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Infectious Diseases Outline Who are we? Common infectious diseases How to prevent the spread of disease A Few Questions… True or False: 1. Hepatitis B is preventable with a vaccine, but there is no cure 2. If you have Hepatitis C, you will look very sick A Few Questions True or False: 1. Oral Herpes has a cure 2. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most common sexually transmitted infections caused by bacteria A Few Questions… True or False: 1. Head lice cannot be spread by sharing a hairbrush 2. Tuberculosis only affects the lungs 3. HIV and AIDS mean the same thing Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver Bacteria Alcohol and toxins Your own immune system Viruses Multiple different ones! Today – Focus on Hep B and C Hepatitis B Virus How do you get it? Blood Unprotected sexual contact Sharing needles During birth if mother infected Blood transfusion (rare) Some Symptoms Nausea and vomiting Jaundice Pale feces/dark urine Pain in upper right part of abdomen Itching all over the body Hepatitis B Virus Half of people show no symptoms Chronic Hep B – long-term infection 5-10% of adults with Hep B develop this Can lead to Liver scarring Liver cancer Hepatitis B Virus Diagnosis: blood tests No cure for chronic Hep B Preventable with a vaccine Treatment: anti-retroviral drugs Hepatitis C How do you get it? Blood Unprotected sex Sharing needles During birth if mother infected Blood transfusions (rare) What are the symptoms? 80% of people have no symptoms Symptoms may not show up for over 10- 20 years Similar symptoms to Hep B Hepatitis C Diagnosis: blood test 75% of adults with Hep C develop chronic infection Chronic Hep C can lead to Liver scarring Liver cancer The cure rate with medication is ~50% Oral Herpes How do you get it? Touching infected saliva or skin Examples - lips, mouth, nostrils, ears, eyelids, genital area, anus Symptoms? Painful sores Fever and muscle aches Commonly no symptoms No cure Genital Herpes How do you get it? Skin-to-skin contact Sexual intercourse and oral sex Symptoms Lesions and ulcers No cure Medications to prevent and treat recurrences Chlamydia and Gonorrhea How do you get it? Spread through vaginal, anal or oral sex Symptoms Often no symptoms Discharge, painful urination, fever Treatment is with antibiotics Prevention Limiting sexual partners safe sex practices Head Lice Live on the head and lay eggs How do you get it? Direct contact Sharing hairbrushes Hats, towels, clothing and bedding Head Lice Symptoms Itchy scalp See nits in hair Live lice near scalp Treatment Shampoos Proper cleaning of brushes, clothes and sheets Scabies How do you get it? Direct contact such as sexual relations and handshaking Towels, clothing, bedding Symptoms Small, raised bites Very itchy Worse at night Scabies Treatment Topical cream Wash bedding and clothing Syphilis How do you get it? Sexually transmitted Direct contact Symptoms 6 weeks – ulcer 6 months – rash, fever, aches 6 years and longer – affects heart, brain, etc. Treatment Antibiotics Abstain from sex during treatment Tuberculosis How do I get it? Coughing Sneezing Talking Contributing Factors Immunosuppressed Diabetes Alcohol Injection drug use Tuberculosis Lungs infected most often Symptoms May have no symptoms Coughing and chest pain Fever and chills Night sweats and weight loss Diagnosis Skin test, chest x-ray, labs Treatment Multiple antibiotics HIV Human immunodeficiency virus How do you get it? Sexual activity Blood transfusions Needle sharing Mother to fetus HIV Stages Acute viral illness Clinical latency (average 8 years) No symptoms Later symptoms Fever and chills Night sweats and weight loss Herpes infection Oral thrush – fungal infection AIDS Pneumonia Meningitis Brain infections Severe mono infections HIV Diagnosis Blood testing Treatment Antiretroviral therapy with multiple medications Prevention! Avoid: Needle sharing Unprotected sex Get educated! A Few Questions… True or False: 1. Hepatitis B is preventable with a vaccine, but there is no cure 2. If you have Hepatitis C, you will look very sick A Few Questions True or False: 1. Oral Herpes has a cure 2. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most common sexually transmitted infections caused by bacteria A Few Questions… True or False: 1. Head lice cannot be spread by sharing a hairbrush 2. Tuberculosis only affects the lungs 3. HIV and AIDS mean the same thing Questions? THANK YOU!