Download 1. Stems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage. 

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Stems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage.
__________________________-underground, horizontal roots with that sprout new plants
__________________________- Sends out above ground roots to sprout a new plant
Primary growth increases a plant’s ____________________
Secondary growth increases a plant’s _________________
Stem type can be ______________________ or ___________________
Wood is a fibrous material made up of dead cells. Wood has high concentrations of lignin
and cellulose. Woody stems are rigid
 __________________________plants do not produce wood. And are
2. Roots anchor plants and absorb mineral nutrients from soil.
 ___________________ covers the tip, ________________________ is
an area of growth
 _____________________________- only area of plant that will
produce more cells by mitosis, the cells are undifferentiated at first.
__________________________ unspecialized tissue growing at the tips
of roots, branches
 __________________root systems have fine branches.
_________________ systems have one main root
3. Most leaves share some similar structures
 __________________________ is between the leaf’s dermal tissue layers
 There are two types of mesophyll cells. both types contain chloroplasts
__________________________ absorbs sunlight
____________________________________ connects to stomata
 __________________ surround each _____________________. Stomata
open and close when guard cells change shape. When stomata are open,
_____________________________________________. Stomata close at night and when plant loses too much
 _________________________ one main vein with secondary veins branching from it
 ________________________ several main veins branching from a single point and then
secondary veins branching from it
 Plants are members of the kingdom Plantae whose cells are eukaryotic (have a nucleus), have a cell wall made of
________________________, and contains chloroplasts with pigments such as chlorophyll a and b that help the
plant to carry out __________________
 Early Plants were very similar to ______________________ that we are familiar with. They were dependent on
______________for reproduction, and only with the evolution of the ___________________ were plants able to
survive on dry land.
 A ___________________________________ allows resources to move to different parts of the plant.
 Vascular tissue transports ________________________________and ______________________.
 ______________________ transports water and minerals
 _____________________ transports photosynthetic products
Xylem contains specialized cells. ____________________ are short and wide ____________________ cells are
long and narrow xylem cells die at _________________________
 Phloem contains specialized cells. ________________________ have holes at ends
__________________________ help sieve tube elements unlike xylem, phloem tissue is __________________
 The ___________________ theory explains water movement
 ________________________ is the tendency of water molecules to bond with each other.
_______________________is the tendency of water molecules to bond with other substances.
5. Mosses and their relatives are _____________________________________ plants.
 Nonvascular plants grow close to the ground to absorb water and nutrients. ____________________s plants
rely on ________________________ for reproduction. Produce ______________
 Liverworts belong to phylum ___________________ often grow on wet rocks or in greenhouses can be thallose
or leafy
 Mosses belong to phylum _____________________
6. Club mosses and ferns are seedless vascular plants.
 A _____________________ allows club mosses and ferns to grow higher off the ground. Both need freestanding water for reproduction. Club mosses belong to phylum
_______________________________________________: fern spore-producing organ
7. Seed plants include __________________________ plants and flowering plants.
 Seed plants have several advantages over their seedless ancestors. can reproduce________________ freestanding water, via ____________________. Pollination occurs when pollen meets female plant parts
 ________________ nourish and protect plant embryo seeds allow plants to disperse to new places
 ________________________do not have seeds enclosed in fruit. most gymnosperms are cone-bearing and
__________________________ the __________________________ is reproductive structure of most
 ______________________ is produced in male cones. _______________ are produced in female cones.
________________________ develop on scales of female cones.
8. The largest phylum in the plant kingdom is the flowering plants.
 ______________________ have seeds enclosed in some type of __________________. A __________________
is the reproductive structure of angiosperms. A fruit is a _______________________ of a flower. Angiosperms,
or flowering plants, belong in phylum ________________________
 __________________allow for efficient pollination. Animals feed on pollen or nectar pollen is spread from
plant to plant in process
 A _______________________ is an embryonic
“seed leaf.”
 ________________ have a single seed leaf. leaf
veins usually _______________ flower parts usually
in multiples of __________bundles of vascular
tissue ____________________ in stem
 _________________ have two seed leaves. leaf
veins usually ______________ flower parts usually
in multiples of __________________bundles of
vascular tissue in________________ in stemots
have two seed leaves
9. There are three types of plant life spans.
 ___________________ mature from seed, flower, and die in one year ____________________ take two years
to compete life cycle _______________________ live more than two years
10. ____________________ allows for efficient seed dispersal. Fruit is flower’s ripened ovary. Surrounds and
protects seed(s) Many forms, each function in _________________________________
11. Flowers contain reproductive organs protected by specialized leaves.
 ___________________________________ are modified leaves. _________________ are outermostlayer that
developing flower ___________________________ can help to attract
animal pollinators
 A ________________________ is the _____________________ structure
of the flower. ________________________produces pollen grains
_________________________ supports the anther
 The innermost layer of a flower is the ___________________________.
_________________ is sticky tip
 ______________________ is tube leading from stigma
to_________________ ovary produces female _______________________
12. Flowering plants can be pollinated by ______________________________
 Flowering plants pollinated when pollen grains land on
______________________. _____________________ pollinated flowers have __________________ flowers
and large amounts of pollen. ___________________ pollinated flowers have ___________________ flowers and
less pollen
 Fertilization takes place within the flower. Male gametophytes, or pollen grains, are produced in the
_______________. male spores produced in ___________ by meiosis each spore divides by mitosis to form two
_______________ cells two cells form a single ___________________
 One female gametophyte can form in each _______________ of a flower’s ovary. ___________________female
spores produced in ovule by meiosis one spore develops into female gametophyte female gametophyte contains
_______________ cells one cell has two nuclei, or polar nuclei one cell will develop into an egg
 ___________________ grains allow for reproduction without _________________________
13. Seeds begin to grow when environmental conditions are favorable.
 _________________ may end when conditions are favorable. While dormant, embryo can withstand extreme
 ___________________ begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling. __________________causes seed to
swell and crack coat, embryonic root, _________________, is first to emerge water activates
___________________that help send sugars to embryo. embryonic shoot, ______________________, emerges
next leaves emerge last
14. Plant life cycles alternate between producing spores and gametes. A two-phase life cycle is called
_______________________________________ haploid phase and diploid phase and alternates between the
 The spore-producing plant is the mature _____________________ sporophyte phase is____________________
begins with ____________________ spores produced through _________________________
 The gamete-producing plant is the mature_______________________. gametophyte phase is
_______________begins with spore gametes produced through _____________________
Nonvascular plants have a dominant ______________________________ phase. moss
_______________________ look like green carpet moss ________________________ shoot up as stalklike
 The ______________________ is the dominant phase for ____________________.
 Fern spores form in sacs, _________________, on underside of mature sporophytes (fronds).
15. Plant hormones guide plant growth and development.
 _____________________ are chemical messengers. Produced in one part of an organism stimulates or
suppresses activity in another part
 _____________________________________ are plant hormones that produce dramatic
_____________________. ending seed dormancy rapid growth of young seedlings rapid growth of some flower
 _________________________ causes the ripening of fruits. some fruits picked before they are ripe sprayed with
ethylene to _________________ when reach destination
 _________________________ lengthen plant cells in the growing tip. stimulates growth of primary stem
controls some forms of tropism
16. A ____________________ is the movement of plant in response to an environmental stimulus
 ______________________ is the tendency of a plant to grow toward light.
 __________________________ is a plant’s response to Earth’s gravitational pull.
 ____________________________is a plant’s response to touchlike stimuli