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L 29 Electricity and Magnetism [6]
• Review- magnetism
• Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic
– induced currents
– electric generator
– eddy currents
Laws of Magnetism
• If you pass current through a loop of wire. you get
a magnet  Oersted’s discovery
• Basic laws of magnetism
electric currents produce magnetic fields (Ampere)
magnetic field lines are always closed loops
• permanent magnets: the currents are atomic
currents – due to electrons spinning in atomsthese currents are always there
• electromagnets: the currents flow through wires
and require a power source, e.g. a battery
Bar Magnet
field lines
straight wire
with current
Magnetic forces
• magnetic fields can
cause charges to turn
deflection of
electrons in a
TV tube.
Magnetic forces on wires
Wire pushed
Wire pulled
Forces on parallel wires
Currents in opposite
directions repel
Currents in the same
direction attract
Magnets are not just for
holding things on the
The electric motor
When a current is present in a coil, it
experiences a torque and rotates.
Magnetic tape recording
Faraday’s Law of
Electromagnetic induction
• Faraday thought that if currents could
produce magnetic fields, magnetic fields
should be able to produce currents
• He was correct with one important
requirement  the magnetic field must be
changing in some way to induce a current
• the phenomenon that a changing magnetic
field can induce a current is called
electromagnetic induction
Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
• discovered electromagnetic
• led to the discovery of the
generation of electricity
• son of a blacksmith
• had very little formal education –
trained to be a bookbinder
• considered one of the greatest
scientists of all time
• declined to accept knighthood.
• gave Christmas lectures for kids
The laws of electricity
and magnetism
• law of electricity.— electric charges
produce electric “fields”
• laws of magnetism.—
– currents produce magnetic fields
– magnetic field lines are closed loops
• Faraday’s law of electromagnetic
induction.— a changing magnetic field can
produce a current (induced currents)
Induced currents (a)
field lines
 When a current is turned on or off in coil
A, a current briefly appears in coil B
The current in coil B is called an induced
current. The current in B is only present
when the current in A is changing.
Induced currents (b)
a) No current is induced if the magnet is stationary.
b) When the magnet is pushed toward the coil or pulled
away from it an induced current appears in the coil.
c) The induced current only appears when the magnet is
being moved
Induced currents (c)
• If an AC (time varying)
current is used in the
primary circuit, a current is
induced in the secondary
• If the current in the
primary windings were
DC, there would be NO
induced current in the
secondary circuit.
electric generators
When a coil is rotated in a magnetic field, an
induced current appears in it. This is how electricity
is generated. Some external source of energy is
needed to rotate the turbine which turns the coil.
The transformer
The voltage on the secondary depends on the number
of turns on the primary and secondary.
Step-up the secondary has more turns than the primary
Step-down the secondary has less turns than the
Eddy currents
• When time varying magnetic fields are around,
currents can appear in nearby conductors --these are eddy currents
• an induction stove uses eddy currents to cook
Only the metal pot gets hot, not the
glass pot or the stove.
Floating magnet – induced currents
copper pipe
As the magnet falls,
it induces currents
in the copper pipe
known as eddy
currents. These
currents produce a
magnetic field that
opposes that of the
falling magnet, so
the magnet does not
accelerate but
descends slowly