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Transcript
Anatomical Planes of the Body
Plane
Description
Frontal
plane
A frontal plane divides the body into an anterior position
and a posterior portion.
Midsagittal
plane
A midsagittal plane is a vertical plane that divides the body
lengthwise into two identical right and left sections. It runs
exactly down the middle of the body.
Sagittal
plane
A sagittal plane can run vertically down through the body at
any point, not necessarily dividing it into identical right and
left sections. The right and left sections are called
longitudinal sections.
Transverse
plane
A transverse plane divides the body horizontally into
superior (top) and inferior (bottom) portions. These portions
do not have to be equal and create cross sections.
Positional Terms
Name
Description
Anatomical
position
Standing straight, looking forward, arms at side, palms
facing forward, thumbs to the outside
Midline
An imaginary plumb line dropped from the middle of the
head, to the ground, in the anatomical position
Supine
Lying on the back with face up
Prone
Lying on the stomach with face down
Anterior or
Ventral
Front or toward the front of the body
Posterior or
Dorsal
Back or toward the back of the body
Cephalic
Pertaining to the head, near or toward the head
Caudal
Nearer or toward the lower part of the body
Superior
Above or higher than another part
Inferior
Below or lower than another part
Medial or
central
In the middle or closer to the midline of the body
Lateral or
peripheral
On the side or farther away from the midline of the body
Proximal
Nearer to the point of attachment (if a muscle) or the
trunk of the body
Distal
Farther from the point of attachment or the trunk of the
body
Superficial
Nearer to the surface of the body
Deep
Farther from the surface of the body
Note: Except for the first two, I�ve grouped these terms in pairs of
antonyms to help you remember them more easily.
Regions of the Head and Neck
Region
Location
Buccal
Cheek
Cervical
The neck region
Cephalic
Head
Cranial
Skull
Frontal
Forehead
Nasal
Nose
Occipital
Back of head
Opthalmic
Eye
Oral
Mouth
Orbital
Bony eye sockets
Regions of the Thorax
(upper trunk)
Region
Location
Axillary
Armpit
Costal
Ribs
Deltoid
Curve of the shoulder
formed by the large deltoid
muscle
Mammary Breast
Pectoral
Anterior chest
Scapular
Scapula or shoulder blade
area
Thoracic
Chest
Vertebral
Backbone
Regions of the Abdomen
Region
Location
Abdomen/Celiac
Trunk region inferior to the ribs
Gluteal
Buttocks
Groin/Inguinal
Area where the thigh meets the body trunk
Lumbar
Lower back, between the ribs and the hips
Pelvic
Lowest part of abdominal area
Perineal
Area between anus and external genitalia
Pubic
Genital region
Sacral
End of vertebral column
Umbilical
Pertaining to the naval (belly button)
Regions of the Upper and Lower Extremities
Region
Location
Antecubital The anterior surface of the elbow
Brachial
Upper arm—between the shoulder and elbow
Carpal
Wrist
Cubital
Elbow
Digital
Fingers or toes
Femoral
Thigh
Forearm
Lower arm-between the elbow and the wrist
Lower leg
Between the knee and ankle
Palmar
Palm
Pedal
Foot
Popliteal
Posterior knee region
Sural
Posterior calf area—between the knee and ankle
Terminology of Movement
Movement
Description
Flexion
Bending a joint to bring bones closer together, decreasing
angle of the joint. Ex. Bending the elbow, bending the
knee.
Extension
Straightening a joint from a flexed position, increasing the
distance between bones. Ex: Straightening the elbow,
straightening the knee.
Abduction
Moving a limb, wrist, or finger away from the midline of
the body or midline of the hand. Ex: Sideward movement
of the upper arm away from the trunk, as in the first half of
a jumping jack movement; spreading the fingers apart.
Adduction
The return movement from abduction; moving closer
towards the midline of the body or hand. Ex.: Bringing the
arms back down to the side.
Internal
rotation
Moving a bone around a longitudinal axis so that the
anterior surface of the limb turns towards the midline. Ex.
Arms at side, palms forward, rotating inward at the
shoulder.
External
rotation
Opposite movement of internal rotation. Ex. Arms at side,
palms facing backwards, rotating outward at the shoulder.
Pronation
Rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces
backwards.
Supination
Rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand is
turned to face forward.
Inversion
Turning the foot inward so that the sole is closer to the
midline of the body.
Eversion
Turning the foot outward so that the sole is farther away
from the midline of the body.
Dorsiflexion
A movement of the ankle which brings the toes and foot
closer to the anterior surface of the lower leg.
Plantarflexion
A movement of the ankle which points the toes and foot
away from the anterior surface of the lower leg.
Protraction
Protraction A forward movement of the shoulder blade
(scapula) or lower jaw.
Retraction
A backward movement (pinching together) of the
shoulder blades or backward movement of the lower jaw.
Elevation
Moving the shoulders upward (shrugging).
Depression
Pressing the shoulders downward.
Circumduction A circular movement that combines flexion, abduction,
extension, adduction, and rotation. Ex. Moving the arms
at the shoulder joint in large circles.