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“The War of Northern Aggression” (to the South)
A: Slavery
B: State’s Rights
Frederick Douglass
•Prominent speaker for American Anti-Slavery Society
•Former slave
•Started antislavery newspaper: North Star
William Lloyd
•Uncompromising abolitionist
•Constitution supported slavery; had to change the Constitution
Sojourner Truth
•Born: Isabella Baumfree
•Former slave
Martin Delany
•1st African American to graduate from Harvard Medical School
•Founded newspaper: Mystery
•Supported colonization in Liberia
Harriet Tubman
•Former slave
•Conductor on the Underground Railroad
Participation of Women Allowed
 Sarah & Angelina Grimke’
 Sojourner Truth
 African Americans need was urgent
 Believed whites saw them as inferior
•Abolition was a radical idea
•Merchants : worried it would sour
business between N & S
•White workers & labor leaders:
competition would lower wages
•Blacks seen as inferior
•People don’t want them living in their
•Southerners: outraged & defended
•Postmasters refused to deliver
abolitionist literature
•Southern congressmen: Gag Rule passed
40,000 – 100,000 slaves escaped using
the Underground Railroad
Wanted: Harriett
AKA: Black Moses
$40,000 Reward
I have, Senators, believed from the first that… the
subject of slavery would, if not prevented by some
timely & effective measure, end in disunion [of the
United States]… It has reached a point when it can
no longer be disguised or denied that the Union is in
danger. You have thus had forced upon you the
greatest & the gravest question that can ever come
under your consideration: How can the Union be
~John C. Calhoon
March 4, 1850
Set 36’30 line
Provided balance in the Senate
 Manifest destiny
 Obtain California from Mexico
 Racism: Mexicans considered “semi-Indian”
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
US gained California & New Mexico Territory
US settled claims with citizens against Mexico ($3.2
US paid Mexico $15 million
South: government had no right denying
citizens of their “property” or preventing
them from taking their “property” to
North: areas should be closed to slavery while
they are still territories; stop the spread of
“Slave Power”
David Wilmot (Penn-D)
 Amendment
▪ “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever
exist” in any territory gained from Mexico
Popular Sovereignty
 People in the territories decide on the issue of
California asks to join as a free state
Admission would shift the balance of power
in senate
 Come up with another compromise
Henry Clay (Kent) – wrote
John C. Calhoon (S.C.) –
opposed Compromise
Daniel Webster (Mass)
– favored Compromise
Find the 5 provisions of the Compromise of
You have 5 minutes!
California admitted as a free state
People in New Mexico & Utah territories
would decide the issue of slavery
Sale of slavery in DC abolished (but not
Texas would give up claims to New Mexico
for $10 million
Fugitive Slave Act :
Ambiguity of popular sovereignty
S: insisted on not prohibiting slavery during
territorial stage
N: settlers could bar slavery when they wished
Fugitive Slave Act
1. ALL citizens of US
would assist in the
return of escaped
2. Trial by jury denied to
escaped slaves.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852):
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Cannibals All (1857):
George Fitzhugh
•Illustrated that slavery was opposed to
beliefs many Northerners held (importance
of women & ideal family)
•Simon Legree, slaver owner, everything the
North feared & despised
•Slavery could corrupt anyone
•Presented a picture of slavery in the South
Northerners could believe
•Northern industrialists were no better than
•Didn’t care about workers pay, living
conditions & could easily replace workers
•Slave holders had a vested interest in their
 US could not be a country of Simon Legrees
 Slavery would ruin the US
 Represented the true spirit of the American
Revolution since Revolutionary leaders had slaves
 Slave households had order, grace & a sense of liberty
 Northerners were arrogant & self righteous
In a nutshell: made the 2 sides hate each other
Senator: Illinois
 Drafted the Kansas Nebraska Act
 2 motivations:
1. Wanted Chicago to benefit from western
2. Wanted to run for president
Supported the practice of popular
Asking the nation to repeal the Missouri
Compromise 1820
9 months debate; finally passed
Members: Northerners who were disgusted
with the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dedicated to stopping “Slave Power”, the
repeal of the Kansas Nebraska Act & the
Fugitive Slave Act
Whigs fell apart after 1850
Know Nothings (1854)
Grew out of the issue of Nativism
AKA: The American Party
Every American & naturalized Protestant citizen
throughout the Union, [should] use his utmost
exertions to aid the cause by organizing & freeing
the country from that monster [Catholicism]
which… is only waiting… to approach to plant its
flag of tyranny, persecution, and oppression
among us.
The American Party
Immigrant Aid Society: 1200 free
soilers to Kansas
Proslavery settlers in Missouri went
to Kansas to vote illegally
1855: 2 constitutions & capitals
 Topeka: Antislavery
 Lecompton: Proslavery
1856: proslavery southerners looted
offices & homes in Lawrence
John Brown led a group to a proslavery
settlement near Pottawatomie Creek
Killed 5 men
Looting in Lawrence + Pottawatomie Creek =
summer of murderous raids known as “Bleeding
Senator Charles Sumner’s speech “Crime
Against Kansas” earned him a beating at the
hands of Preston Brooks.
Proslavery group writes a constitution:
Lecompton Constitution
 Most in Kansas were anti-slavery
 Buchanan supported Lecompton Constitution
Constitution defeated: Aug. 1858
Kansas remained a territory where slavery
was legal
Know Nothings
James Buchannan
Millard Fillmore
John C. Freemont
“Courted” immigrants
Supported the Kansas Nebraska
Feared foreigners &
Federal government has the right
to restrict slavery; Kansas
admitted as a free state;
supported temperance
Support of South & key Northern
Hoped the Supreme Court would
deal with the issue of slavery for
Strong Northern support
• 7:2 decision against Scott
• Effects of decision:
1. Slaves did not have rights to sue in court
2. Enslaved people could not win freedom by living in a
free territory or state
3. Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional & all
territories were open to slavery
• Illinois deeply divided over slavery
•7 debates on the issue of slavery in the territories
•Who would YOU vote for? Why?
Stephen Douglas (D)
• White Americans were superior to African
•Tolerated slavery
•Supported popular sovereignty
Abraham Lincoln (R)
•Shared Douglas’ views regarding African
•Majority should not have the power to deny
a minority of their rights
•Did not believe the federal government had
to power to forbid slavery
•Slavery was wrong; an issue of morals
“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot
endure, permanently half slave & half free. I do no expect the Union to be
dissolved – I do not except the house to fall – but I do expect it will cease to be
divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.”
-Abraham Lincoln
June 1858
Attacked a federal arsenal at
Harpers Ferry, Virginia
21 men (5 African Americans)
Plan: give weapons to
enslaved people so they could
Surrendered to Col. Robert E.
Brown: guilty of treason & to
be hung
Southern (D)
Moderate Southern
Northern (D)
Northern (R)
John C. Breckinridge
John Bell
Stephen Douglas
Abraham Lincoln
Committed to an
aggressive policy of
expanding slavery in
the territories.
Supported popular
Against slavery in
the territories
& SC
NJ (split) & MO
Every free state
except NJ (split)
On the ballot in the South
On the ballot in the North
Lincoln won with out 1 southern electoral vote; 39% of popular vote; 180
majority electoral college votes
Southerners outraged
Planters & proslavery called for the South to
Secessionists argued: states joined voluntarily &
could choose to leave
Lower South Secedes & forms the Confederate
Sates of America & elected Jefferson Davis
Sen. John Crittenden (Kent): plan would
recognize slavery south of 36 30; Lincoln: NO
Horace Greeley: let the seceding states go
Northern businessmen: force the states to
Succession wrong
Committed to preventing the expansion of slavery
Duty to enforce the laws of the US
We must not be enemies. Though passion may have
strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The
mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield
& patriot grave to every living heart… will yet swell the
chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely they
will be, by the better angels of our nature.
Abraham Lincoln
1st Inaugural Address
& plea to the South
Federal troops occupied
Lincoln needed to resupply
 Symbol of the Union he swore to preserve
 Fighting = responsible for starting a war
 Abandoning = acknowledging the authority of the
Confederate government
Confederate Pres ordered Gen PGT Beauregard
to demand Sumter’s surrender
 Anderson: NO
April 12, 1861: Beauregard opened fire;
Anderson surrendered
Lincoln had no choice but to respond
Asked for volunteers
South = act of war
4 border states = uncommitted
1. Where were most
of the textiles &
centers located?
North or South
2. Where was most
of the food
grown or
produced? North
or South
3. Where was most of the population located in
1860? North or South
4. Where were
most of the
railroads located?
North or South
5. Where were most of
the lines of
communication located?
North or South
•2x railroad tracks & factories (21,700: 9000 miles;
110,000: 20,600)
•Balanced economy: farming & industry
•Financially: better off
•Already functioning government
•Existing army & navy
• 2/3 of nation’s population (21.5 million: 9 million)
•7 of 8 military colleges were in
the South
•Most officers sided with the
•Only needed to defend borders
& not initiate attacks
•Soldiers were eager to fight: “a
struggle for their way of life”
•Lincoln orders a blockade of seceded
•Troops & gunboats to gain control of the
•Cut the Confederacy in 2; the Anaconda
•Seize the capitol: Richmond, Virginia
•Prepare & wait
•War of attrition
•Stop exporting cotton to Europe
New bullet shaped ammo
persuade people to sacrifice personal
interests for the common good
Build loyalty to the new government
Fewer resources
Lee called for a draft
 3 yr service
 White men 18 – 35; later 45 then 50
Farmers had to contribute 1/10 of produce
Taxed income to pay for war
Male slaves seized for military labor
States worked against draft officials
Asked Europe for help
 No recognition
 Britain: ports used for privateers
 France: would not support Confederacy w/o
Had to convince citizens that saving the
Union was worth the loss
Britain: threatened invasion after 2 Confed
representatives taken off a British ship
Lincoln - $19 billion from Britain for
Pacific Railroad Act
Homestead Act
$$ to War
 Federal income tax: 3 – 5%
 Internal Revenue Act: tax on liquor, tobacco,
medicine & newspaper ads
Northern draft
 $300 buy your way out
Copperheads: Democrats against the war
 Army shut down opposition newspapers
 Disloyal legislative members arrested
 Kent: martial law
 Suspended writ of habeas corpus
Lincoln opposed slavery; lacked power to
Ending slavery = strategy to end war
1/1/63: Emancipation Proclamation
 Slaves in areas of rebellion are free
 Announcement = Democrats made gains in election
of 1862
Union Gen. Benjamin Butler: seize enemy’s
property – contraband
July 1862: Lincoln allows African Americans to
join the military
 ‘65: 180,000 ; +1/2 were former slaves
 July 1863: Massachusetts 54th Infantry under
command of Robert Gould Shaw led attack on Ft.
South: food shortages, labor shortages,
desertions, women filled jobs
North: some industries hurt, women filled
jobs, cheaply made products = more profits
Andersonville: most notorious
 35,000 men on 26 acres
 100 died a day
1:4 soldiers died from disease
 Dysentery, typhoid, malaria, pneumonia
1:5 died from wounds
Clara Barton “angel of the battlefield”: found
the American Red Cross
Ft. Sumter
C: Beauregard
U: Anderson
Opening shots of
Civil War
1st Battle of Bull Run
U: 2900
C: -200
C: Beauregard, Thomas &
Stonewall Jackson
1st major battle
U: +13,000
C: ~11,000
U: Grant & Buell
C: Johnson
Bloodiest single
U: +12,000
C: ~14,000
U: McClellan
C: Lee
Bloodiest DAY of
the Civil War
U: 13,000
C: 5000
U: Burnside
C: Lee
Burnside’s actions
led to the
massacre of his
U: +23,000
C: +28,000
U: Meade, Chamderlain
C: Lee, Longstreet, Picket
Bloodiest battle
U: Grant
C: Pemberton
Union controls
Mississippi R.
U: Sherman
C: Hood
Sherman burned
Atlanta to the
2 minute speech
15,000 people gathered to hear
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived
in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged
in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated,
can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a
portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation
might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this
ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our
poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here,
but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to
the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for
us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we
take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under
God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for
the people, shall not perish from the earth.
 Radical Republicans: angered Lincoln vetoes
Wade-Davis Bill
 Supported John C. Fremont
 George McClellan
Capture of Atlanta = support for Lincoln = 212
of 233 electoral votes
Ratified December 18, 1865
“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
except as a punishment for a crime whereof the
party shall have been duly convicted, shall
exist within the United States, or any place
subject to their jurisdiction”
Lincoln: slavery once divided a nation, let’s
begin to heal wounds
Sherman moves North
Confed: -35,000 starving men in Richmond
Grant blocked Lee’s moves
April 9: Lee surrendered to Grant at
Appomattox Court House
Group led by John Wilkes Booth
April 14, 1865: shot Lincoln in the head at
Ford’s Theater
14 days for the funeral train to travel from DC
to Springfield, IL