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Transcript
TRANSPORT OF IONS IN SOLUTION
 Conductivity of
electrolyte
solutions
 Strong and weak electrolyte
 Ion Mobility
 Ion mobility and conductivity,
 Transport number
 Diffusion
Jaslin Ikhsan, Ph.D.
Chemistry Ed. Department
State University of Yogyakarta
Conductivity of Electrolyte Solution
 Ions in solution can be set in motion by applying a
potential difference between two electrodes.
 The conductance (G) of a solution is defined as the
inverse of the resistance (R):
1
G  , in units of  1
R
 For parallel plate electrodes with area A, it
follows:
A
G
Where,
L
Κ: the conductivity,
L : the distance separating the plates
Units:
G → S (siemens)
R→Ω
κ → S m-1
Conductivity of Electrolyte Solution
 The conductivity of a solution depends on the number of ions
present. Consequently, the molar conductivity Λm is used
m 

C
 C is molar concentration of electrolyte and
unit of Λm is S m2 mol-1
In real solutions, Λm depends on the concentration
of the electrolyte. This could be due to:
 Ion-ion interactions  γ  1
 The concentration dependence of conductance
indicates that there are 2 classes of electrolyte
 Strong electrolyte: molar conductivity depends
slightly on the molar concentration
 Weak electrolyte: molar concentration falls
sharply as the concentration increases
Conductivity of Electrolyte Solution
In real solutions, Λm depends on the concentration of the
electrolyte. This could be due to:
1. Ion-ion interactions  γ  1
2. Incomplete dissociation
of electrolyte
strong electrolyte,
weak dependence of Λm on C
weak electrolyte,
strong dependence of Λm on C
Strong Electrolyte
 Fully ionized in solution
 Kohlrausch’s law
 m  0 m  KC1/ 2
Λ0m is the limiting molar conductivity
 K is a constant which typically depends on the
stoichiometry of the electrolyte
 C1/2 arises from ion-ion interactions as estimated by the
Debye-Hückel theory.
Strong Electrolyte
 Law of the independent migration of ions: limiting molar
conductivity can be expressed as a sum of ions contribution
0 m      
 ions migrate independently in
the zero concentration limi
Weak Electrolyte
 Not fully ionized in solution
H3O  (aq)  A  (aq)
HA(aq)  H2 O(l )
(1   ) c
c
 2c
Ka 
,
1 
1

 1
 2 c  K a K a 
c  Ka   Ka  0
2
 Ka  Ka  4 Ka c
2

 Ka


2c
2c
Ka  4 Ka c
2
2c
c
Ka
c
 is degree of ionisation
 K a K a  4c 


1

2c
2c  K a 
1/ 2
1/ 2


Ka 
4c 
 1 

  1
2c 
Ka 


Weak Electrolyte
 The molar Conductivity (at
higher concentrations) can
be expressed as:
 m  
0
m
 At infinite dilution, the
weak acid is fully
dissociated (α = 100%)
 It can be proven by the
Ostwald dilution law which
allows estimating limiting
molar conductance:
c m
1
1
 0 
 m  m Ka ( 0 m ) 2
 m  0 m
1
1

 m 0 m
1
1
1
 0 x
m  m 
1
1
 0
m  m

c 
x 1 

Ka 

m
1
1
c
 0 
x 0
0
 m  m Ka  m  m
Weak Electrolyte
 The limiting molar conductance:
c m
1
1
 0 
 m  m Ka ( 0 m ) 2
Graph to determine the limiting
value of the molar conductivity of
a solution by extrapolation to zero
concentration
The Mobility of Ions
 Ion movement in solution is random. However, a migrating
flow can be onset upon applying an electric field ,
E



L
F  zeE 
ze
L
 is the potential difference between 2 electrodes
separated by a distance L
F accelerates cations to the negatively charged electrode and
anions in the opposite direction. Through this motion, ions
experience a frictional force in the opposite direction.
Taking the expression derived by Stoke relating friction and
the viscosity of the solvent (), it follows:
Ffric  6rs, ( for ions with raidus r and velocity v)
The Mobility of Ions
 When the accelerating and retarding forces balance each
other, s is defined by:
zeE
ze
s
 E , where  
6 r
6 r
 u is mobility of ions, and r is hydrodynamic
radius, that might be different from the ionic
radius, small ions are more solvated than the
bulk ones.
Mobility in water at 298 K.
Viscosity of liquids at 298 K
The Mobility of Ions and Conductivity
 Finally, it can be shown that:
  zF , where F  N A e
 Fully dissociated electrolyte:
stA. vcN A
J (ions) 
 svcN A
At
J (ch arg e)  zervcN A  zrvcF  zEvcF

I  J . A  zEvcFA  zvcFA
L


I
 G  
R
L
  zvcF
The Mobility of Ions and Conductivity
 In solution:
  zF
0 m  ( z   v   z   v  ) F
Example:
1. if =5x10-8 m2/Vs and z=1, Λ=10mS m2 mol-1.
2. From the mobility of Cl- in aqueous solution, calculate the molar
ionic conductivity.
  zF
 = 7.91 x 10-8 m2 s-1V-1 x 96485 Cmol-1 = 7.63x10-3 sm2 mol-1
The Mobility of Ions and Conductivity
• Taking a conductimetre cell with electrodes separated by 1 cm and
an applied voltage of 1 V, calculate the drift speed in water at 298 K.
rCs = 170 pm
H2O = 0.891x10-3 kg m-1 s-1
1602
.
x10 19 C


6 r
6 x 31416
.
x 0.891 x 10  3 kgm 1 s 1 x 170 x 10 12 m
ze
  5 x 10  8 m2V 1 s 1
1V

E
L

0.01m
 100Vm 1
s  E  5 x 10  8 m 2V 1 s 1 x 100Vm 1  5 x 10  6 ms 1
 It will take a Cs+ ion 2000 s to go from one electrode to another.
 For H+ ion, H+=36.23 x10-8 m2 s-1 V-1, it will take 276 s.
Transport Numbers
Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion
Solution of Diffusion Equation
Diffusion Probablities
Random Walk
Problems
Summary
 Migration: Transport of ions induced by an electric field.
The concentration dependence of the molar conductivity
strongly differs for strong and weak electrolytes.
 Diffusion: Mass transport generated by a gradient of
concentration.
2
F
0 m  ( z  v  D  z  v  D )
RT
m  
0
m
 KC
1/ 2
D
RT
zF
kBT
D
6r
Thank You