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Introductio to:
Alimentary system 消化系统
Respiratory system 呼吸系统
Urinary system 泌尿系统
Reproductive system 生殖系统
Characters of viscera
Most of viscera organs lies in the thoracic,
abdominal and pelvis cavities
All of then communicate with external
environment through some orifices or channels
Reference lines of thorax
Anterior median line
Sternal line
Midclavicular line
Parasternal line
Anterior axillary line
Post axillary line
Midaxillary line
Scapular line
Posterior median line
The abdominal regions
Nine regions
Left and right
hypochondriac region,
epigastric region
L . and R. lateral
regions of abdomen,
umbilical region
L. and R. inguinal
region, pubic region
Four quadrants
Left and right upper
Left and right lower
The Respiratory System
Respiratory tract
 Nose
 Pharynx
upper respiratory tract
 Larynx
 Trachea
lower respiratory tract
 Bronchi
Lungs-paired organs of respiration
Function: supply the body with oxygen
and to get rid of excess carbon dioxide
resulting from cell metabolism
The Nose 鼻
External nose:
 Root of nose
 Back of nose
 Apex of nose
 Alae of nasi
Nasal cavity –divided
into two halves by nasal
Two parts:
Divided by limen nasi 鼻阈
Nasal vestibule
Proper nasal cavity
Roof-cribriform plate of
Floor-hard palate
Medial wall-nasal septum
Lateral wall
Nasal conchae: superior,
middle and inferior
Nasal meatus: superor,
middle and inferior
Sphenoethmoidal recess
Remove the middle nasal conchae
 Semilunar hiatus 半月裂孔
 Ethmoidal infundibulum 筛漏斗
 Ethmoidal bulla 筛泡
Mucous membrane of nose
Olfactory region嗅区: located upper nasal cavity, above superior,
nasal conchae,contains olfactory cells
Respiratory region 呼吸区: its function is to warm, moisten, and
clean the inspired air
The paranasal sinuses and their site of
drainage into the nose
Name of sinus
Site of drainage
Frontal sinus
Middle meatus via infundibulum
Maxillary sinus
Middle meatus through semilunar hiatus
Sphenoid sinus
Sphenoethmoidal recess
Ethmoidal sinuses
anterior group
middle group
posterior group
Middle meatus
Middle meatus
Superior nasal meatus
Frontal sinus
Ethmoidal sinuses
Sphenoid sinus
Maxillary sinus
The Larynx 喉
Position-situated in the
anterior part of the neck
(below the hyoid bone),
and extends from
vertebral level of C4 to
Layngeal cartilages 喉软骨
Thyroid cartilage 甲状软骨
 Shield-shaped cartilage
 Laryngeal prominence at
base of thyroid notch
 Superior thyroid notch,
superior and inferior cornua
Cricoid cartilage 环状软骨
 Complete ring of cartilage
(shaped like a signet ring)
 Arch of cricoid cartilage-at
level of C6
 Larnina of cricoid cartilage
Arytenoid 杓状软骨
 Paired, pyramid shaped,
articulate with lamina of
cricoid cartilage
 Vocal process anteriorly, site
of posterior attachment of
vocal fold
 Muscular process
Epiglottic cartilage 会厌软骨
leaf-shaped elastic cartilage
situated behind the root of
the tongue
Laryngeal joints
 cricothyroid joint
 cricoarytenoid joint
Laryngeal ligaments and membrane
 Thyrohyroid membrane 甲状舌骨膜-extending from hyoid
bone to thyroid cartilage
Quadrangular membrane 方形膜
Conus elasticus 弹性圆锥
Between epiglottic, thyroid and
arytenoid cartilages
Lower free border forms vestibular
ligament 前庭韧带
Between arytenoids, thyroid, and
cricoid cartilages
Upper free border forms vocal
ligament 声韧带
Median cricothyroid ligment 环甲正
中韧带:may be site of
circothyrotomy during acute
respiratory obstruction
Cricotracheal ligament
环状软骨气管韧带-between cricoid
cartilage and first ring of trachea
Muscles of larynx
Increasing tension on the vocal ligament-cricothyroid
Decreasing tension on the vocal ligament-thyroarytenoid
Opening the glottis-posterior cricoarytenoid
Closing the glottis- cricoarytenoid
Laryngeal cavity
Aperture of larynx 喉口-bounded by upper border epiglottic
cartilage, aryepiglottic folds and interarytenoid notch
Structure features
 Two pairs of shelf like folds :
Vestibular folds 前庭襞
Vocal folds 声襞
Two fissures
Rima vestibulithe 前庭裂
Fissure of glottis 声门裂
Inter membranous part膜间部
-anterior 3/5, between vocalfolds
Inter cartilagrnous part 软骨间部
-posterior 2/5, between
arytenoids cartilages
Three parts
Laryngeal vestibule 喉前庭
Extends from the aperture of
larynx to the rima vestibuli
 Tubercle of epiglottis 会厌结节
Intermedial cavity of larynx喉
 Extends from the level of the
rima vestibuli to the level of the
fissure of glottis
 Ventricle of larynx 喉室
-a small recess between
vestibular and vocal folds on
each side
Infraglottic cavity 声门下腔
 extends from the level of the
vocal folds to the lower border
of the cricoid cartilage
The Trachea 气管
Position: extends from the lower
border of cricoid cartilage to the level
of sternal angle (between T4-T5
vertebrae) where it divides into right
and left principal bronchi
Structure features
 Consists of about 16-20 Cshaped incomplete tracheal
cartilages for patency connected
by smooth muscle and connective
 Carina of trachea 气管隆嵴
-ridge of cartilage at bifurcation
into principal bronchi
Bronchi 支气管
Right principal bronchus 右主支气管
Shorter, wider, and more vertical than
the left , is about 2.5cm long, Leaves
the extend line of the middle line of
trachea at 22~25o angle
Foreign bodies are therefore more
likely to lodge in this bronchus or one
of its branches
Left principal bronchus 左主支气管
Narrower, longer, and more horizontal
than the right is about 5cm long,
leaves the extend line of the middle
line o trachea at about 35~36o angle
The Lungs 肺
Position: located in the thoracic
cavity by both sides of
General features
 Cone-shaped, the right lung is
shorter and broader, the left one
is longer and narrower
 Apex of lung-rises 2 ~3 cm
above the medial third of clavicle
into neck
 Base-concave, related to
diaphragm, also called
diaphragmatic surface
 Costal surface-large, convex,
related to thoracic wall
Medial surface-concave, related to
mediastinum and vertebrae
Hilum of lung 肺门:area on medial
surface where structures in root enter or
leave lung
Root of lung 肺根
Principal bronchus
Pulmonary artery and vein
Nerves and lymphatics
Surrounded by connective tissue
Order of structures in the root of lung
From before backward: V.A. B.
From above downward:
R.-B. A. V.
L.-A. B. V.
Inferior- sharp
cardiac notch心切迹
lingual in left lung 左肺小舌
Lobes and Fissure
 Right lung
Two fissures : horizontal an
Three lobes : superior, middle,
Left lung
One fissure : oblique
Two lobes : superior and
Bronchial tree支气管树
Each principal bronchus
divides into lobar bronchi
(two on the left, three on
the right), each of which
supplies a lobe of lung.
Each lobar bronchus then
divided into segmental
bronchi, which supply
specific segments of the
Bronchopulmonary segments支气管肺段
Wedge shaped, with the base lying peripherally and the
apex lying towards the root of lungs, ten in each lung
Each with a segmental bronchus and branches of
pulmonary artery
The veins lie both in and between segments
The Pleura 胸膜
General features
Serous membranes
forming closed sacs
Two layers
Visceral pleura-adheres
to lung, continuous with
parietal pleura at root of
Parietal pleura-lines the
thoracic cavity
Two pleural layers continue
with each other at root of
lung forming closed
potential space-pleural
cavity 胸膜腔
Contains a small amount
pleural fluid
Subatmospheric pressure in it
Named parts of parietal pleura
Cupula of pleura 胸膜顶
-extends up into the neck, over
the apex of lung, 2~3cm above
the medial third of clavicle
Costal pleura 肋胸膜
-lines the inner surface of the
wall of the chest
Mediastinal pleura 纵隔胸膜
 Lines mediastinum
 Pulmonary ligament 肺韧带
-redundant pleura at root of
lung, which extends downward,
allows movement of structures
forming root of lung
Diaphragmatic pleura 膈胸膜-
Lines diaphragm
Pleura recesses 胸膜隐窝-
potential spaces of pleural cavity
which lungs are not occupied in
quiet respiration
Costodiaphragmatic recesse肋
膈隐窝-are the slit-like intervals
between costal and
diaphragmatic pleurae on each
side, the lowest point of pleural
Costomediastinal recess
肋纵隔隐窝-on the left side
between the mediastinal pleural
and costal pleura
The surface projection of lower border
of lung and pleurae
Sides of the
6th rib
8th rib
10th rib
8th rib
10th rib
12th rib