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Animal Characteristics
 Heterotrophic – obtain food and energy by feeding
 Multicellular – made of many cells
 Eukaryotic – contain a nucleus
 Vertebrates – 5% of all animals
 Invertebrates – 95 % of all animals
Types of Animal tissues
4 Types
1. Epithelial – skin
2. Muscular - muscles
3. Connective –blood and bone
4. Nervous – nerve cells
Essential Animal Functions
1. Feeding
Herbivores - manatee
Carnivores – sharks, sea anemones
Detritivores – most bottom dwellers
Filter feeders – sponges, clams, oysters
2. Respiration
Take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.
Many inverterbrates do this by diffusion.
Complex animals use gills or lungs.
Animal Functions, cont’d.
3. Circulation – how materials move around the
animal. (diffusion or circulatory systems)
4. Excretion – removal of waste. Could be cells that
pump waste out or organs. Waste is ammonia
5. Response – nerve cells. This could be a simple
nerve net or complex nervous system.
6. Movement – some animals are sessile – stay
attached to something their adult life. Others
are motile – move by muscles or muscle-like
7. Reproduction – sexual or asexual. Many simple
animals have the ability to do both.
Body Symmetry
 Asymmetrical – no body plan Ex. Sponges
 Radial symmetry – body parts repeat around
the center. Ex. starfish
 Bilateral symmetry – body can be divided up
into two equal halves (left and right) Ex.
Cephalization – concentration of
the sense organs at the front end
of an animal. Not all animals show