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Transcript
IMPERIALISM: ASIA AND
THE PACIFIC
WESTERN POWERS BUILD EMPIRES IN ASIA
AND THE PACIFIC
European nations also grabbed land in:
• the Pacific Ocean
• Southeast Asia
• and the islands on the edge of the Pacific.
Why?
The lands were perfect for plantation
agriculture. Products such as:
Sugar,Coffee, Cocoa, Rubber, Coconuts,
Bananas, Pineapples
were important moneymakers for Europeans.
THE DUTCH
Controlled Indonesia
Dutch settlers thought of it as their
home
They set up a class system with:
Dutch at the top
Wealthy Indonesians next
Plantation workers at the bottom
They forced farmers to use 1/5 of their
crop for export markets
BRITAIN
Took the port of Singapore plus Malaysia
and Burma.
Singapore became one of the world’s
busiest ports.
FRANCE
Took Indochina (modern day Laos, Cambodia
and Vietnam)
They tried to push French culture on the
Indochinese.
Rice became the major export crop.
 The Vietnamese grew more rice than before the
French occupation,
 However, because they had to export it they actually
ate less.
 This will set the stage for Vietnamese resistance to
French control.
USA
In the late 1880’s, the US also began to seek
colonies.
After the Spanish American war in 1898, the
United States took control of Puerto Rico, Guam
and the Phillipines.
Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aginaldo
fought against the USA for their independence.
The US defeated the Filipinos but promised to
give them self rule later.
The US took advantage of the Filipino workers
HAWAII
The US annexes (add on) Hawaii for the sugar
plantations and because it was a great port to
stop off on the way to Asia.
American businessmen overthrew Queen
Liliuokalani and declared Hawaii a Republic
In 1898, it became a territory of the US.
SIAM MAINTAINS INDEPENDENCE
 Siam which is modern day Thailand, maintained its
independence.
 The French and British did not want the other to control
Siam.
 King Mongkut played the two against each other, and
Siam remained independent
 He started schools, reformed the legal system, and
basically modernized Siam.
 Because their own government made the changes, Siam
escaped the usual racial treatment and economic
exploitation that occurred in other countries controlled
by foreigners.
EFFECT OF COLONIALISM IN THESE AREAS:
Brought features of modern life to these
areas.
Schooling, health, and sanitation were
improved
Millions of people migrated to these regions
Mix of cultures did not always go smoothly.
Even today conflict between groups results
from this melting pot of Hindus, Muslims,
Christians and Buddhists.
CHINA RESPONDS: THE OPIUM WAR
 China limited its trade with foreign nations. All goods
shipped to China had to come to one port. Britain
bought so much Chinese tea that they were eager to find
something the Chinese would buy in large quantities.
 In the early 1800’s, the British began shipping opium to
China by smuggling it in. Some 12 million Chinese
became addicted to the narcotic.
 The Chinese and Britain went to war over the Opium
trade, which is called the Opium War.
 The British won, and received Hong Kong as part of the Treaty of
Nanjing.
 They also received the right to trade in four ports in China, which
the Chinese resented but could not resist them.
THE OPEN DOOR POLICY
Other nations began to carve out spheres
of influence in China.
The United States, worried that European
nations were about to start setting up
colonies in China, proposed the “Open Door
Policy”- China would be open to merchants
of all nations.
European nations agreed, and China was
protected from colonization.
BOXER REBELLION
 China had internal problems as well.
 Their population grew too quickly and many were starving.
 The government was too conservative and corrupt to solve its
problems, which allowed other countries to come in and take
control of parts of China.
 The Chinese peasants and workers formed the Society of the
Harmonious Fists, otherwise known as the Boxers.
 They wanted to get rid of all foreign culture and the Christian
religion.
 They surrounded Beijing, but were driven out by multinational
forces from US, Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia
and Japan.
 But it does show the Chinese wanted reform, but it would
come slowly.
JAPAN MODERNIZES
Japan, unlike China, was quick to modernize.
By 1890, it had the strongest military in Asia.
It asked foreigners to give up their special rights
in Japan.
The European nations agreed.
This is called the Japan’s Closed Door Policy,
which stated that Japan was closing its doors to
any kind of European influences or occupation.
Thus Japan never came under the influence of
any European empire.