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The American Revolution –
The War of Independence
American Revolution
► Before
1776, Britain
had 13 colonies on the
East Coast of what is
now known as the
United States...
American Revolution (Cont’d)
► After
the Seven Years’ War, Britain
experienced large debts. The British
imposed a series of taxes (called the
“Intolerable Acts”) on the colonies in
order to raise money to maintain the
colonies.
► The
colonists objected
to paying British taxes
because they were not
given an opportunity
to choose how the
money would be spent
(“Taxation without
Representation”).
► The
colonists wanted
some say in how they
were governed.
As a result…
American Revolution (Cont’d)
► In
1776 the 13 colonies declared their
independence from Britain.
► The
“Canadian” colonies remained loyal to
Britain.
► The
Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the
American Revolution.
The Loyalists
The Loyalists
► One-third
of American colonists did not
want independence from Britain during the
American Revolution. In other words, these
people wanted to stay “loyal” to Britain.
The Loyalists
► Called
“Loyalists”,
these people were
forced to leave the
United States and they
fled to Britain, the
Caribbean, and British
North America
(Quebec, the
Maritimes and the Lake
Ontario area).
► The
Loyalists who migrated to British North
America wanted the legal system and
government institutions they had enjoyed in
pre-Revolutionary America.
► Britain
was happy to oblige. Most colonies
were granted the right to have their own
elected assemblies.
► In Quebec, the English speaking Loyalists
were given land but were frustrated with
French laws and the lack of an elected
assembly. The British government was
reluctant to risk offending the French
majority.
The Constitutional Act of
1791
The Constitutional Act of 1791
► Aimed
to recognize bicultural nature of
Quebec
► Divided Quebec into two colonies: Upper
Canada and Lower Canada (today’s Ontario
and Quebec)
► Upper Canada – British civil and criminal law
► Lower Canada – French civil law and British
criminal law
The Constitutional Act of
1791(Cont’d)
► Both
colonies given elected assemblies
► Elected assemblies given limited power to
avoid another American Revolution
► Only male landowners allowed to vote.
“Canada remained British
because it was French.”
Explain.
(This quote is used in the video Parting
of Ways and describes the outcomes of
the American Revolution)
War of 1812
U.S. declared war on Britain in
1812
Causes
1.
War between Britain and France created trade
blockages. This angered the Americans who held
a neutral position
2.
Britain stopped American merchant ships to
search for British navy deserters (U.S. thought
Britain not accepting them as equals, as
sovereign nation)
3.
Americans believed the Natives were getting
guns from British when they tried to expand
westward into Native land.
Results:
► Treaty
of Ghent 1814 ended the war, no winner
► American immigrants were discouraged from
coming to British North America
► Border between U.S. and BNA set at the 49th
parallel
► Britain began to respect U.S. as a separate nation
► U.S. turned attention away from BNA and looked
southward and westward for expansion
► Small feeling of unity between French and British
because they had fought against the Americans