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Transcript
The Living and Nonliving
Environment
Abiotic Factors
 Nonliving, physical features of the
environment
 Soil, light, water, temperature
 Helps determine which species can survive
in an area
SOIL
 Mixed with biotic and abiotic components
 The type of soil in a particular location helps
determine the type of plants and other
organisms in that location.
LIGHT
 Seasonal events are often triggered by a
change in the number of hours of daylight.
 Sunlight is transformed into chemical energy
(photosynthesis)
WATER
 Many organisms live in the water, and
others consume it.
 Almost all organisms are 50-90% water.
 Respiration, photosynthesis, digestion, and
other important life processes can take
place only in the presence of water.
TEMPERATURE
 Changes daily and seasonally
 Cold blooded animals have to maintain own
body temperature and can’t live where it is
extremely cold.
BIOTIC FACTOR
 Living organisms in the environment
 Unicellular and multicellular
LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL
ORGANIZATION





Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biosphere
organism
population
community
ecosystem
ecosystem
biosphere
ORGANISM
 Single individual from a population
POPULATION
 All of the individuals of one species living in
the same area at the same time.
 Individuals within a population are capable
of breeding with one another
COMMUNITY
 Made up of different species that interact in
some way
ECOSYSTEM
 Communities and the abiotic factors that
affect them.
BIOSPHERE
 Made up of all the ecosystems on Earth.
SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS
 Symbiosis: any close relationship between
two or more different species
 Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
MUTUALISM
 Benefits both species
 Example: Desert Yucca plant and Yucca
Moth
The yucca plant depends on the moth to
pollinate its flowers, and the plant provides a
place for the moth to live, reproduce, and
provide food for its larvae.
COMMENSALISM
 Benefits one partner but does not harm or
help the other.
 Example: Tropical fish swim into sea
anenomes for protection, yet it doesn’t affect
the anenome.
PARASITISM
 Benefits the parasite, but harms the host.
 Example: Tapeworms that live inside the
intestines of mammals.