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• 1846-48 = MEXICAN WAR – 1. Summary of Events • Pressure for Expansion & Texas annexation • US offers buy Cal. & NM but Mexico refuses • Border dispute starts war – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • S. border Texas = Rio Grande, & gain Cal. & NM • Gaining land = renew sectional feelings about extension of slavery • 1848-49 = GOLD RUSH – 1. Summary of Events • Gold found at Sutter’s Mill in 1848 • “Rush” of people go West in 1849 • Need for Local Government – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • 1849 = Californians draft constitution & apply to Union as a Free State • 1850 = COMPROMISE OF 1850 – 1. Summary of Events • • • • – Gaining land from Mexican War & California Gold Rush bring settlers California wants enter as Free State “Fire-Eaters” oppose plan Henry Clay & Daniel Webster help get a compromise 2. Results/Significance/Importance • • • Compromise of 1850 (5 Parts) – Admission of California as a free state – Remaining western territories organized with no restriction on slavery – End of all slave trade in the District of Columbia – Strict federal fugitive slave law – Assumption of Texas' debt by the national government Buys some time for nation Angers Extremists on both sides • 1852 = UNCLE TOM’S CABIN – 1. Summary of Events • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe • Want to show evils of slavery, especially splitting families & brutality • Inspired by Fugitive Slave Law – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • Becomes best-seller (300,000 1st Year, 2 million in decade) • North = many see evils of slavery & boosts abolitionist movement • South = angered & condemn book • 1854 = KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT – 1. Summary of Events • Stephen Douglas wants RR come through North • Proposes – – 1) Kansas and Nebraska territories be divided into two sections 2) Missouri Compromise be repealed, with settlers in each territory choosing whether or not they wanted slavery (popular sovereignty) 2. Results/Significance/Importance • • 1) Party realignments – a) Whig Party collapsed – b) Know-Nothing Party (anti-immigrant, antiCatholic) emerged – c) Republican Party, organized in support of keeping slavery out of the territories, gained strength in northwestern states 2) Bleeding Kansas violence as proand anti-slavery forces rushed in to Kansas Territory • 1856 = BLEEDING KANSAS – 1. Summary of Events • “Border Ruffians” move in to create Pro-Slavery Govt. • Anti-Slavery groups organize & refuse recognize proslavery govt. • Proslavery forces attack Lawrence • John Brown & sons attack proslavery Pottawatomie settlement = kill 5 – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • Pierce Administration doesn’t do anything to keep order • Continued fighting & splits Democratic party between North & South • 1856 = BROOKS-SUMNER INCIDENT – 1. Summary of Events • Sumner = Sen. Mass, – gives speech “Crimes Against Kansas” – Insults Proslaveryite S.C. senator • Brooks = S.C. congressman – retaliated by hitting Sumner over the head 30 times or more (11 oz. Gold headed cane) – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • House of Rep. Try expel Brooks = he resigns (would be reelected) • Sumner & Bleedin Kansas come to represent evils of slavery system & South for North • In a broad sense, can represent first blows of the war • 1857 = DRED SCOTT V. SANFORD – 1. Summary of Events • Dred Scott, slave who lived in free territory • Taken back to Missouri, and sued for freedom – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • Chief Justice Taney’s ruling – Scott a slave, could not sue in Federal Court – Missouri Compromise unconstitutional • North = fear expansion of slave power (overrule Miss Comp & Pop Sov) • South = feel backed by Const. & Supreme Court • 1859 = HARPERS FERRY – 1. Summary of Events • Brown and his followers planned a slave insurrection to begin in western Virginia. • Seized federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, but was quickly captured, tried, and hanged. – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • Impact of Brown – – – Northern abolitionists (Emerson and Thoreau) viewed him as a martyr, taking action against the evil of slavery Southerners generally viewed Brown as a madman, symbolizing the fanatical hatred of the North Moderates (Lincoln) condemned Brown's action, while admiring his commitment to countering slavery • 1860 = ELECTION OF 1860 – 1. Summary of Events • Democrats split into northern and southern factions and nominated two candidates (Douglas and Breckenridge) • Former Whigs nominated Bell in an attempt to preserve Union with Constitutional Union Party. Strong only in Virginia and upper South • Republicans nominated Lincoln as a moderate compromise candidate. – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • Lincoln carried the Northern states and won the electoral vote, though earning less than 40% of all votes cast • On December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union • 1860-61 = SECESSION & FAILURE OF COMPROMISE – 1. Summary of Events • After S.C., six more states seceded • 1861 = Meet in Alabama & form Confederate States of America • Crittenden Compromise – Propose going back to 36,30 line for slavery – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • South feel acting like revolutionaries & North tyrants so can break away • Lincoln can’t accept Compromise = ran on promise not to allow expansion of slavery • 1861 = FORT SUMTER – 1. Summary of Events • Federal fort in S.C. • Federal troops cut off from supplies • Lincoln’s choice = send just supplies • South has to choose = South opens fire to take fort – 2. Results/Significance/Importance • Four more states join Confederacy & Capital moved to Richmond • Start of Civil War • AT WHAT POINT DID ARMED CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TWO REGIONS BECOME INEVITABLE, BEYOND WHICH EVEN EXTRAORDINARY STATESMANSHIP COULD NOT HAVE HEALED THE WOUNDS? EXPLAIN.