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Transcript
Design Movements
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Arts & Crafts
Art Nouveau
Art Deco
Bauhaus
Modernism
De Stijl
Memphis
Post Modernism
Arts & Crafts 1850 - 1900
• Simplicity – hand made
• Inspiration from nature – plants, birds and
animals.
• Natural forms and materials
• Colour and texture
• William Morris
– “Have nothing in your houses that you do not
know to be useful, or believe to be beautiful”
• Some Victorian designers, led by William Morris,
rejected the ideas of the industrial revolution.
• They believed that automation and mass production
separated designers from their products, and that
the crafts and workmanship of the past were dying
out.
• These designers preferred to design and make
products that were original and hand-crafted.
• The Arts and Crafts Movement produced designs
based on forms in nature, such as animals and
plants.
• Making the designs required highly skilled workers,
so most of the products were too expensive for the
average person to buy.
Art Nouveau 1890 - 1905
• Curvy ‘whiplash’ lines and stylised flowers
• Elongated lines, leaves, roots, buds &
seedpods.
• Exotic insects and peacock feathers
• Inspiration from Nature and the female form
• Charles Rennie Mackintosh
– Glasgow based designer & architect
– Contrasting monochrome colours & the use of
geometric shapes in his work
• Mackintosh trained as an architect and interior
designer in Glasgow, Scotland.
• He didn’t like the fussy and over-decorated
Victorian style that dominated the early Arts
and Craft Movement.
• Mackintosh preferred to incorporate
geometric shapes into his design.
• Much of his work is based around contrasting
monochrome colours and the creative use of
empty space.
• He developed what is known as the ‘Glasgow
Style’.
Art Deco 1925 - 1939
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Geometric forms
Symmetry and repetition
Zig-zagged geometric fan motifs and sunbursts
Inspiration from ancient Egypt and Aztec
Mexican Art
• Discovery of Tutankhamum’s tomb
• Machine age; explicit use of man made
materials
• Key designer: Claris Cliff (ceramicist)
• Philosophy….
– Popular Modernism.
– Opulent architectural and decorative arts style
which was a direct reaction to the post war
austerity.
– It was regarded as a ‘glamorous’ period.
• Style….
– Zig-Zagged, geometric fan motifs.
– Symmetry & repetition.
– Inspiration from ancient Egypt.
• So what is Art Deco?..
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THjB9r2McHA&feature=related
http://www.artofthestate.co.uk/london_photos/wallis_house.htm
Bauhaus 1919 - 1933
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Form follows function
Products for a machine age
Every day objects for every day people
Modern materials
Simple, geometrically pure forms and clean
lines
• Omitting decorative frills
• Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer and Mies van
der Rohe
• The Bauhaus was a German art and architecture
school which existed from 1919 to 1933. It was
founded by Walter Gropius, a German architect.
• The Bauhaus wanted to design and
manufacture products, architecture and print
that was functional, cheap and compatible with
mass production techniques.
• They believed strongly in honesty of materials
and that a product’s function should be
reflected in its aesthetic qualities.
• New materials and manufacturing processes
provided a catalyst for much of their work.
Examples
• Which Design Movement?
– Art Nouveau
• Key elements?
– Curvy ‘whiplash’ lines and
stylised flowers
– Elongated lines, leaves, roots,
buds & seedpods.
– Exotic insects and peacock
feathers
– Inspiration from Nature and
the female form
Modernism….
• Was influences by industrial designs and made use of
geometric shapes. Movements that are influenced
by technological developments in industry are:
– Bauhaus
– Art Deco
– De Stijl
• They rejected decorative forms and embraced a look
that they felt was universally acceptable. It was a
period of design, literature, music & architecture that
spans from 1920’s to 1960’s . Key figures include Le
Corbusier – a French designer & architecture.
• Machines for living….
Modernism…
De Stijl 1917 - 1931
• Black outlines
• Inspiration using extreme geometric designs,
rectangles and primary colours
• Ultimate simplicity and abstraction
• Disconnected lines
• Inspired completely new designs in furniture
& architecture
• Artist: Mondrian & Designer: Rietveld
1970’s to the present day….
• By the 1980’s the designer name or brand was
important to consumers:
– Designer labels spread from fashion to other areas
of product design
– Promotion and packaging became a key part of
the complete product.
Memphis….
• The Memphis group was an alternative
viewpoint to minimalism:
– It was started by a group of Italian designers, led
by Ettore Sottsass.
– They produced highly decorative laminates and
humorous products.
– Their post modernism influence can be seen in
many of today's products.
Memphis….
Post modernism…
• The history:
– It is largely influenced by the western European
disillusionment caused from WW2.
– It is anything BUT the ordinary in that it presents
extreme complexity, contradictory, and diversity.
– Diverse ideas, designs and innovations that are
intended to provoke a reaction.
• Memphis is part of this design period also.
Post Modernism….
Post Modernism….
– It is also referred to as Modern Design & includes
Alberto Alessi, George Sowden (Memphis
Designer) & Mendini, the founder of the Italian
Style, as key figures of this period.
– The movement likes combining new materials &
interesting combinations are key.
Examples
• Which Design Movement?
• Bauhaus
• Key elements?
• Form follows function
• Products for a machine
age
• Every day objects for every
day people
• Modern materials
• Simple, geometrically pure
forms and clean lines
Examples
• Which Design Movement?
• Arts & Crafts
• Key elements?
• Simplicity – hand made
• Inspiration from nature – plants,
birds and animals.
• Natural forms and materials
• Colour and texture
• William Morris
Examples
• Which Design Movement?
• Art Deco
• Key elements?
• Geometric forms
• Symmetry and repetition
• Zig-zagged geometric fan
motifs and sunbursts
• Inspiration from ancient Egypt
and Aztec Mexican Art
Examples
• Which Design Movement?
• Modernism
• Key elements?
• Was influences by industrial
designs and made use of
geometric shapes.
• Rejected decorative forms.
Examples
Which Design Movement?
• Post Modernism
Key elements?
• Modern design
• Creating a statement
• Designers: Alessi & Mendini
What is the product?
• Juicy Salif
• By Alessi
• It’s a juicer
• Function follows form!
Examples
• Which Design Movement?
• De Stijl
• Key elements?
• Inspiration from basic
rectangles and primary colours
• Black outlines
• Geometric designs to the
extreme
• Ultimate simplicity and
abstraction
• Disconnected lines
• Artist Mondrian