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Transcript
Chapter 16: Twentieth
Century Architecture
16.1 Modernism
16.2 Post-Modernism
In the twentieth century, heavy structures of wood and stone which
were used for building in previous eras were replaced by the modern
invention of steel skyscrapers. The new, sleek form of architecture
was called Modernism. Modernism completely changed the look of
cities. No longer were churches the tallest structures on the horizon;
they were now overshadowed by towering secular buildings.
The new building materials included steel, reinforced concrete, and
huge expanses of glass. The unadorned, graceful style of Modernism
imparted a feeling of weightlessness.
The 1960s saw a shift in architectural style away from the pure,
elegant
look of Modernism to a more eclectic design attitude called PostModernism. Post-Modernist architects combined design styles, being
less concerned with rigid rules dictating taste.
Louis Sullivan
(1856-1924)
Carson Pirie Scott
Dept.Store, 1901,
Chicago, Illinois
Modernism begins with Louis
Sullivan, one of the earliest
architects to use steel
construction. Window
detailing and ornamentation
was eliminated, except for the
area of the front doors. He
believed that “form follows
function.” This means that
practical needs are more
important than beauty for its
own sake.
Sullivan had a good
opportunity to put his designs
to use in Chicago, which had
to be rebuilt after the Great
Fire of 1871 destroyed much
of the central business
district. Most of the buildings
which fed the devastating fire
had been made of wood.
Louis Sullivan (18561924)
Guaranty Building, 1895,
Buffalo, New York,
Despite his reputation for austere
design, during the peak of his career
Sullivan included more ornamentation
in his facades, ranging from organic
forms like vines and ivy to more
geometric patterns. Another visual
element he became known for is the
massive, semi-circular arch, seen here
in the window frames and entrances.
This office building in Buffalo, New
York was visibly divided into three
"zones" of design: a plain, widewindowed base for the ground-level
shops; the main office block, with
vertical ribbons of masonry rising
unimpeded across nine upper floors to
emphasize the building's height; and
an ornamented cornice perforated by
round windows at the roof level, where
the building's mechanical units (like
the elevator motors) were housed.
The cornice includes Sullivan's
trademark Art Nouveau vines; each
ground-floor entrance is topped by a
semi-circular arch.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1866-1969)
Lakeshore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Illinois, 1951
Mies van der Rohe moved to Chicago from his native Germany during the Nazi era. His
American buildings had a great impact on Modernism. In this structure of two residential
units we see very simplified forms with subtle variations; they are designed in such a way
as to allow for the maximum amount of light to enter each apartment.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1866-1969)
Lakeshore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Illinois, 1951
The base of the buildings rests on stilt-like structures which lend a welcoming
openess to these otherwise massive structures.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1866-1969)
Lakeshore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Illinois, 1951
Mies van der Rohe moved to Chicago from his native Germany during the Nazi era. His
American buildings had a great impact on Modernism. In this structure of two residential
units we see very simplified forms with subtle variations; they are designed in such a way
as to allow for the maximum amount of light to enter each apartment.
Ludwig Mies van
der Rohe
(1866-1969)
Seagram Building,
New York City,
1958
The exterior of this building is
made of bronze-finished steel
and amber glass. Steel stilts
support the building and
impart a sense of
weightlessness to the solid
form of the building above.
This building is on Park Ave.,
between 52nd and 53rd St.
This elegant and seemingly
simple building may be said
to embody Mies van der
Rohe’s famous slogan
summing up his design
philosophy, “Less is more.”
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
Robie House, 1909, Chicago, Illinois
Frank Lloyd Wright was originally a student of Louis Sullivan, but became famous in his own
right as the leader of the Prairie School. There is an overall horizontal feeling to the homes
he built. His primary concern was to develop a compatible relationship between the structure
and its location so that the building would seem to grow out of its environment.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
Kaufman House, 1936, Bear Run, Pennsylvania
This famous house is known as “Falling Water” because it is built over a waterfall.
Frank Lloyd
Wright
(1867-1959)
Kaufman
House, 1936,
Bear Run,
Pennsylvania
This famous house is
known as “Falling Water”
because it is built over a
waterfall.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
Kaufman House, 1936, Bear Run, Pennsylvania
This famous house is known as “Falling Water” because it is built over a waterfall.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1959, New York City
The floor plan of this famous museum is based on a circular shape; the artwork is displayed
on the walls of one huge ramp which rises several stories from ground level.
Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964)
Schroder House, 1924, Holland
This architect combined the modernist influence of Frank Lloyd
Wright and his fellow Dutchman, painter Piet Mondrian.
Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
Bauhaus, 1928, Germany
Gropius headed Germany’s Bauhaus school, of art and architecture, which fostered the
International Style. This style was the forerunner of contemporary architecture and our
modern mass production building techniques. The use of all organic materials—such as
wood or stone— was eliminated, as was all ornamentation. Glass was a favored material, but
has since been scaled back in building design when the energy crisis of our times caused a
re-evaluation its insulating efficiency.
Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
Bauhaus, 1928, Germany
The use of all organic materials—such as wood or stone— was eliminated, as was all
ornamentation. Glass was a favored material, but has since been scaled back in building
design when the energy crisis of our times caused a re-evaluation its insulating efficiency.
Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
Gropius House, 1938, Massachusetts
Gropius built this home for his family when he moved to the United States during the
German Nazi era. This structure stays true to Bauhaus design principles, using
simple, clean lines and mass-produced fittings for steel wall lights, chrome banisters
and glass panes.