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Bone Tissue Vocabulary Function of the Bones: Support; protection; movement; storage; & blood cell formation. 1. Articular Cartilage: where long bones articulate w/one another @ epiphyseal surfaces, the bony surfaces are covered w/hyaline cartilage rather than periosteum. 2. Bone Deposit: occur at sites of bone injury or where added bone strength is required. 3. Bone Reabsorption: is accomplished by osteoclasts, which secrete lysosomal & perhaps other catabolic enzymes onto the free bone surface. The osteoclasts may also phagocytize the matrix. 4. Comminuted Fracture: bone fragments into many pieces. Particularly common in the aged, whose bones are more brittle. 5. Compact Bone: is dense & looks sooth & homogeneous. It’s riddled w/canals & passageways serving as conduits for nerves, blood vessels, & lymphatic vessels. 6. Compound Fracture: broken ends of the bone protrude through soft tissue & the skin. More serious than a simple Fx. & may result in a severe bone infection (osteomyelitis) requiring massive doses of antibiotics. Sometimes called an open Fx. 7. Compression Fracture: Bone is crushed. Common in porous bones ex. Osteoporotic bones. 8. Condyle: boney marking that’s a rounded articular projection that helps to form a joint. 9. Crest (boney crest): boney marking that’s a narrow ridge of one; usually prominent that is a site of muscle attachment. 10. Depressed Fracture: broken bone portion is pressed inward. Typical of skull fracture. 11. Diaphysis: the elongated shaft of a long bone . 12. Endochondral Ossification: uses hyaline cartilage “bones” as models, or patterns, for bone construction. Common in long & short bones. (endo=within; chondro=cartilage) Steps include 1 formation of a bone collar around the hyaline cartilage model; 2 cavitation of the hyaline cartilage shaft; 3 invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud & spongy bone formation; 4 formation of the medullary cavity; 5 ossification of the epiphyses. 13. Endosteum: Lines the cedullary cavity of spongy bones. 14.Epicondyle: boney marking that’s a raised area on or above a condyle that is a site of muscle attachment. 15. Epiphysis: the ends of a long bone, attached to the shaft. 16. Facet (boney facet): boney marking that’s a smooth, nearly flat articular surface that helps to form a joint. 17. Fissure: boney marking that’s a narrow, slitlike opening that allows blood vessels & nerves to pass. 18. Flat Bones: are thin, flattened, & usually curved bones. They have 2 roughly parallel compact bone surfaces, w/ a layer of spongy bone b/w them. 19. Foramen: boney marking that’s a round or oval opening through a bone that blood vessels & nerves can pass through. 20. Fossa: boney marking that’s a shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface that blood vessels & nerves can pass through. 21. Greenstick Fracture: bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks. Common in children, whose bones have relatively more organic matrix & are more flexible then those of adults. 22. Groove (boney groove): boney marking that’s a furrow that blood vessels & nerves can pass through. 23. Haversian System: (also called osteon) is the structural unit of compact bone & consists mostly of hard bone matrix arranged in concentric rings or lamellae, around a central canal, the haversian canal, oriented along the long axis of the bone. 24. Head (boney head): boney marking that’s a bony expansion carried on a narrow neck that help to form joints. 25. Hematoma: blood filled swelling or bloodclot. 26. Impacted Fracture: broken bone ends are forced into each other. Commonly occurs when 1 falls & attempts to break the fall w/outstretched arms; also common in hip Fx. 27. Intramembranous Ossification: results in the formation of flat bones & some irregular bones including bone sof the skull & the clavicles. Steps include: 1. formation of spongy bone w/in the fibrous membrane; 2 formation of the periosteum; 3 formation of compact bone plates. 28. Irregular Bones: consist mainly of spongy bone enclosed by thin layers of compact bone. Bones that do not fit in one of the other bone categories are called irregular & include some skull bones, vertebrae, & hip bones. 29. Lamellae: concentric rings in the haversian system. 30. Line (boney line): boney marking that’s a narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest that is a site of muscle attachment. 31. Long Bones: are considerably longer than they are wide. A long bone consists of a shaft plus 2 heads. It is constructed primarily of compact bone, but may contain considerable amounts of spongy bone. Include all bones of the limbs except the patella, & those of the wrist, & ankle. (exception to this is metacarpals & metatarsals = long bones). 32. Meatus: boney marking that’s a canal-like passageway that allows blood vessels & nerves to pass. 33. Medullary Cavity: is the center space or cavity of the shaft of a bone & in adults contains fat or yellow marrow & is also called the yellow bone marrow. 34. Osteoblasts: bone forming cells 35. Osteoclasts: bone destroying cells. They are large multinucleated cells of uncertain origin. 36. Osteocytes: 37. Osteogenesis:: the process of bone formation. 38. Osteomalacia: 39. Osteon: the structural & functional unit of compact bone; also called a haversian system. 40. Osteoporosis: 41. Paget’s Disease: 42. Periosteum: dense connective tusse covering a bone. 43. Ramus: boney marking that’s an armlike bar of bone. Projection that help to form joint. 44. Red Marrow: 45. Rickets: 46. Sesmoid bone: 47. Short Bones: 48. Simple Fractue: bone breaks cleanly, bot doees not penetrate the skin. Sometimes called a closed Fx. 49. Sinus (boney sinus): boney marking that’s a cavity w/in a bone, filled w/air & lined w/mucous membrane that allows blood vessels & nerves to pass. 50. Spine (boney spine): boney marking that’s a sharp, slender, often pointed projection that is a site of muscle attachment. 51. Spiral Fracture: Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. Common in sports Fx. 52. Spongy or Cancellous Bone: is composed of small needlelike or flat pieces of bone called trabeculae & has lots of open space. Looks poorly organized but actually the trabeculae revealse where stress is exerted on the bone & helps the bone resis the stress as much as possible. 53. Trabeculae: literally means little beams 54. Trochanter: boney marking that’s a very large, blunt, irregularly-shaped process that is a site of muscle attachment. The only ex. Are on the femur. 55. Tubercle: boney marking that’s a small rounded projection or process that is a site of muscle attachment. 56. Tuberosity: boney marking that’s a large rounded projection; may be roughened that is a site of muscle attachment. 57. Wolff’s Law: a bone grows or remodels in response to the forces or stresses placed on it.