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Chapter 4
Section 1
The Respiratory System Notes
2 Functions:
1. Takes in oxygen
2. Removes CO2 and H2O
1. Taking in O2
-Your body needs oxygen for cellular respiration
-Cellular respiration= the process by which your cells create energy by burning glucose
-In our air:
-78% nitrogen
-21% oxygen
-<1% CO2
2. Removes CO2 and H2O
=Waste products from cellular respiration
PATH of AIR
1. Nose/Nostrils
-Nasal cavities lined with mucus and cilia
2. Pharynx (throat)
-Shared by respiratory system and digestive system
-Epiglottis = flap of tissue that protects the base of pharynx
3. Larynx (voice box)
4. Trachea (windpipe)
-Made of cartilage
-Lined with cilia and mucus
5. Bronchi and Lungs
-Bronchi branch into two lungs
-Continue to split into smaller branches called bronchioles
-Alveoli = at the end of the bronchi
-Tiny sacs of lung tissue surrounded by capillaries
-O2 gas is exchanged with CO2 and H2O
-Lungs contains 300 million alveoli (750 ft2)
-The lungs are covered with a very thin membrane called the pleura
-The lungs are housed in the thoracic cavity that is bound by a layer of muscle on the bottom called the
diaphragm.
Diseases
Asthma = bronchial spasm resulting in decreased air movement and air trapped in alveoli
Bronchitis = inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes
Pneumonia = infection of lungs caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi