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Transcript
Church History and Christian Ministry
Augustine (354 – 430)
Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274)
Martin Luther (1483 – 1546)
Karl Barth (1886 – 1968)
The Middle Ages
Dominated by Augustin
and Platonism
Emphasis on Other-Worldly
Images
The Middle Ages
Dominated by Augustin
and Platonism
Emphasis on Other-Worldly
Images
The Crusades opened the
doors to classic humanism
and a new interest in nature
The Middle Ages
Dominated by Augustin
and Platonism
Emphasis on Other-Worldly
Images
The Crusades opened the
doors to classic humanism
and a new interest in nature
The Middle Ages
Dominated by Augustin
and Platonism
Emphasis on Other-Worldly
Images
The Crusades opened the
doors to classic humanism
and a new interest in nature
…and out of this, the
Renaissance
The Middle Ages
Dominated by Augustin
and Platonism
Emphasis on Other-Worldly
Images
The Crusades opened the
doors to classic humanism
and a new interest in nature
…and out of this, the
Renaissance
The Renaissance (1400s)
1. Humanism
Leonardo’s Vitruvian
Man (c. 1485) represented
his depiction of the idea
that “man” is the measure
of all proportion
The Renaissance (1400s)
1. Humanism
2. Wealth
The Renaissance (1400s)
1. Humanism
2. Wealth
The Medici, and other
Italian banking families,
amassed vast fortunes
trading in imports from
the east brought back by
Crusaders and others
The Renaissance (1400s)
1. Humanism
2. Wealth
3. Corruption
The Renaissance (1400s)
1. Humanism
2. Wealth
3. Corruption
Papal power to sell
“forgiveness of sins” led to
widespread abuse and
corruption, a force that
naturally led to the cry for
reformation
Johann Tetzel
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Wealth flows into Italy –
Medici and Florence
Cosimo sets up one of earliest
banks
Patron of arts
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Continued his father’s business
Died early of lung disease
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Giulio (1478 – 1534)
Michelangelo – adopted into family
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Giovanni and Julius were driven out in 1494.
Giovanni is cardinal – but now no power base
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Republican Florence (1494 – 1511)
Michelangelo stays to support the republic
Produced the David, which became a political statement
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)
Michelangelo stays to support the republic
Produced the David, which became a political statement
Put in front of city hall: David (Florence) v. Goliath (Medici)
Florence is under the care of Machiavelli
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)
Michelangelo stays to support the republic
Produced the David, which became a political statement
Put in front of city hall: David (Florence) v. Goliath (Medici)
Florence is under the care of Machiavelli
Savoranola is political/religious reformer
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)
Michelangelo stays to support the republic
Produced the David, which became a political statement
Put in front of city hall: David (Florence) v. Goliath (Medici)
Florence is under the care of Machiavelli
Savoranola is political/religious reformer
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)
Giovanni retakes Florence with Pope’s Help (1511)
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Republican Florence (1494 – 1511)
Giovanni retakes Florence with Pope’s Help (1511)
Machiavelli tortured and exiled, wrote The Prince
Pope Julius II dies; Giovanni elected pope (Leo X, 1513)
Renaissance – a short
history of Florence
Cosimo (1389 – 1464)
Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)
Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)
Giovanni (1475 – 1521)
Republican Florence (1494 – 1511)
Giovanni retakes Florence with Pope’s Help (1511)
Machiavelli tortured and exiled, wrote The Prince
Pope Julius II dies; Giovanni elected pope (Leo X, 1513)
Bankrupted the papacy in about a year
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Lorenzo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Hans Luther was part of rising peasant class
Invested heavily in Martin’s education
Enrolled at University of Erfurt (1501)
1502 – graduated 2nd in class.
1505 – M.A. in law
The lightening storm incident
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)
Joined Augustinian monastery in 1515
Ceaseless anxiety as a monk
1510: visited Rome for first and only time: bitterly disillusioned
1515 – started commentary on Romans – stuck in Romans 1:15ff
Johann Tetzel came selling papal indulgences
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)
Joined Augustinian monastery in 1515
Ceaseless anxiety as a monk
1510: visited Rome for first and only time: bitterly disillusioned
1515 – started commentary on Romans – stuck in Romans 1:15ff
Johann Tetzel came selling papal indulgences
Luther wrote the 95 Theses – critical of theology of indulgences
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)
Joined Augustinian monastery in 1515
Ceaseless anxiety as a monk
1510: visited Rome for first and only time: bitterly disillusioned
1515 – started commentary on Romans – stuck in Romans 1:15ff
Johann Tetzel came selling papal indulgences
Luther wrote the 95 Theses – critical of theology of indulgences
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)
The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)
The 95 Theses swept through Germany and all of Europe
Pope Leo didn’t take Luther too seriously at the beginning
A series of meetings culminated at Worms in 1521
Luther excommunicated – “Here I Stand” speech
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)
The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)
Luther the Reformer (1521 – 1546)
1521 – 22: Wartburg Castle; translates New Testament
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)
The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)
Luther the Reformer (1521 – 1546)
1521 – 22: Wartburg Castle; translates New Testament
1524 – Peasants’ War – political revolt not supported by Luther
1525 – Married Katie von Bora
Martin Luther and the Reformation
Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling
Florence
Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)
Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)
The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)
Luther the Reformer (1521 – 1546)
1521 – 22: Wartburg Castle; translates New Testament
1524 – Peasants’ War – political revolt not supported by Luther
1525 – Married Katie von Bora
1529 – Wrote hymn: A Mighty Fortress
Colloquy of Marburg: join Swiss and German Ref
1546: Death of Luther
The Reformation (1500s)
Emphasis on sources over tradition
The Reformation (1500s)
Emphasis on sources over tradition
Emphasis on conscience over authority
Unless I am convinced by proofs from
Scriptures or by plain and clear reasons and
arguments, I can and will not retract, for it is
neither safe nor wise to do anything against
conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other.
God help me. Amen." – Martin Luther
The Reformation (1500s)
Emphasis on sources over tradition
Emphasis on conscience over authority
Emphasis on productive over slavish labor
…which all tended to produce a new
interest in science and its utility
“The invention of the printing-press
prepared the way for popular
education. The Reformation first
utilized the press on a large scale,
and gave a powerful impulse to
common schools. The genius of
Protestantism favors the general
diffusion of knowledge. It elevates
the laity, emancipates private
judgment, and stimulates the sense
of personal responsibility. Every
man should be trained to a position
of Christian freedom and selfgovernment.” – Philip Schaff
Four Solas of the Reformation
Sola Fides
+ Works
Sola Scriptura
+ Tradition
Sola Gracia
+ Merit
Sola Christus
+ The Church