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Can Queen Victoria Eat
Cold Apple Pie?
At the end of this
presentation you will
be able to name the 7
hills of Rome as well
as some of the
features or important
sites for each hill.
You will also be able
to name the 3 major
time periods in
Roman history.
•Rome was founded in 753 BC on
the banks of the Tiber River as
a collection of villages on hills.
•The city limits were indicated
by the pomerium (white stones
spaced consistently to
represent the line drawn by
Romulus with a plough) but,
the land outside of it for a 1000
mile radius also
belonged to the city.
•One of the most distinguishing
features of Rome are its 7 hills.
•The Palatine Hill seems to be
the first one inhabited.
•The hills provided an
advantage in terms of
defending the city.
• Home to temples and the peak called Arx,
which housed the citadel of Rome
• The Temple of Asylaeus was a place where
refuge or safety was given to those seeking it
• The most important temple, the Temple of
Jupiter Capitolinus Optimus Maximus
(Capitoline Jupiter , the Best and Greatest)
• The Temple of Juno, the wife of Jupiter
• The auguraculum, or the place where
priests looked for heaven sent signs
• The Tarpeian Rock from which criminals
and traitors were flung to their death
• The Tabularium, the Record Office of the
State including the minutes of the Senate
• Is on one side of the Roman Forum with
the Palatine Hill on the other.
 Residents are generally the
upper middle class
Originally settled by the
To the south is the Roman
To the West is the Campus
On the North side are the
Gardens of Sallust
Domitian built the temple
gentis Flaviae on the site of
the home of the family of his
father, Vespasian
 Housing is cheaper than on the Quirinal, but
there are a few nice homes of the wealthy
 Next to the Quirinal
 Named from vimina (a tree whose branches are
used in basket making, like willows)
 The Viminal gate leads to the barracks if the
Praetorian Guard (they protected the emperor)
 Residents were a
mix: the upper
slopes were for the
wealthy and the
lower slopes were
part of the “slums”
called the Subura
Is large enough to be sub-divided
Nero built his palace here
Hadrian built the temple of Venus and Rome
King Tullus Hostilius lived here
 Residents were some of the most wealthy
 Agrippina built a temple to honor her late
husband, the emperor Claudius
 Home to the equites singulares ( the emperor’s
• Residents were the plebeians (the common people)
• The southernmost hill
• To the north is the Forum Boarium (cattle market) to the west is
the Tiber River and to the east is the Palatine
• Contains the Mons Testaceus (a moutain of pottery shards)
• Much of it is public land
• Many temples to foreign deities and an ancient one to Ceres due
to it being outside the pomerium
• The oldest and most prestigious
hill, & likely the one on which
Rome was founded.
• Contains a replica of the home
of Romulus
• Augustus, the first emperor, made his home here as well as turned it into
the administrative head of the city
Inhabited by the wealthy including some emperors.
Augustus built the Temple of Apollo at the top and Romulus built the
Temple of Jupiter Stator at the bottom
Most of the structures still here were built by Domitian
Was also the home of Cicero, Pompey, and Marc Antony
• Is on one side of the Roman
Forum with the Capitoline on
the other side.
With the defensive advantage provided by the hills and
the easy access to the sea provided by the Tiber River
and the Roman port city of Ostia, the Romans were able
to eventually rule much of what is now Europe, part of
Asia and the northern part of Africa.
Romulus founded Rome as a
monarchy serving as her
first king. In 509 BC Rome
became a republic and was
ruled by consuls. Lastly,
Rome became an empire
with Augustus serving as the
very first emperor (not
Julius Caesar!). For nearly
1000 years Rome was the
wealthiest, largest and the
most political city and as
such served as the capitol of
the Western World .
 “Can Queen Victoria Eat Cold Apple Pie” is a mnemonic
device to remember the names of 7 hills of Rome.
 Create your own way of remembering the names of the
hills. It can be a simple phrase such as above or it can be a
poem, song, rap, etc.
 For the short “quiz” you need to know:
 When and where Rome was founded.
 The Tiber River flows through Rome with Ostia
serving as the port city.
 Rome has 7 hills; the forum is between the Capitoline
and Palatine hills
 Rome was first a monarchy (kings), then a republic
(consuls) and last an empire (emperors)
 Romulus was the first king and Augustus was the first