smaller arteries (the common iliacs). The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation One complete heartbeat makes up a cardiac cycle, which consists of two phases: 1. SYSTOLE: the ventricles contract, sending blood into the pulmonary and systemic circulation. To prevent the flow of blood backwards into the atria during systole, the atrioventricular valves close, creating the first sound (the lub). When the ventricles finish contracting, the aortic and pulmonary valves close to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles. This is what creates the second sound (the dub) . 2. DIASTOLE: Then the ventricles relax (this is called diastole) and fill with blood from the atria. Heart Rate. . . How many times the heart beats in a unit of time, nearly always per minute. The number of contractions of the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles). Pulse. . . As the blood gushes through the artery from a heart beat, it creates a bulge in the artery. The rate at which the artery bulges can be measured by touching it with your fingers, as on the wrist or neck. Blood pressure. . . The force of blood against the walls of arteries. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers—the systolic pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). The measurement is written one above or before the other, with the systolic number on top and the diastolic number on the bottom. For example, a blood pressure measurement of 120/80 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) is expressed verbally as "120 over 80." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MG6ILGiNTvw&feature=relmfu Think of thee BRAIN as a central computer that controls all the functions of your body… the nervous system is then like a network that relays messages back and forth from it to different parts of the body (via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part). When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies. (BRAIN & SPINAL CORD) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Involves the spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and ¾ inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, various nerves branch out to the entire body. (NERVES) The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance. Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Consists of millions of nerve fibers which transmit electrical information to and from the limbs, trunk and organs of the body, back to and from the brain. NEURONS: specialized to carry "messages" through an electrochemical process. The human brain has approximately 100 billion neurons. Dendrites bring information to the cell body CELL BODY…Contains the information processing center and the nucleus of the neuron Axons take information away from the cell body SENSORY NEURONS Nerve endings on one end of each neuron are encased in a special structure to sense a specific stimulus… (senses) MOTOR NEURONS Cells that directly or indirectly controls the contraction or relaxation of muscles. REFLEX ACTION When a receptor is stimulated, it sends a signal to the central nervous system, where the brain co-ordinates the response. Sometimes, a very quick response is needed, one that does not need the involvement of the brain. This is a reflex action. DEEPER LEARNING: http://kidshealth.org/teen/interactive/brain_it.html STUDY GAME: http://anatomyarcade.com/games/matchingGames/MatchABrain/matchABrain.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlUPCNLSJIY&feature=player_embedded Defends people against germs and microorganisms every day. Problems with the immune system can lead to illness and infection. LYMPH: a clear-ish liquid that bathes the cells with water and nutrients. Lymph is blood plasma -- the liquid that makes up blood minus the red and white cells. Each cell does not have its own private blood vessel feeding it, yet it has to get food, water, and oxygen to survive. Blood transfers these materials to the lymph through the capillary walls, and lymph carries it to the cells. LYMPH NODE: contain filtering tissue and a large number of lymph cells. When fighting certain bacterial infections, the lymph nodes swell with bacteria and the cells fighting the bacteria, to the point where you can actually feel them. Swollen lymph nodes are therefore a good indication that you have an infection of some sort. • Once lymph has been filtered through the lymph nodes it re-enters the bloodstream SPLEEN acts primarily as a blood filter IMMUNITY = biological term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. THYMUS GLAND= The thymus gland is an organ in the upper chest cavity that processes lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that fights infections in the body. This organ is part of both the lymphatic system, which makes up a major part of the immune system. People who do not have this gland, or in whom it does not function correctly, usually have compromised immune systems and difficulty fighting disease. WHITE BLOOD CELLS…or “Lymphocytes” • T-Cells - The main job of T-cells is to fight infection. They directly attack and destroy infectious agents and also guard the body against infection. After they are produced in the bone marrow, these cells spend some time maturing and developing in an organ in the chest called the thymus (why they are named T-cells). After maturation, T-cells are present in the blood and in lymph nodes. • B-Cells - make antibodies against antigens ANTIBODIES: Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses (antigens). Activity…IMMUNE SYSTEM CARTOON/VIDEO GAME ACTIVITY: Immune Defense Comic Strip • Write a cartoon or comic strip about immune cells and their enemies. Immune cells such as white blood cells are the body's defense system. This system fights bacteria and viruses. Create an army of defense cells. Use knowledge about how the defense system works and write a small story using cartoon figures to explain about how our body defends itself. The defense army can remember some enemies but not others and this makes a good plot for a cartoon.