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The Living and Nonliving Environment Abiotic Factors Nonliving, physical features of the environment Soil, light, water, temperature Helps determine which species can survive in an area SOIL Mixed with biotic and abiotic components The type of soil in a particular location helps determine the type of plants and other organisms in that location. LIGHT Seasonal events are often triggered by a change in the number of hours of daylight. Sunlight is transformed into chemical energy (photosynthesis) WATER Many organisms live in the water, and others consume it. Almost all organisms are 50-90% water. Respiration, photosynthesis, digestion, and other important life processes can take place only in the presence of water. TEMPERATURE Changes daily and seasonally Cold blooded animals have to maintain own body temperature and can’t live where it is extremely cold. BIOTIC FACTOR Living organisms in the environment Unicellular and multicellular LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere organism population community ecosystem ecosystem biosphere ORGANISM Single individual from a population POPULATION All of the individuals of one species living in the same area at the same time. Individuals within a population are capable of breeding with one another COMMUNITY Made up of different species that interact in some way ECOSYSTEM Communities and the abiotic factors that affect them. BIOSPHERE Made up of all the ecosystems on Earth. SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS Symbiosis: any close relationship between two or more different species Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism MUTUALISM Benefits both species Example: Desert Yucca plant and Yucca Moth The yucca plant depends on the moth to pollinate its flowers, and the plant provides a place for the moth to live, reproduce, and provide food for its larvae. COMMENSALISM Benefits one partner but does not harm or help the other. Example: Tropical fish swim into sea anenomes for protection, yet it doesn’t affect the anenome. PARASITISM Benefits the parasite, but harms the host. Example: Tapeworms that live inside the intestines of mammals.