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Chapter 17 Lesson 5 The War’s Final Stages Mississippi River: under Union control; used to block Confederate ports and cut off supply routes throughout the South. Ulysses S. Grant: appointed supreme military commander of all Union forces. • Sought to end the war through a massive attack on all fronts. Baker County, Florida. February 20, 1864. Union: General Truman Seymour. Confederacy: General Joseph Finnegan. Seymour landed troops in Jacksonville that were to be used to march on Tallahassee, but were stopped in Baker County by Joseph Finnegan. Confederate forces did not pursue the retreating Union army due to the heroism of the 54th Massachusetts and the 35th US Colored regiments. Was the largest Civil War battle to occur in Florida. Spotsylvania County and Orange County, Virginia. May 5-7, 1864. Union: General George Meade and General Ulysses S. Grant. Confederacy: General Robert E. Lee. Both armies suffered heavy losses with any tactical victor. Grant disengaged this battle, but continued his offensive against Lee in an effort of destroying the Confederate army. Also known as the Battle of Spotsylvania. Spotsylvania County and Orange County, Virginia. May 8-21, 1864. Union: General George Meade and General Ulysses S. Grant. Confederacy: General Robert E. Lee. Grant attempted to lure Lee into a battlefield of his own choosing. Both armies suffered heavy losses with any tactical victor. Hanover County, Virginia. May 31 – June 12 , 1864. Union: General George Meade and General Ulysses S. Grant. Confederacy: General Robert E. Lee. Both armies suffered heavy losses with any tactical victor. Grant attempted again to destroy Lee’s army, but was unsuccessful. Lee was victorious in defending against a larger Union force. Mobile, Alabama. August 5, 1864. Union: Admiral David Farragut. Confederacy: Admiral Franklin Buchanan. Farragut sacrificed one of his ironclad monitors in a minefield off the coast, but was able to sail his entire fleet into the harbor and destroy all Confederate vessels. Mobile was the last important port on the Gulf of Mexico east of the Mississippi for the Confederacy. General William Tecumseh Sherman: led Union forces in the Savannah Campaign. • After defeating General John Hood at Atlanta and burning the city, Sherman marched army across Georgia, obliterating any and all Confederate forces. • Ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21, 1864. • Total war: planned destruction of an entire land. • After Savannah, Sherman continued march up towards Richmond, Virginia, to meet up with Ulysses S. Grant. Victories at Atlanta and Mobile Bay provided Lincoln with a win in the election of 1864. Had Lincoln lost, the war would have ended and the South would have been recognized as an independent nation. 13th Amendment: passed by Congress January 31, 1865, abolishing slavery throughout the entire United States. Petersburg, Virginia. June 9, 1864 – March 25, 1865. Union: General Ulysses S. Grant and General George Meade. Confederacy: General Robert E. Lee. Nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully. Grant, however, refused to end his offensive, dig in, and prevented supplies from reaching Richmond and Petersburg. Upon the arrival of Union support from Sherman’s army, Lee finally gave in to the pressure and retreated to Appomattox Court House. Appomattox Court House: after losing Petersburg and Richmond, Lee retreated to Appomattox Court House; war ended on April 9, 1865. Terms of Surrender: • Surrender of all Virginia forces. • Virginian officers could keep small firearms. • Virginians could keep horses if owned. • Full quarter provided to surrendered troops. • Established peace between Virginians and the Union. More people died in the Civil War than any other American war in history; over 600,000. War results… • The Union was saved. • Gave more power to the federal government than the states. • Freed millions of African Americans.