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Nutrición:aparatoscirculatorioyexcretor
NUTRITION:THE
CIRCULATORYAND
EXCRETORYSYSTEMS
Nutrición:aparatoscirculatorioyexcretor
NutriKon:Thecirculatoryandexcretorysystems
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Theinternalenvironment
Bloodcomposi3on
Bloodvessels
Heart
Heartbeat
Bloodcircula3on
Lympha3csystem
Excretorysystem
Nephron
Healthyhabitsofthecirculatory
andexcretorysystems
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THEINTERNALENVIRONMENT
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All cells need to live in a
environment that provides
them with all the nutrients
they need. In addi3on, the
same environment allows
c e l l s t o r e l e a s e w a s t e
substances resul3ng from
theirmetabolism.
Bloodprovidescells
withthenutrientsthey
need.
Capillary
IntersKKal
plasma
Bloodremoves
wasteproducts
producedduring
cellmetabolism.
The internal environment is
formedbyintersKKalplasma.
Tissuecellsexchange
substanceswiththe
inters33alplasma.
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BLOODCOMPOSITION
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water
mineralsalts
albumin
proteins globulin
fibrinogen
lipids
glucose
urea
wasteproducts
uricacid
Plasma
erythrocyte
Cells
leucocytes
thrombocytes
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lymphocytes
eosinophils
monocytes
basophils
granulocytes
neutrophils
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BLOODVESSELS
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Bloodflowsthroughthecirculatorysystem,whichisconstructedbysomechannelscalledblood
vessels,andbyadriverorgan,theheart.
Arteriole
Direc3on
flow
Venule
Direc3on
flow
Artery
Vein
Elas3cfibresand
smoothmuscle
Capillary
Fibraselás3casy
musculaturalisa
Valve
Connec3ve
3ssue
Endothelium(a
layerofcells)
Connec3ve
3ssue
•  Arteries:thesecarrybloodfromthehearttootherorgans.Theyhavewidemuscularwallsandare
elas3c.
•  Veins:thesecarrybloodfrom3ssuestotheheart.Theyhavethinnerwallsthanarteries.Inaddi3on,
theyhavevalvesthatstopbloodfromgoingbackwards.
•  Capillaries:thesearemicroscopicbloodvesselslocatedinalltheorganism's3ssues.Capillariesare
formedbywallsthatonlyhaveonelayerofcells.
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HEART
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NutriKon:Thecirculatoryandexcretorysystems
Theheartisahollowmuscularorgan.Itis
divided into two parts, the leO and right,
whicharecompletelyseparate.
Each half of the heart is subdivided into
twochambers:anuppersmallerchamber
named the atrium, and a larger lower
chambernamedtheventricle.
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HEARTBEATS
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Aheartbeatisthemovementthatpumpsblood.
Itperformsthreephases:
1.  Atrialsystole:theatriums
contractandbloodispropelled
throughtheopenedatrioventricular
valvesintotheventricles.
2.Ventricularsystole:ventriclescontract,
thesigmoidvalvesopenandtheblood
containedinthemexitsthroughthe
pulmonaryarteryandtheaorta.
Simultaneously,thevalvesthatconnect
withventriclesclose.
3.Diastole:theheartrelaxesandsucksbloodcoming
fromthecavaandpulmonaryveinsintotheatriums.
Bloodpropelledtowardsthearteriesduringthe
ventricularsystoledoesn'treturntotheventricles
thankstotheac3onofthesigmoidalvalves,which
closeupandpreventthisfromhappening.
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BLOODCIRCULATION
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Our cardiovascular system is a
double system and goes through
two separate circuits: systemic and
pulmonary.
headand
blood
superiorvena
cava
aorta
Systemic circuit: blood starts in the
leO ventricle and goes through the
aorta, which branches into arterioles,
and then into capillaries, reaching all
the 3ssues and organs except the
lungs.
Pulmonary circuit: it begins in the
right ventricle from which the
pulmonary artery starts (this artery
branches into two, with each branch
connec3ngwithalung).
lungs
pulmonaryartery
pulmonaryvein
liver
hepaKcvein
hepaKcportalvein
hepaKcartery
inferiorvena
cava
Stomachand
intesKne
mesenteric
artery
kidneys,genitals
andlegs
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LYMPHATICSYSTEM
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Lymph:atransparentliquidcomposedoflymphocytesandinters33alplasma.Inters33al
plasmaisformedwhenbloodplasmaisfilteredasittravelstothe3ssues.Fromthere,it's
collectedbylymphaKccapillaries.
vein
Bloodprovides
nutrientsandremoves
wasteproductsfrom
Capilar
theorganism’scells.
LymphaKcvessels:
lympha3c
capillariesare
closedononeend
andarefoundin
3ssuesjoininginto
increasinglybigger
conduitsknownas
lymphveins.
Someoftheinters33al
plasmagoestothe
lympha3cvessels.
cell
artery
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lymphvessel
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EXCRETORYSYSTEM
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suprarrenalcapsule
renal
vein renalartery
The excretory system is the group of
leOkidney organs that facilitate the elimina3on
of waste products produced by cells
aOercellmetabolism.
right
kidney
inferior
venacava
aortaartery
The urinary system plays an
important role in the excretory
system,formedbythekidneysand
theurinarytracts.
ureter
bladder
urethra
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NEPHRON
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Bowman’s
capsule
Nephrons are the structural and
func3onalunitsofthekidneys.They
are tubes with one closed end and
aresurroundedbybloodcapillaries.
distal
convoluted
tube
They are responsible for filtering
bloodandformingurine,aswellas
regula3ng water and mineral
contentintheblood.Eachkidneyis collector
formedbyoveramillionnephrons. tube
totherenalpelvis
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proximal
convoluted
tube
glomerulus
arteriole
venule
capillary
network
(reabsorp3on
area)
loopofHenle
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HEALTHYHABITSINTHE
CIRCULATORYANDEXCRETORY
SYSTEMS
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In order to ensure that our circulatory and excretory systems func3on
adequately,it'sessen3altoincorporatehealthyhabitsintoourlifestyle.
Abalanceddiet,
adequatehygieneand
exercisingregularly,as
wellasavoidingstress,
arekeystomaintaining
bothsystemshealthy.
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