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Electricity & Magnetism Notes Static, Currents, Circuits Magnetic Fields & Electro Magnets Motors & Generators Atoms o Have neutrons, protons and electrons o Protons are ___________ charged o Electrons are ____________ charged Electrons o Located on the outer edges of atoms….they can be _________. o A concentration of electrons in an atom creates a net ___________ charge o If electrons are ___________ away, the atom become ________________ charged The world is filled with _____________ ______________. What is this electrical potential called? o __________ _____________ Static Electricity o The _____________ of an electric charge on the surface of an object o The charge builds up but _________ ______ ___________. o Static electricity is ___________energy. It does not move. It is ___________. Static Discharge o Occurs when there is a loss of static electricity due to three possible things: __________ – rubbing Conduction – _________ contact _____________– through an electrical field Electricity that moves.. o _____________: The flow of electrons from one place to another o Measured in amperes (amps) o ___________ Energy How do we control currents? o With __________ o Circuit: is a ________ for the flow of ________. We use _______. There are 2 types of currents: o _________ ________ (DC) – electrons flow in the ______ direction in a wire. o ___________ ________ (AC) – electrons flow in __________ directions in a wire. o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HqMqdFNWX4s#t=237 There are 2 types of circuits: o _________ Circuit: components are lined up along _____ path. It the circuit is broken, all components turn off. o _________ Circuit: there are _________ branching paths to the components. If the circuit is broken at any one branch, only the components on that branch will turn off. Conductors vs. Insulators Conductors – material through which electric currents flows _________. o Examples: metal and water __________ – materials through which electric current cannot move easily. o Examples: Styrofoam, rubber, plastic and paper What is resistance? o The ____________ ___ _______ of an electric current, producing heat. o The greater resistance, the less current get through. o Good conductors have low resistance. o Measured in ________. What influences resistance? o Material of wire (aluminum and copper have low resistance) o ____________ (the thicker the wire, the lower the resistance) o Length ( the shorter the wire, the lower the resistance) o _____________(the lower the temperature, the lower the resistance) What is _________? o The measure of energy given to the charge flowing in a circuit. o The greater the voltage, the greater the force or “___________” that drives the charge through the circuit. Difference between Volts and Amps? o Example…..You could say that… Amps measure how much water comes out of a hose. Volts measure how hard the water comes out of the hose. Ohm’s Law o Ohms = Volts/Amps What is an electromagnet? o Electromagnetic – a magnet made from a current bearing coil of wire wrapped around an iron or steel core. o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSuSWi7YThA What is a generator? o A machine that changes mechanical energy to electrical energy. o Usually moving magnets to create currents in coils of wire. o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqdOyxJZj0U#aid=P89ox56462A What is a motor? o A device that changes electrical energy to mechanical energy that can do work.