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Transcript
Chapter 24
Respiratory system
Black carbon deposits seen in the large
holes. The alveoli that used to occupy
those spaces have broken down,
creating large, rather than small sacs.
Figure 24.1 Structures of the Respiratory System
Frontal sinus
Nasal cavity
Nasal conchae
Nose
Sphenoidal sinus
Internal nares
Tongue
Nasopharynx
UPPER
RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
LOWER
RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
Hyoid bone
Larynx
Esophagus
Trachea
Bronchus
Clavicle
Bronchioles
RIGHT
LUNG
Ribs
LEFT
LUNG
Diaphragm
Figure 24.4a Respiratory Structures in the Head and Neck, Part II
Frontal sinus
Nasal cavity
Superior
Middle
Internal nares
Inferior
Nasal
conchae
Nasopharynx
Nasal vestibule
Pharyngeal tonsil
External nares
Entrance to auditory tube
Hard palate
Soft palate
Palatine tonsil
Oral cavity
Oropharynx
Tongue
Epiglottis
Mandible
Aryepiglottic
fold
Lingual tonsil
Hyoid bone
Laryngopharynx
Thyroid cartilage
Glottis
Cricoid cartilage
Vocal fold
Trachea
Esophagus
Thyroid gland
A sagittal section of the head and neck
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 24.4b Respiratory Structures in the Head and Neck, Part II
Ethmoidal
air cell
Medial rectus
muscle
Cranial cavity
Frontal sinus
Right eye
Lens
Lateral rectus
muscle
Superior
nasal concha
Superior
meatus
Middle nasal
concha
Nasal
septum
Perpendicular
plate of
ethmoid
Vomer
Hard palate
Middle meatus
Maxillary sinus
Inferior nasal
concha
Inferior meatus
Tongue
Mandible
A coronal (frontal) section of the head showing the
positions of the paranasal sinuses and nasal structures
Figure 24.2a Histology of the Respiratory Epithelium
Movement
of mucus
to pharynx
Ciliated columnar
epithelial cell
Mucous cell
Stem cell
Mucous layer
Lamina propria
Diagrammatic view of the
respiratory epithelium
Figure 24.5 Respiratory Structures in the Head and Neck, Part III (Part 1 of 1)
Inferior nasal
concha
Hard palate
Arbor vitae of cerebellum
Choroid plexus
Soft palate
Foramen magnum
External occipital crest
Dens
of
axis
(C2)
Atlas (C1) (posterior arch)
C3
Laryngopharynx
Tongue
Nasopharynx
Uvula
Atlas (C1)
(anterior arch)
Oropharynx
Mandible
Epiglottis
C4
Spinal cord
Hyoid bone
C5
Ventricular fold
C6
Spinous processes
of vertebrae
C7
Vocal fold
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
T1
Tracheal cartilages
Esophagus
T2
Trachea
T3
External jugular vein
Right common
carotid artery
Manubrium of sternum
Aortic arch
Pleural cavity
Left brachiocephalic vein
Body of sternum
Figure 24.6a Anatomy of the Larynx
Epiglottis
Lesser cornu
Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid ligament
(extrinsic)
Thyroid
cartilage
Larynx
Laryngeal
prominence
Cricothyroid ligament
(intrinsic)
Cricoid cartilage
Cricotracheal ligament
(extrinsic)
Trachea
Tracheal cartilages
Anterior view of the intact larynx
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 24.6d Anatomy of the Larynx
Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid
membrane
Epiglottis
Thyroid cartilage
Vestibular ligament (false vocal cord)
Corniculate cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage
Vocal
ligament (true vocal cord)
Cricothyroid ligament
Cricoid cartilage
Cricotracheal ligament
Tracheal cartilages
ANTERIOR
POSTERIOR
Sagittal section of the intact larynx
Figure 24.7ab The Vocal Cords
Corniculate
cartilage
POSTERIOR
Corniculate cartilage
Glottis (closed)
Cuneiform
cartilage
Glottis (open)
Aryepiglottic
fold
Vestibular
fold
Vocal fold
Vocal fold
Vestibular fold
Epiglottis
Epiglottis
Root of tongue
ANTERIOR
Glottis in the open
position
See vocal cords in action!- endoscope
NatGeographic- Aerosmith
Glottis in the closed
position
Figure 24.7c The Vocal Cords
POSTERIOR
Corniculate cartilage
Glottis (open)
Cuneiform cartilage
in aryepiglottic fold
Vocal fold
Vestibular fold
Epiglottis
Root of tongue
ANTERIOR
This photograph is a representative
laryngoscopic view. For this view the
camera is positioned within the
oropharynx, just superior to the larynx.
Trachea “windpipe”
Figure 24.9a Anatomy of the Trachea and Primary Bronchi
Hyoid
bone
Larynx
Annular
ligaments
Trachea
Tracheal
cartilages
Location of carina
(internal ridge)
Root of
right lung
Root of
left lung
Superior
lobar bronchus
Lung
tissue
Primary
bronchi
Superior
lobar bronchus
Secondary
bronchi
Middle lobar
bronchus
Inferior
lobar bronchi
RIGHT LUNG
LEFT LUNG
Anterior view showing the plane of section for part (b)
Lower Respiratory tract- Bronchial Tree
Figure 24.9b Anatomy of the Trachea and Primary Bronchi
Esophagus
Trachealis
muscle
Lumen of
trachea
Thyroid
gland
Respiratory
epithelium
Tracheal
cartilage
The trachea
Histological cross-sectional view of the trachea
showing its relationship to surrounding structures
LM  3
Figure
24.13a
Trachea
Left
primary
bronchus
Secondary
bronchus
Tertiary
bronchi
Smaller
bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal bronchiole
Respiratory bronchiole
Alveoli in a
pulmonary
lobule
-Have alveolus
The structure of one portion of a single pulmonary lobule
Alveolar ducts & sacs
• We have about 300 million alveoli within the lungs!
Surface area for gas exchange is approx. 1500 ft2.
• Alveolar sac= bunch of grapes; alveoli: one grape
Figure 24.13c Bronchi and Bronchioles
Alveolus
Alveolar
sac
Hyaline
cartilage
plate
Bronchiole
Smooth
muscle
Arteriole
Epithelial
cells
Alveolar
duct
Lumen of
a small
bronchus
Histology of the lung
LM  14
Histological section of the lung showing a small bronchus and bronchiole
Pleura
Figure 24.10a Superficial Anatomy of the Lungs
Boundary between
right and left
pleural cavities
Superior lobe
LEFT LUNG
RIGHT LUNG
Superior lobe
Oblique fissure
Horizontal fissure
Middle lobe
Fibrous layer
of pericardium
Oblique fissure
Inferior lobe
Inferior lobe
Anterior view of the opened chest,
showing the relative positions of
the left and right lungs and heart.
Falciform ligament
Liver,
right lobe
Liver,
left lobe
Cut edge of
diaphragm
Figure 24.10b Superficial Anatomy of the Lungs
Lateral Surfaces
Diagrammatic views of
the lateral surfaces of
the isolated right and
left lungs
Apex
Apex
Superior
lobe
Superior lobe
Horizontal
fissure
Middle
lobe
Cardiac
notch
Inferior
lobe
Oblique
fissure
Base
RIGHT LUNG
Oblique
fissure
Inferior
lobe
Base
LEFT LUNG
Disorders of respiratory system
Normal
Emphysema
Clinical Note 24.1 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (Part 2 of 3)