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IMPERIALISM: ASIA AND THE PACIFIC WESTERN POWERS BUILD EMPIRES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC European nations also grabbed land in: • the Pacific Ocean • Southeast Asia • and the islands on the edge of the Pacific. Why? The lands were perfect for plantation agriculture. Products such as: Sugar,Coffee, Cocoa, Rubber, Coconuts, Bananas, Pineapples were important moneymakers for Europeans. THE DUTCH Controlled Indonesia Dutch settlers thought of it as their home They set up a class system with: Dutch at the top Wealthy Indonesians next Plantation workers at the bottom They forced farmers to use 1/5 of their crop for export markets BRITAIN Took the port of Singapore plus Malaysia and Burma. Singapore became one of the world’s busiest ports. FRANCE Took Indochina (modern day Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam) They tried to push French culture on the Indochinese. Rice became the major export crop. The Vietnamese grew more rice than before the French occupation, However, because they had to export it they actually ate less. This will set the stage for Vietnamese resistance to French control. USA In the late 1880’s, the US also began to seek colonies. After the Spanish American war in 1898, the United States took control of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Phillipines. Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aginaldo fought against the USA for their independence. The US defeated the Filipinos but promised to give them self rule later. The US took advantage of the Filipino workers HAWAII The US annexes (add on) Hawaii for the sugar plantations and because it was a great port to stop off on the way to Asia. American businessmen overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and declared Hawaii a Republic In 1898, it became a territory of the US. SIAM MAINTAINS INDEPENDENCE Siam which is modern day Thailand, maintained its independence. The French and British did not want the other to control Siam. King Mongkut played the two against each other, and Siam remained independent He started schools, reformed the legal system, and basically modernized Siam. Because their own government made the changes, Siam escaped the usual racial treatment and economic exploitation that occurred in other countries controlled by foreigners. EFFECT OF COLONIALISM IN THESE AREAS: Brought features of modern life to these areas. Schooling, health, and sanitation were improved Millions of people migrated to these regions Mix of cultures did not always go smoothly. Even today conflict between groups results from this melting pot of Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Buddhists. CHINA RESPONDS: THE OPIUM WAR China limited its trade with foreign nations. All goods shipped to China had to come to one port. Britain bought so much Chinese tea that they were eager to find something the Chinese would buy in large quantities. In the early 1800’s, the British began shipping opium to China by smuggling it in. Some 12 million Chinese became addicted to the narcotic. The Chinese and Britain went to war over the Opium trade, which is called the Opium War. The British won, and received Hong Kong as part of the Treaty of Nanjing. They also received the right to trade in four ports in China, which the Chinese resented but could not resist them. THE OPEN DOOR POLICY Other nations began to carve out spheres of influence in China. The United States, worried that European nations were about to start setting up colonies in China, proposed the “Open Door Policy”- China would be open to merchants of all nations. European nations agreed, and China was protected from colonization. BOXER REBELLION China had internal problems as well. Their population grew too quickly and many were starving. The government was too conservative and corrupt to solve its problems, which allowed other countries to come in and take control of parts of China. The Chinese peasants and workers formed the Society of the Harmonious Fists, otherwise known as the Boxers. They wanted to get rid of all foreign culture and the Christian religion. They surrounded Beijing, but were driven out by multinational forces from US, Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia and Japan. But it does show the Chinese wanted reform, but it would come slowly. JAPAN MODERNIZES Japan, unlike China, was quick to modernize. By 1890, it had the strongest military in Asia. It asked foreigners to give up their special rights in Japan. The European nations agreed. This is called the Japan’s Closed Door Policy, which stated that Japan was closing its doors to any kind of European influences or occupation. Thus Japan never came under the influence of any European empire.