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Transcript
Respiratory System
identify and give functions for
the following structures:
- Nasal cavity
 Larynx
 alveoli
 Trachea
 diaphragm and ribs
 Bronchi
 pleural membranes
 Bronchioles
 pharynx
 thoracic cavity
Respiratory system
 Responsible for O2
entering and CO2
leaving body
 Functions in
coordination with the
circulatory system
1.
Upper Respiratory Tract
2.
3.
4.
Resp system diagram
BREATHING
 The inner pleural membrane is fused
to the lungs
 While the outer pleural membrane
adheres to the rib cage.
 A thin layer of fluid lies between the two
layers.
Video (Start @ 23s)
Pleural Membrane
 These membranes create and maintain
an environment of NEGATIVE
PRESSURE in the thoracic cavity.
 Negative pressure is air pressure that is
less (756mmHg) than the pressure of
the surrounding air (760mmHg)
 If the seal between the pleural
membranes is broken (air gets between
them) the lungs will collapse.
Reconstructive plastic surgery of the nose tip (after
traumatic amputation from a human bite)
What happens??
1. Breathing
inhalation(inspiration)/expiration(exhalation)
2. External Respiration: exchange of gases
between air and blood (@ alveoli with
capillaries)
3. Internal Respiration: exchange of gases
between blood and tissue (@ capillaries
and tissue cells)
4. Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration
Absorbed at small
Produced
in
Produced
at For use
Inhaled
at
lungs
intestine. Arrives cell.
at Diffuses
cell. Diffuses within cell
arrives
via
cells via capillaries.
into capillary.
into capillary
capillaries
Diffuses from
Exhaled at
Diffuses into
capillaries into
lungs
tissue fluid tissue fluid
Breathing




As air enters the body, it is:
1. Warmed
2. Filtered (by nose hairs and mucus)
3. Moistened
 Video
These structures contain cilia and
mucus secreting goblet cells
Mucus: traps foreign particles and debris
Cilia: short, hair-like projections that propels the
mucus, impurities out of respiratory tract
 Showing nasal polyps - a swelling of the
lining (mucosa) of the nose.
 generally occur due to long-standing
inflammation of the mucosa and the
sinuses surrounding the nasal cavity
Overhead notes!
B) Mechanism of
Expiration/Exhalation
Alveoli have been stretched due to
inspiration
Stretch receptors in the walls of the
alveolar sacs are stimulated
Feedback of information to the
breathing centers in the medulla
oblongata inhibits (stops) the
motor nerve impulses to the
diaphragm and intercostal
muscles
Inflating Giraffe’s Lungs
Diaphragm and ribs relax; the diaphragm
becomes dome shaped and the ribs
swing down and in. The volume of the
chest cavity decreases creating a high
pressure environment
Air rushes out of the lungs due to
increased pressure compared to the
outside. The lungs recoil
Giraffe Dissection
 Intro to Giraffe Dissection
 Inflating Giraffe’s lungs
 Giraffe’s larynx
External Respiration
In the lungs
• Air sacs with thin
walls surrounded by
capillaries
• Site of gas exchange
- driven by passive
diffusion
• O2 moves from
alveoli to blood
Video
Overhead notes
Internal and external
respiration
 Pneumonia
 Infection by
bacteria,
viruses, fungi,
 Alveoli become
flooded and
inflamed
Respiration and Health
Acute Bronchitis
Caused by
Virus or
bacteria
Chronic Bronchitis
Strep Throat
Caused by bacterial infection
Symptoms include fever and
difficulty swallowing
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Caused by bacteria
Results in burst alveoli 
replaced by inelastic connective
tissue
Skin test can be done to see if
exposed to TB
Emphysema
Destruction of alveolar
walls (rupture) due to
collapse of bronchioles
Loss of alveoli results in
reduced surface area for
gas exchange  not
enough O2 reaching heart
and brain  heart works
harder to supply O2 to cells
Pulmonary Fibrosis
• Scarring of the lung
due to secondary
diseases
• Excess fibrous
connective tissue