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Download 1. Stems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage.
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1. Stems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage. __________________________-underground, horizontal roots with that sprout new plants __________________________- Sends out above ground roots to sprout a new plant Primary growth increases a plant’s ____________________ Secondary growth increases a plant’s _________________ Stem type can be ______________________ or ___________________ Wood is a fibrous material made up of dead cells. Wood has high concentrations of lignin and cellulose. Woody stems are rigid __________________________plants do not produce wood. And are ______________________________ 2. Roots anchor plants and absorb mineral nutrients from soil. ___________________ covers the tip, ________________________ is an area of growth _____________________________- only area of plant that will produce more cells by mitosis, the cells are undifferentiated at first. __________________________ unspecialized tissue growing at the tips of roots, branches __________________root systems have fine branches. _________________ systems have one main root 3. Most leaves share some similar structures __________________________ is between the leaf’s dermal tissue layers There are two types of mesophyll cells. both types contain chloroplasts __________________________ absorbs sunlight ____________________________________ connects to stomata __________________ surround each _____________________. Stomata open and close when guard cells change shape. When stomata are open, _____________________________________________. Stomata close at night and when plant loses too much water. _________________________ one main vein with secondary veins branching from it ________________________ several main veins branching from a single point and then secondary veins branching from it 4. KINGDOM PLANTAE Plants are members of the kingdom Plantae whose cells are eukaryotic (have a nucleus), have a cell wall made of ________________________, and contains chloroplasts with pigments such as chlorophyll a and b that help the plant to carry out __________________ Early Plants were very similar to ______________________ that we are familiar with. They were dependent on ______________for reproduction, and only with the evolution of the ___________________ were plants able to survive on dry land. A ___________________________________ allows resources to move to different parts of the plant. Vascular tissue transports ________________________________and ______________________. ______________________ transports water and minerals _____________________ transports photosynthetic products Xylem contains specialized cells. ____________________ are short and wide ____________________ cells are long and narrow xylem cells die at _________________________ Phloem contains specialized cells. ________________________ have holes at ends __________________________ help sieve tube elements unlike xylem, phloem tissue is __________________ The ___________________ theory explains water movement ________________________ is the tendency of water molecules to bond with each other. _______________________is the tendency of water molecules to bond with other substances. 5. Mosses and their relatives are _____________________________________ plants. Nonvascular plants grow close to the ground to absorb water and nutrients. ____________________s plants rely on ________________________ for reproduction. Produce ______________ Liverworts belong to phylum ___________________ often grow on wet rocks or in greenhouses can be thallose or leafy Mosses belong to phylum _____________________ 6. Club mosses and ferns are seedless vascular plants. A _____________________ allows club mosses and ferns to grow higher off the ground. Both need freestanding water for reproduction. Club mosses belong to phylum _______________________________________________: fern spore-producing organ 7. Seed plants include __________________________ plants and flowering plants. Seed plants have several advantages over their seedless ancestors. can reproduce________________ freestanding water, via ____________________. Pollination occurs when pollen meets female plant parts ________________ nourish and protect plant embryo seeds allow plants to disperse to new places ________________________do not have seeds enclosed in fruit. most gymnosperms are cone-bearing and __________________________ the __________________________ is reproductive structure of most _____________________________ ______________________ is produced in male cones. _______________ are produced in female cones. ________________________ develop on scales of female cones. 8. The largest phylum in the plant kingdom is the flowering plants. ______________________ have seeds enclosed in some type of __________________. A __________________ is the reproductive structure of angiosperms. A fruit is a _______________________ of a flower. Angiosperms, or flowering plants, belong in phylum ________________________ __________________allow for efficient pollination. Animals feed on pollen or nectar pollen is spread from plant to plant in process A _______________________ is an embryonic “seed leaf.” ________________ have a single seed leaf. leaf veins usually _______________ flower parts usually in multiples of __________bundles of vascular tissue ____________________ in stem _________________ have two seed leaves. leaf veins usually ______________ flower parts usually in multiples of __________________bundles of vascular tissue in________________ in stemots have two seed leaves 9. There are three types of plant life spans. ___________________ mature from seed, flower, and die in one year ____________________ take two years to compete life cycle _______________________ live more than two years 10. ____________________ allows for efficient seed dispersal. Fruit is flower’s ripened ovary. Surrounds and protects seed(s) Many forms, each function in _________________________________ 11. Flowers contain reproductive organs protected by specialized leaves. ___________________________________ are modified leaves. _________________ are outermostlayer that protects developing flower ___________________________ can help to attract animal pollinators A ________________________ is the _____________________ structure of the flower. ________________________produces pollen grains _________________________ supports the anther The innermost layer of a flower is the ___________________________. _________________ is sticky tip ______________________ is tube leading from stigma to_________________ ovary produces female _______________________ 12. Flowering plants can be pollinated by ______________________________ Flowering plants pollinated when pollen grains land on ______________________. _____________________ pollinated flowers have __________________ flowers and large amounts of pollen. ___________________ pollinated flowers have ___________________ flowers and less pollen Fertilization takes place within the flower. Male gametophytes, or pollen grains, are produced in the _______________. male spores produced in ___________ by meiosis each spore divides by mitosis to form two _______________ cells two cells form a single ___________________ One female gametophyte can form in each _______________ of a flower’s ovary. ___________________female spores produced in ovule by meiosis one spore develops into female gametophyte female gametophyte contains _______________ cells one cell has two nuclei, or polar nuclei one cell will develop into an egg ___________________ grains allow for reproduction without _________________________ 13. Seeds begin to grow when environmental conditions are favorable. _________________ may end when conditions are favorable. While dormant, embryo can withstand extreme conditions. ___________________ begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling. __________________causes seed to swell and crack coat, embryonic root, _________________, is first to emerge water activates ___________________that help send sugars to embryo. embryonic shoot, ______________________, emerges next leaves emerge last 14. Plant life cycles alternate between producing spores and gametes. A two-phase life cycle is called _______________________________________ haploid phase and diploid phase and alternates between the two The spore-producing plant is the mature _____________________ sporophyte phase is____________________ begins with ____________________ spores produced through _________________________ The gamete-producing plant is the mature_______________________. gametophyte phase is _______________begins with spore gametes produced through _____________________ Nonvascular plants have a dominant ______________________________ phase. moss _______________________ look like green carpet moss ________________________ shoot up as stalklike structures The ______________________ is the dominant phase for ____________________. Fern spores form in sacs, _________________, on underside of mature sporophytes (fronds). 15. Plant hormones guide plant growth and development. _____________________ are chemical messengers. Produced in one part of an organism stimulates or suppresses activity in another part _____________________________________ are plant hormones that produce dramatic _____________________. ending seed dormancy rapid growth of young seedlings rapid growth of some flower stalks _________________________ causes the ripening of fruits. some fruits picked before they are ripe sprayed with ethylene to _________________ when reach destination _________________________ lengthen plant cells in the growing tip. stimulates growth of primary stem controls some forms of tropism 16. A ____________________ is the movement of plant in response to an environmental stimulus ______________________ is the tendency of a plant to grow toward light. __________________________ is a plant’s response to Earth’s gravitational pull. ____________________________is a plant’s response to touchlike stimuli