AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total Directions: Read assigned pages. Collect data on the artworks listed below. ARCHITECTURE ANALYSIS/DATA COLLECTION WORKSHEET CRITERIA: Date / Time Period / Style Site / Location / Relationship to site Labrouste, Reading Room, Bibliotheque Paris, pg 982 1843-50 / Escole des BeauxArts Neo-Classical meets Modernism Europe = Paris – center for arts education Gaudi, Casa Mila, pg 10691071 Richardson, Marshall Field Warehouse Sullivan, Wainwright Building Art Nouveau c. 1935 1890-91 Europe USA - Chicago USA - Chicago Trinity Church in Boston Prudential Building, Buffalo, New York, 1894 (geography, climate, geology, etc.) Medium / Materials / Techniques / Construction Function / Purpose Innovation of engineering, concepts of design, prefabrication (modules), steel frame, cast iron construction, reinforced concrete, cables of galvanized steel educational Artistic Importance / Influences: Blends old w/ new innovations Escole des Beaux-Arts = strong conservative design principlesTechnological innovations = new materials Formal Qualities: Scale/ Size/ Proportion / Form / Mix of Roman, Renaissance, with modern elements to symbolize foundation of learning Vertical / Horizontal OrganizationInterior & Exterior: Axis / Plane / Plan/ Vertical /Horizontal Patron / Audience: Relationship to cultural belief system (Religious): Political / Social / Economic / Power & Authority: Exterior- stripped down Renaissance style (symbolism), ancient perm building materials, subtle change to inside outlines evolution of architectural techniques / interior- iron columns cast (Roman order), sits on concrete (Roman contribution to architecture) students Belle époque- Beautiful age – Leisure / Fin de Siecle – at century’s end / material innovation-telegraph, telephone, bicycle, automobile, typewriter, phonograph, elevator, electric lamp=life more complicated / age of social unrest (moral decay) / Economic depressionEngland / Women’s Rights/ Science=quantum physics, theory of relativity/ atom/psychologypsychoanalysis Other Related Artworks / with relevant criteria Garnier, Opera Housetypically used iron as internal support AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total ARCHITECTURE ANALYSIS/DATA COLLECTION WORKSHEET CRITERIA: Wright, Robie House, Rietveld, The Schroeder House Date / Time Period / Style 1907-9 – Prairie Style 1924 – de Stijl (the Style) Site / Location / Relationship to site (geography, climate, geology, etc.) Medium / Materials / Techniques / Construction USA - Chicago Holland Gropius, Bauhaus Building, pg 1072-3 & 1088-83 Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, pg 1080 & 1134-35 Purism / International Style German France Function / Purpose “The 5 Points of a New Architecture” Artistic Importance / Influences: Formal Qualities: Scale/ Size/ Proportion / Form / Vertical / Horizontal OrganizationInterior & Exterior: Axis / Plane / Plan/ Vertical /Horizontal Patron / Audience: Relationship to cultural belief system (Religious) Political / Social / Economic / Power & Authority: Other Related Artworks / with relevant criteria Fagus Factory Falling Waters Notre-Dame– International Style AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total ARCHITECTURE ANALYSIS/DATA COLLECTION WORKSHEET CRITERIA: Van der Rohe & Johnson, Seagram Building, p. 1134 Wright, Guggenheim Museum Date / Time Period / Style 1959 Site / Location / Relationship to site (geography, climate, geology, etc.) Medium / Materials / Techniques / Construction New York Piano & Rogers, Pompidou, p. 1137 Gehry, Guggenheim Spain, pg 1138 Function / Purpose Artistic Importance / Influences: Formal Qualities: Scale/ Size/ Proportion / Form / Vertical / Horizontal OrganizationInterior & Exterior: Axis / Plane / Plan/ Vertical /Horizontal Patron / Audience: Relationship to cultural belief system (Religious) Political / Social / Economic / Power & Authority: Other Related Artworks / with relevant criteria Disney Center Rock Museum Seattle AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total MODERNISM IN ARCHITECTURE Review Early Modern Architecture = Late 19th Century: Paxton’s Crystal Palace (1850) Labrouste’s St. Genevieve Library (1850) Eiffel’s Tower for Paris Universal Exposition (1889) Roebling’s Brooklyn Bridge (1883) Concepts of Design: Metal Architecture => most innovative approach Exhibition hall – horizontal repetition of identical units Office building – vertical repetition of identical units Relied on the tensile strength of iron or steel for construction of skeletal support structure Load bearing walls gave way to “curtain walls” (wall = enclosure, not support) Engineering Innovations Prefabrication using modules = faster & cheaper construction Steel frame / cast iron construction = simplified building forms Reinforced concrete = larger interior spaces / wider spans between supports Elevators (American/ Otis /1852) = new heights are possible Cables of galvanized steel= wider spans possible Early 20th Century Historical Background With the cataclysmic events of WWI & WWII, as well as the Great Depression, one would never suspect that the early 20 th century was an intensely creative period in the arts. But in nearly every artistic venue—literature, music, dance, and the fine arts— artistic expression flourished. Some movements fed on these very cataclysms for inspiration; others sought to escape the visceral world. Whatever the reason, the early 20 th century is one of the most creative periods in art history. Patronage & Artistic Life Early 20th-century art was sponsored by extremely cultivated and intellectual patrons who were members of the avant-guard. They saw art as a way to embrace the modern spirit in a cultured way. These influential patrons like Gertrude Stein, promoted great artist through their sponsorship and connections. Not all modern art was greeted with enthusiasm. The Armory Show of 1913, which introduced modern art to American audiences, was generally hated by American audiences. Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon horrified the public. Duchamp’s Fountain even upset the promoters of the gallery who were supposed to allow anyone to be able to exhibit, provided he or she paid the six-dollar admission fee. Early 20th-Century Architecture Early 20th-century architecture is marked by a complete embrace of technological advances. Ferroconcrete construction, particularly in Europe, allowed for new designs exploring skeleton frameworks and glass walls. The cantilever helped push building elements beyond the solid structure of the skeletal framework. In general, architects avoided historical associations: There are few columns and fewer flying buttresses, preferring clean sleek lines that stress the building’s underlying structure and emphasizing the impact of the machine & technology. Europe- Early 20th Century Art Nouveau- expression of new metal design (continues until WWI) Art Nouveau was a short-lived art movement in the late 19th-century that focused on the decorative arts & architecture. It took its name from a decorative arts store in Paris, L’Art Nouveau meaning New Art. Influenced by the arts & crafts movement, Art Nouveau became popular in France, Belgium, Holland, Great Britain, & America. Art Nouveau also became popular in Germany, where artists called it Jugendstil, and in Austria, where artist referred to it as the Austrian Secession. Art Nouveau works contain organic designs. The term organic refers to artwork that has qualities of organic life, such as plants. The designs often contain leafy tendrils, meandering vines, & elaborate floral patterns. During the late 19th-century & early 20th-century, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism, Arts & Crafts, and Art Nouveau grew simultaneously. The artists of each movement separated themselves from creating the illusion of a 3-dimensional world in their work. Instead, their work expressed grater individual subjectivity & reinforced “art for art’s sake.” (art did not have to serve solely as a means of imitating the real world, which had been the trend since the Renaissance.) -Originated in Brussels- spread to Paris & other cities – about 1917 -Applied curvilinear, organic & humanizing form & design to buildings of the machine age => asymmetrical design softened effects of new industrial materials (metal, glass concrete) -Emphasis on individual experimentation & expression => unique doors, window frames, furniture, fixtures for each building AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total Horta’s Art Nouveau Architecture = emphasis on material & organic/linear grace Gaudi’s Casa Mila 1907 / Barcelona, Spain USA (America) – Late 19thth Century- Early 20th Century Beginning of the Skyscraper - United States Break from tradition begins first in USA – Why???? Europe entrenched in the traditions of the past Machines & technology play important role -steel framed structures upward movement development of skyscrapers – a USA invention As the 19th-century came to a close, in the big cities throughout the United States, property values were climbing and space contracting. Attempting to work within these restrictions, architects began to build upward. Building taller, narrower structures gave owners of the buildings more rental property. Ever-higher floors could command top-dollar rents in the city. Thus, the demand for taller buildings used foe commercial purposes increased. Cast iron played an important role in the evolution of the skyscraper. Before its emergence, masonry (concrete) was the main material. At first, architects embraced cast iron & greatly decreased the amount of masonry they used for building support. After a series of fires revealed the weakness of using cast iron alone, engineers discovered that encasing cast-iron beams in masonry offered the benefits of the increased strength of the former and the fire-resistant qualities of the later. Characteristics: makes complete break from the past relies on new technology = steel/metal construction clean/simple lines function is the primary concern- function more important than decoration Richardson’s Marshall Field Warehouse 1883 / Chicago = elimination of ornament & sculptural decoration Sullivan’s Wainwright Building 1890 / St. Louis = rigid symmetry with no strong central axis Prairie Style -- 1900-1917 The Prairie School of architecture describes a group of architects working in Chicago, of which Frank Lloyd Wright is the most famous. They rejected the idea that buildings should be done in historic styles of architecture, but that they should be in harmony with their site. Wright enjoyed complex irregular plans and forms that seemed to reflect the abstract shapes of contemporary paintings: Rectangles, triangles, squares, and circles. Stylized botanical shapes were particularly prized. Wrights used cantilever construction to have porches and terraces dangle out from the main section of a structure. Cantilevers gave the impression of forms hovering over open space, held up by seemingly weightless anchors. The organic qualities of the materials—concrete with pebble aggregate, sand-finished stucco, rough-hewn lumber, and natural woods—were believed to be the most beautiful. The horizontal nature of the prairie is stressed in the alignment of these houses. Although Falling Water was designed well after The Prairie School peaked, it still reflects many of the same characteristics. Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie Style Houses / Chicago – Robie House 1907/ Falling Waters = simple massing of geometric forms & emphasis on horizontal –cantilever Chicago School 1920’s – Makes break/American Architecture did not keep up with European International Style 3 principles: 1. structure- lack of decoration/strength/ no supports or bracing / austere geometry based steel & concrete skeletal structures 2. plan- regularity in spacing of clear, cubic units-flexibility – interiors moveable/non-load bearing/portable influence of Japan 3. Functionalism- function is primary concern-determines form form follows function 4. philosophy- functionalism / function is primary concern-determines form form follows function characteristic look of the style Early 20th Century Europe International Style: Europe - WWI = dividing line in European architecture Developed between WWI & WWII Synthesis of ideas & practices of several individuals & countries – Europe becomes concerned with Frank Lloyd Wrights ideas Considered one of most influential styles of the century AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total 1920’s International Style=geometry to live in / transcended national boundaries Interest in: 1. Science & industry 2. Streamlined designs -Plan=regularity in spacing of clear, cubic units-flexibility – interiors moveable/non-load bearing/portable influence of Japan -Structure-lack of decoration/strength/ no supports or bracing / austere geometry based steel & concrete skeletal structures -No historical reference De Stijl (“The Style”) – Holland A new style of architecture developed in Holland that completely abandoned the features of previous architectural styles. The movement also embraced art & became known as de Stijl (the Style). Although the style began in Holland, it became the avantgarde architectural movement of the continent in the 1920s. Art historians refer to the transformation of the de Stijl into an international phenomenon as the International Style. -Based on Cubism & the ideas of Wright -Emphasis on white (walls), black (window frames, beams) & primary colors (accents) => Mondrian paintings -Forms composed of intersecting planes & simple geometric units -Clean design-little ornamentation -Large graphic letters -Rietveld’s Schroder House 1924 / de Stijl / Netherlands The Bauhaus – 1919-1933 The Bauhaus was a school of architecture and interior design that was open from 1919 to 1933, first in Weimar and then in Dessau, Germany. The Bauhaus taught that all art forms, from simply crafted objects to large architectural complexes, should be designed as a unit. Technology was embraced. Students were encouraged to understand all aspects of artistic endeavor, and how they could be woven together in a coherent whole. Influenced by DeStijl and Constructivism, the Bauhaus had simple, but elegant, designs that were based on a harmonious geometry and brevity of expressive forms. The Bauhaus represented a marriage of art and technology, a free combining of science and fine arts in a creative and experimental way. Adolf Hitler gained power over Germany in 1933. As one of his first acts, Hitler closed and later demolished the Shop Block of the Bauhaus. Recall that Hitler attempted to become an artist earlier in life & during his regime called for the Degenerate Art Exhibit, a mockery of modern art. He viewed the lessons being learned at the Bauhaus as degenerate. Gropius and other Bauhaus teachers (Albers) left Germany and came to the USA. Bauhaus – Walter Gropius -Functional building ideals – education program – encouraged creativity & experimentation – closed by Hitler Rodchenko- Worker’s Club 1925 / Russian Constructivism / Moscow Gropius- Bauhaus Art School 1925 / Purists / Germany International Style – 1920s-1950s The International Style refers to the architecture of the 1920s-1950s that is geometrically simple and devoid of exterior ornamentation. International Style architects focused on straight lines and sleek designs that used materials such as glass & steel. The International Style advocated the creation of functional buildings that world use space, materials, and financial resources in the most efficient manner. Le Corbusier Le Corbusier’s dictum that a house should be a “machine for living” sums up the International Style. Greatly influenced by the streamlined qualities of the Bauhaus, the International Style celebrated the clean spacious white lines of a building’s façade. The internal structure is a skeleton system, which holds the building up from within and allows great planes of glass to wrap around the walls using ferroconcrete construction. -Concept = “Machine for living” -Buildings contrasting with landscape / emphasis on verticality -Free, open plans, ambiguity of interior & interior space -Flat roofs, usable as living spaces, decks, gardens -Continuous bands of windows -Developed “pilotis” (poles as structural supports for upper stories = open ground floor) Le Corbusier- Villa Savoye 1930 / Purists / France Le Corbusier- Notre-Dame-du Haut, 1954 / Anthropomorphic / France AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total Skyscraper= early are more decorative / some link with old traditions / buildings resemble each other 1. High-tech – clean/streamlined design-machine for living 2. Style- glass & steel boxes 3. Geometric New York Gilbert’s Woolworth Building 1913 / New York = internal skeletal construction of steel with masonry facades Shreve, Lamb, & Harmon Associates, Empire State Building, 1931 Art Deco As a reaction against the simplified forms of the International Style, Art Deco came to represent a refined taste in streamlined art whose focus was on industry, the machine and aerodynamics. The name comes from the 1925 Exposition International des Arts Decoratifs Industriels et Modernes, held in Paris, which celebrated living in the modern world. Sometimes seen as a descendant of Art Nouveau, Art Deco replaces the vegtal forms of its parent with machine stylization. Favorite themes include stylized automobile wheels and grills, cruise-ship portholes and railings, and parallel lines contrasting with zigzags. The style was popular in the 1920s & 1930s. Van Alen, The Chrysler Building, 1928-1930, New York Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Mies van der Rohe became the new director of the Bauhaus when Walter Gropius left. He extended the International Style, and his designs influenced the development of modern architecture. Mies van der Rohe reduced architecture to pure rectilinear forms and eschewed external decorations. When the German government commissioned him to design the German Pavilion for the Barcelona Worlds Arts Fair in 1929, he also designed a specific style of chair for royal visitors to the pavilion. Later in his career, Mies van der Rohe worked with an American architect, Philip Johnson, to create the Seagram Building in midtown Manhattan for the famous Canadian distillery, Seagram Brothers. Unfortunately for van der Rohe, American building codes required that fire-resistant materials coat the steel infrastructure. With his international-style aesthetic, he preferred to reveal the inner structure. He resolved this issue by including the I-beams running vertically on the exterior of the building. This conveyed the sense of revealing the inner supports. Because of such strong supports, most of the exterior could be covered in glass. Innovations & Concepts “Less is more” Mies van der Rohe / nothing extraneous to the integrity of the buildings materials “Form follows function” Mies van der Rohe / the function of an object will dictate what it looks like / clean lines / monolithic architectural mass/ verticality “Glass box” structural elements on inside of building, with a curtain wall of glass on exterior – elimination of decoration “Truth to materials” Wright/ Mies van der Rohe / modern materials – steel, glass, concrete, wood Minimalism- clear ordered space, architectural elements, neutral colors, flat surfaces Breaking down of individual spaces in domestic architecture – rooms flow into one another Late Modern Art After WWII The devastation of WWII formed the backdrop for much of the rest of the 20 th century. Far from solving the world’s problems, it just replaced the Fascist menace with smaller conflicts no less deadly in the world’s traditional hot spots. With the invention of television, global issues were brought into the living rooms of millions as never before. One disillusioning world problem after another—racism, the environment, weapons of mass destruction—has contributed to a tense atmosphere, even in parts of the world not physically touched by conflict. Artists are quick to pick up on social and political issues, using them as springboards to create artwork. But not all is bleak in the contemporary world. The rapid growth of technology has brought great advances in medical science and everyday living. Inventions formerly beyond the realm of possibility, like home computers or ell phones, have turned into necessities of modern life. New media has become fertile ground for artistic exploration. Artists exploit materials, like plastics, for their elastic properties. Video projections, computer graphics, sound installations, fiberglass products, and lasers are new technologies for artists to investigate. One challenge posed to the artist concerns how these media will be used in a way that will thoughtfully provoke the audience. Certainly the modern world has much to offer artist. Patronage & Artistic Life One of the results of WWII was the abandonment of Paris as the art capital of the world, a position it had retained since about 1650. New York, the financial and cultural capital of the United States, took over that position, in part because that is where so many fleeting Europeans settled, and in part because it had an active artistic community that was unafraid of experimentation. Mondrian, Duchamp, and Kandinsky moved to New York, not to continue their work, most of which was well behind them, but to galvanize modern American artists in what has been called The New York School. Pollock, De Kooning, and Frankenthaler, only the last of whom was a native New Yorker, settled here to do their most impressive paintings. AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total Modernist Architecture The International Style became part of Modernist architecture. Modernist-style buildings contain sleek designs with little exterior ornamentation. Mies van der Rohe’s “less is more” philosophy was upheld by Modernist architects. Yet Modernist architecture extended beyond the values of the International Style to include buildings that cure organically into their surroundings. -reaction/alternative to Bauhaus-inspired Modernism & International Style -replaced T-square/ straight forms with curvilinear lines & complex shapes -renewed interest in color as an architectural element / historical elements – dome/arch/vault -technology & new materials contribute to new designs Le Corbusier- Notre-Dame-du Haut, 1954 / Anthropomorphic / France Frank Lloyd Wright- Guggenheim Museum 1959 / New York POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE = pluralism In the late 20th century, some architects challenged the domination of Modernism and developed a more inclusive style of architecture, which architectural historians called Post-Modernism. Whereas Mies van der Rohe propagated “less is more,” a PostModern architect would be apt to say “less is a bore.” Post-Modern architects relied on an expansive architectural vocabulary incorporating pediments, arches, pilaster, and columns into highly original and eclectic designs. Why did architectural tastes change? Actually, it did not change for all architects. Modernism was a firmly entrenched movement, in ironically, Modernist architects became the reactionaries (conservatives) criticizing the Post-Modernists. The architects who became Post-Modernist criticized the sterility (plainness) and anonymity of Modernist architecture, especially the skyscrapers in cities. In the pursuit of pure shapes and lines, most Modernists did not consider the history and culture of the neighborhoods and regions of their buildings. Everything about architecture has changed since 1945, and most of the changes have been brought about by the computer. No longer are blueprints painstakingly drawn by hand to exacting specifications. Programs like Auto CAD and MicroStation not only assist in drawing ground plans, but also automatically check for errors. They also make feasible designs that heretofore existed only in the mind. Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Bilboa Museo is a good example of how computers can help architects render shapes and meaningful designs in an imaginative way. New age technology has produced an array of products that make buildings lighter, cheaper, and more energy efficient than before. All these developments, however, come aligned with new challenges for architects. How can cost efficiency and expensive new technology be brought into a meaningful architectural plan? The resources are there for the future to explore. Post-Modern Masters: Philip Johnson- AT&T Building / 1970 / New York Michael Graves -Portland Building / 1980 / Oregon Deconstructivism: Rogers & Piano- Pompidou Art Center 1977 / Paris / exoskeletons – metal supports on exterior / bright colors Richard Meiers- domestic architecture 1980’s Gehry- Gehry House 1977/ California Lyrical Expressionism Gehry- Guggenheim Museum 1999 / Spain Gehry- Music Experience 2000 / Seattle Universalism I.M. Pei National Gallery East Wing 1978 / Washington D.C. I.M. Pei Entrance to the Louvre 1989 / Paris AP ART HISTORY Chapter 29 – Comparative Analysis Assignment Mrs. Lawson 100 Points Total NAME: ________________________________________________________________ CHAPTERS 27-28-29 ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE & THE UNITED STATES ANALYSIS PACKET DIRECTIONS: Use attached worksheets to record information from reading homework assignments. Add information from class discussion to the worksheets. Upon completion of chapter, place analysis packet into the turn-in drawer for a completedpacket grade.