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Chapter 15
The Cardiorespiratory System
 Includes function of the heart, blood vessels,
circulation, and gas exchange, between the blood and
 Heart pumps blood through the body through pathways
(arteries, veins, and capillaries)
Blood is enriched with oxygen when it passes through the
As oxygen enters the bloodstream, carbon dioxide leaves it
The Circulatory System
 Course taken by blood through the arteries, capillaries,
and veins & back to heart
 Uses blood to transport dissolved materials
throughout body
 Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste
 Picks up waste products of cell metabolism & takes to
lungs and kidneys (to be expelled from body)
The Heart
 Two major circulations
 Each has its own pump
 Both pumps are
incorporated into the
 Location
 Middle of chest, behind
sternum, within ribcage
 Pericardial cavity
 Above diaphragm
 Structure
 Primarily a shell with four
chambers inside
Blood Flow
 Two sides of heart are
anatomically and
functionally separate
pumping units
 Right side pumps
blood through
pulmonary circulation
 Left side pumps blood
through systemic
Heart Facts
 Adult human heart approx size of closed fist
 About 5 inches long and 3 ½ inches wide
 Weighs just less than 1 pound
 Beats about 100,000 times each day
 Pump about 8,000 gallons of blood through 12,000
miles of vessels each day
 Contracts and relaxes 70-80 bpm
Structure of Heart
 Four cavities
 Atria
Form curved top of heart
 Ventricles
 Meet at bottom of heart to
form pointed base
 Points toward left side of
Structure of Heart
Left Side
Right Side
 One ventricle
 One ventricle
 One atrium
 One atrium
 Mitral valve—connects left
 Tricuspid valve—connects
atrium to left ventricle
 Wall, septum, separates right
and left sides
right atrium to right ventricle
 Aorta
 heart’s main artery
 carries blood away from
heart to body’s cells
 Pulmonary artery
 artery that connects
heart to lungs
 Two largest veins:
 Superior vena cava
 Inferior vena cava
 As heart contracts, it pushes blood though chambers
and into the vessels
 Nerves connected to the heart regulate the speed of
 Greater the activity, faster the heart will pump; faster
heart pumps, more oxygen and nutrient are carried
throughout body
Heart Muscle
 Pericardium
 Epicardium
 Myocardium
 Endocardium
 Only tissue that flows throughout body
 Carries oxygen & nutrients to all parts of body and
transports waste products back to lungs, kidneys, and
liver for disposal
 Essential part of immune system
 Crucial for fluid and temperature balance
 Hydraulic fluid for certain functions
 Highway for hormonal messages
 Composed of plasma and billions of cells
The yellowish, liquid part of blood
River in which blood cells travel
Makes up 55% of total volume
Carries blood cells +
 Nutrients (sugars, amino acids, fats, salts, minerals)
 Waste products (CO2, lactic acid, urea)
 Antibodies
 Clotting proteins (called clotting factors)
 Chemical messengers (hormones)
 Proteins that help maintain body’s fluid balance
Blood—RBCs & Hemoglobin
 Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
 Highly specialized cells that have been “stripped” of
everything, including nucleus
 Major job: transporting oxygen
 Percentage of RBCs in total blood volume called
 Hemoglobin
 Special red-colored molecule that fills RBCs
 Picks up oxygen in areas where O2 is abundant and
releases O2 in tissues where O2 concentration
Blood—White Blood Cells
 5 distinct kinds
 Neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils
 Able to change according to need and situation in body
 Can leave blood stream , sliding out through vessel walls &
attacking invaders at site of infections
 Fragments of much larger cell (megakaryocyte) which stays
in bone marrow after it differentiates and matures from
stem cell
 Platelets leave bone marrow & circulate throughout the
 When stimulated by substance from
damaged tissue, platelets release
substance to help clot blood
Blood Vessels
 Hollow tubes running throughout the body
 5 types
 Arteries
 Arterioles
 Veins
 Venules
 Capillaries
 Provide 2 measurements:
 Pulse
 Blood pressure
 Blood vessels that carry
blood from the heart to
organs & cells
 Muscular walls that allow
them to dilate or constrict
 Arterioles: very small
 Largest artery=aorta
 Runs from chest into
 Receives blood directly
from left ventricle
 Blood vessels that carry blood
back to heart
Thinner wall
Contain numerous one-way
valves (keep blood moving
toward heart)
Deep veins in LE surrounded
by large muscle groups;
compress the deep veins
when muscles contract
Contractions in extremities
helps propel blood toward
heart; increase venous return
 Largest vein=superior &
inferior vena cava
 Bring blood from upper
and lower body into
right atrium
 Venules: smallest veins
 Tiny, microscopic blood
vessels that connect
arteries to veins
 Responsible for
transferring oxygen and
nutrients to cells
 Wall so thin that O2 passes
from arterial blood
through them into cells in
 Waste products (CO2) pass
into capillaries to be
carried back by veins to
Coronary Arteries
 The heart’s own system of blood vessels
 Located around heart muscle to provide blood and
oxygen to all parts of heart
 Two primary coronary arteries branch
off into smaller vessels
 Right coronary artery: feeds right atrium &
ventricle and bottom of left ventricle
 Left main coronary artery: supplies blood
to rest of heart
 Left anterior descending
 Circumflex
Heart’s Conduction System
 Heart’s electrical system
 Consisting of specialized cells within heart muscle that
carry an electrical signal
 Regulates pumping of heart
Blood Pressure
 Heart pumps blood into arteries; surge of blood filling
vessels creates pressure against vessel walls
 Pressure measured by 2 numbers:
 Systolic: highest pressure in heart
 Correlates to ventricular ctx
 Average 120 mm/Hg
 Diastolic: lowest pressure in heart
 Relates to ventricular ctx
 Average 80 mm/Hg
 Pulse pressure: difference between
diastolic and systolic pressures
 Rhythmical beating of heart
 Created by alternating expansion and
contraction of artery as blood flows through
 7 areas where pulse can be felt
Brachial artery
Common carotid artery
Femoral artery
Dorsalis pedis artery
Popliteal artery
Radial artery
Temporal artery
Target Heart Rate
 Percentage of the maximum heart rate that is safe to reach
during exercise
AHA recommends 50-75% for average healthy person
Calculated 220-age
THR is sliding scale that decreases with age
Tool for measuring cardiovascular exercise
Maintain THR for 15-30 min daily health benefits
Flow of Blood through Heart
 Superior/inferior vena cava
 Right atrium
 Tricuspid valve
 Right ventricle
 Semi-lunar valve
 Pulmonary artery
 Lungs
Flow of Blood through Heart
 Back to heart via
pulmonary vein
 Left atrium
 Bicuspid valve
 Left ventricle
 Semi-lunar valve
 Aorta
 Organs in the body
Flow of Blood through Heart
Heart Anatomy
Can you label the heart?