Download Plant Growth - Erin Berg: Agriculture @ North Lenoir High School

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Cell culture wikipedia, lookup

Endomembrane system wikipedia, lookup

Cell growth wikipedia, lookup

Mitosis wikipedia, lookup

Cytokinesis wikipedia, lookup

List of types of proteins wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Plant Growth & Development
By: Johnny M. Jessup
Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor
Introduction
• There are 6 plant processes that effect
growth which are….
•
•
•
•
•
•
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Absorption
Transpiration
Translocation
Reproduction
Photosynthesis
• Process by which
green plants
manufacture food.
• The beginning of the
food chain for all
living things on
earth.
Photosynthesis
• Carbon dioxide and water are combined
in the presence of light to make sugar
and oxygen.
• The Formula is….
6CO2 + 6H2O + 672Kcal
C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon Dioxide
Water
Light
Glucose Sugar
Oxygen
Respiration
• The process through which plant leaves,
stems, and roots consume oxygen and
give off carbon dioxide.
• Plants produce much more oxygen
through photosynthesis then they use
through respiration.
Photosynthesis vs. Respiration
Absorption
• The process by which plant roots take
in water, air, & nutrients and conduct
them to the stem.
Transpiration
• The process by
which plants roots
lose water from
leaves and stems
through
evaporation.
Translocation
• The process by which food and
nutrients are moved within a plant from
one plant part to another.
• Water and minerals move from the
roots up to the leaves and food moves
from the leaves down to the roots.
Translocation
Reproduction
• The plant process that increases plant
numbers usually from seeds.
Plant Processes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Absorption
Transpiration
Translocation
Reproduction
Plant Cell Growth
Plant Cells
• Are the basic unit of life.
• Nucleus and a mass of protoplasm contained
with a plasma membrane.
Nucleus
• Location of the plant’s genetic and
hereditary make-up.
Protoplasm
• The living matter of the cell.
• The gel matrix inside the cell.
Plasma Membrane
• Surrounds protoplasm and allows for
exchange of nutrients and gases into and out
of the cell.
Cell Wall
• The rigid structure
that provides
support for the cell
and thus the whole
plant.
Other Cell Structures
•
•
•
•
Chloroplasts
Vacuole
Plastids
Mitochondrion
The Plant Cell
Plant Tissue
• A group of cells with similar origin and
function.
• Classified according to their….
• Origin
• Structure
• Physiology
Origin & Function
• Meristematic
• Near the tip of stems and roots where cell
division and enlargement occur.
• Vascular Cambium
• Increase growth in diameter of stems.
Structure
• Simple
• Usually one type of cell.
• Complex
• Several types of cells.
Simple Tissues
• Epidermal
• One-cell thick, outer layer, protects,
prevents water loss.
• Sclerenchyma
• Have thickened cell walls and contain fibers
to give strength and support to plant
structures.
Complex Tissues
• Collenchyma
• Have thick cell walls that strengthen and
support plant structures.
• Parenchyma
• Fleshy part of plant that stores water and
nutrients.
The Asexual Cycle - Vegetative
• Vegetative
• Growth and development of buds, roots,
leaves, and stems.
The Asexual Cycle - Vegetative
• Cell elongation
• Stage when cells enlarge.
• Cell differentiation
• Stage when cells specialize.
The Asexual Cycle - Reproductive
• Reproductive or flowering
• Plant develops flower buds that will
develop into….
• Flowers
• Fruits
• Seeds
Stages of Plant Growth
• Juvenile
• When the plant first starts to grow from a
seed.
• Reproductive
• When plant produces flowers, seeds, and
fruits.
• Dormant
• When plant rests or grows very little if any.
Growth Hormones
• Plants produce chemical substances
called hormones that inhibit or promote
growth.
• Common plant hormones are….
•
•
•
•
Inhibitors
Cytokinins
Gibberellins
Auxins
Inhibitors
• Hasten fruit
ripening, inhibit or
restrain seed
germination and
stem elongation.
STOP
Cytokinins
• Hormones that work with auxins to
stimulate cell division.
Gibberellins
• Hormones that stimulate cell elongation,
premature flowering, and breaking of
dormancy.
Auxins
• Hormones that speed plant growth by
stimulating cell enlargement.
Effects of Light,
Moisture, Temperature,
& Nutrients on Plants
Light
• Necessary because of
photosynthesis.
• Photoperiodism
• The response of plants to different
amounts of light regarding their flowering
and reproduction cycles.
Light
• Insufficient light
causes long, slender,
spindly stems.
• Excessive light
causes plants to dry
out faster.
Moisture
• Needed in large amounts
because plants tissues are
mostly water and….
• Water carries the nutrients.
• Turgid
• When a plant is swollen or filled with moisture.
• Wilted
• When a plant is limp because it does not have
enough moisture.
Moisture
• Too much water causes small root
systems and drowning.
• Which is the result of air spaces in soil
being filled with water.
• Too little water causes wilting and
stunted growth.
Temperature
• Needs vary depending on types of plants.
• Either too high or too low will have adverse
effects.
vs.
Nutrients
• Essential for optimum plant conditions.
• Have little effect on seed germination.
Combined Effect of Light,
Moisture, Temperature, & Nutrients
• Ideal quantities and quality will give
optimum plant growth.
• Each has an effect on the other factors.
• Unfavorable environmental conditions
for plant growth causes diseases to be
more severe in their damages to plants.
Designed By:
• Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor
• Hobbton High School