* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
The Persian Wars Lesson 5 Core Knowledge History and Geography 6th grade. The Persian Wars The beginning of the War. You’ve recently learned that there were a number a city-states on the coast of Asia Minor (another name for the Anatolian Peninsula, where much of Turkey is located). About 546 B.C. These city-states came under the control of the Persians, who appointed harsh tyrants to rule each citystate. Sardis ● In 499 B.C. The city-state Miletus rebelled against Persian rule. ● Athenians agreed to help (Sparta refused). ● Athens victory on Sardis created momentum and everybody wanted to join in on the REVOLT! ● Athens went back home…. what?! ● 3 years later the Persian king Darius regained control of the Greek city states in Asia Minor. ● Persians were now angry with the Athenians. ■ dun dun dun... Marathon ● The Athenians and the Persians met on the plain at Marathon, about 26 miles from Athens. ● The Athenians attacked even though they were badly outnumbered and were successful. ● By the end of the battle 6,000 Persians were dead, while only 192 Greeks had fallen. ● The Greeks ordered a messenger to run back to Athens to deliver the news. He ran the 26 miles, gasped out his victory announcement: “Rejoice, we conquer!” then died of exhaustion. Thermopylae ● ● ● ● ● ● In 480 B.C. (10 years later) another Persian army was dispatched to defeat the Greeks. With an army of more than 100,000 men as well as 600 - 700 ships, the Persian king Xerxes was determined to conquer all of Greece. FINALLY… Athens and Sparta put aside their differences. (hip hip hurray!) With these two joined together along with a few other city-states they had about 10,000 men and 200 to 300 ships. This army was led by King Leonidas of Sparta. By battling in Thermopylae, about 75 miles northwest of Athens, they delayed the battle trying to increase their chances. Things didn’t turn out as planned… traitor/retreat, 300 valiant Spartans died defending the pass. Salamis ● Athens was burnt to the ground after the attempt at Thermopylae. ● Persians were set to conquer all of southern Greece. ● Xerxes set out with his Navy first clashing near the island called Salamis. ● The Persians had big ships but the Greeks knew the waterways. ● Persians were lured into the shallow waters where their ships were sunk ● The Athenian navy was able to defeat the huge Persian fleet. ● Xerxes immediately left Greece and sailed home. (boo hoo) ● The next year the Spartan general Pausanias led the Greeks against the Persians in the battle of Plataea. Pausanias won the battle and drove the Persian army out of Greece. The Golden Age of Athens Lesson 6 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6. Rise of the Athenian Empire The Greek’s unexpected victory in the Persian Wars ensured that the Greek citystates would remain free and independent. The war also established Athens and Sparta as the two leading Greek city-states. After the Wars ● Despite working together during the Wars Athens and Greece Pursued separate paths as soon as the wars were over. ● Spartans went home to keep an eye on the helots. ● Athenians began building a mighty empire. ● Delian League established ● Athens thought they were the ones in charge. ● Money from the League went to fund the Golden Age of Athens. ● During this time Athens created some of the greatest artistic and cultural achievements. Pericles (PER ih kleez) ● ● ● ● Pericles was one of the leading citizens during the Golden Age. He was reelected for 30 years as one of the ten strategoi or generals. He eventually became the most powerful and influential man in Athens. His best skill was an orator (public speaker). ○ “his words were like thunder and lightening.” ● ● ● ● ● He was also known for his hard work and dedication. He did not believe in wasting time at parties and social events. He helped the Athenian empire to grow stronger. He strengthened the Athenian Democracy. He supported and was a patron of the arts. The Parthenon ● ● ● ● The most famous of all the buildings built under Pericles. A temple to Athena ~ The Greek Goddess of wisdom. Considered the greatest of all Greek buildings and one of the treasures to human culture. The Parthenon is 230 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 60 feet tall. More than 20,000 tons of marble were used in the construction. Archiecture Three styles of architecture based on a distinctive type of column. ● ● ● Doric: The oldest and the simplest. Featured a large ridged column with a capital, or a top, shaped like a saucer. Ionic: Tall and slender with spiral scroll-like curlicues on either side. Corinthian: most ornate. The capital on top of the column looks like a basket with layers of leaves in it. Greek Drama ● ● ● ● Over 15,000 Athenians could gather here. Like the Olympics, Greek drama began as part of a religious festival. Performances grew from a single actor to several and were judged and prizes given to the best playwright. Two kinds of drama: Comedy and Tradegy. Other Cultural Achievements In addition to architecture and drama, a number of other arts also flourished during the Golden Age of Athens. ● Pottery that was decorated with pictures from mythology. ● Historians who wrote history and stories. ● Advances in Science and Medicine. The Peloponnesian War Lesson 7 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6 Athens vs Sparta As Athens built its empire, Sparta looked on with concern. The Spartans worried that Athens was becoming too powerful. They also resented Athenian attempts to push Athenianstyle democracy on other Greek citystates. ● ● ● ● Sparta joined together with its allies and created the Peloponnesian League. 430 B.C. relations between Athens and the Peloponnesian League deteriorated. One year later the Peloponnesian war broke out. This war continued for more than 25 years and would eventually put an end to the Athenian empire. The Peloponnesian War ● ● ● ● ● ● Pericles was still leader of Athens. Spartan Army was stronger but Athenian’s had a stronger Navy. Athenians did not fight the Spartans on their terms. They hid behind their walls. The country people beyond the walls poured into the city. The Spartan army burnt the crops and farm houses. ● ● ● ● Pericles was cautious and wouldn’t let the Athenians fight just yet. He figured the longer the Spartans had to wait the fewer supplies they would have. During the first year of war this strategy was successful. The Spartans gave up and left. On their way the Athenian Navy attacked several cities on the coast of Peloponnesus. Peloponnesian War 2nd Year of War ● Began with another Spartan land attack. ● Athenians retreated again. ● A terrible plague swept through the Athens. ○ ● ● plague: a disease that sweeps through a town or country, causing many to die. The plague lasted for 3 years. The war dragged on for years with no victory on either side. Peloponnesian War About 415 B.C. an Athenian named Alcibiades proposed that the Athenians conquer the island of Sicily, now a part of Italy but then inhabited by Greeks. This island was on the other side of Peloponnesus. If it was conquered, then Athens could renew its supplies, attack Sparta from both sides, and defeat their archrivals. ● Not all Athenians were in favor of this and did not trust him, but there were enough that were so they invaded. ● ● ● ● The attack on Sicily ended tragically. Lives were lost and many Athenians were made slaves. Alcibiades fled to Sparta and told them Athen’s plans. ○ TRAITOR!! Spartans took the information but didn’t trust him. He fled to Persia… they didn’t trust him either. Booo Alcibiades! Peloponnesian War ● ● ● ● ● ● The defeat in Sicily weakened the Athenian army and navy. Spartans built a big navy. Persians became the Spartans allies. Spartan had a naval victory cutting off Athens supply of grains. In 404 B.C. Athens surrendered. The Spartans and their allies won the Peloponnesian war. ● ● ● Athenians had to tear down their walls. No more democracy ~ ruled by 30 nobles. These nobles were corrupt and cruel. Athenians rebelled and in 403 B.C. the kings of Sparta decided that as long as Athens was peaceful they would leave them alone. Greek Philosophy and Socrates Lesson 8 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6 Philosophy and Adversity People often grow more philosophical during times of adversity. When life is good, it is easy to ignore large questions about the meaning of life. But when times are tough, these questions seem to thrust themselves upon us with increased urgency. Why? Where? How? ● ● ● ● These questions were answered: “because of the Gods!” By the 6th century B.C. some people were no longer satisfied with that answer. Philosophy: love of wisdom. Philosopher: Lover of wisdom who used reason to acquire this wisdom. Socrates ● ● ● ● ● ● One of the most famous Greek philosphers. 469 - 399 B.C. Fought in the Peloponnesian war as a young man. Socrates wrote nothing down. His student, Plato, wrote down what we know about Socrates. Interested in where the world came from and what it might be made of. How are humans to behave. One of the first to study ethics. ○ ethics: the branch of philosophy that studies what it means to live a good, moral life. Socrates ● ● ● Socrates talked with other athenians and made his philosophies more personal. He tried to get the Athenians to examine their life. ○ “the unexamined life is not worth living.” Asked questions instead of giving answers then would point out the contradictions between their answers and the way they were living. The Socratic Method. The question asking method is still widely used today. ● ● He insisted that he never taught anyone anything. Conversations always based on two principles: ○ Don’t ever do anything wrong. ○ If you understood right and good you couldn’t possibly choose the wrong thing. Death of Socrates ● ● ● ● ● By a count of 280 to 221 Socrates was sentenced to death. While imprisoned people wanted to help him escape. He argued, “one must obey the commands of one’s city and country, or persuade it as to the nature of justice.” Socrates was executed by drinking a poisoned drink called hemlock. Today Socrates is remembered for the Socratic Method and for his commitment to seeking the truth. It wasn’t enough to seek goodness, he wanted people to live right every day. Plato and Aristotle Lesson 9 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6 Plato ● ● ● ● ● ● 427 - 347 B.C. Like Socrates Plato was born in Athens and spent his life as a philosopher who sought truth. He was a brilliant writer. Plato fled Athens after Socrates was executed in 399 B.C. He returned in 387 B.C. and opened up an Academy. This school lasted for more than 900 years. It was eventually closed by a Roman emperor because it did not teach Christianity. Plato The Dialogues ● Plato’s way of allowing his readers to imagine that they were part of a philosophical conversation with Socrates. ● He encouraged people to think about their own opinions and ideas and showed them that they could use reason to discover truth. Plato ● ● ● ● Before people could study with Plato they had to master mathematics. Plato believed that math led to abstract truth. Philosophy, for Plato, was to identify the perfect forms that life really has in its ideal state. Mathematics + Philosophy = an understanding of what things really are. ● ● ● He did not believe in democracy. He felt like it gave power to people who did not understand justice. Plato believed that the right kind of education would teach people how to control themselves, to act for the good of others, and to be less selfish. Aristotle ● ● ● ● ● ● 384 B.C. - 322 B.C. Plato’s student for 20 years. Aristotle’s father was a doctor and taught him to observe the world around him carefully. Plato and Aristotle did not always agree and argued from time to time. Collected and examined insects, animals, and plants. From his years of observation he learned that there is more than one way to explain things. Aristotle ● ● ● Aristotle didn’t know it, but by collecting facts, analyzing them, and coming up with theories about his observations, he was developing the basics of scientific research. He led philosophy down the path that would eventually lead to modern science. Wrote about what it meant to lead a good and just life. "It is possible to feel fear, confidence, desire, anger, pity -- but feel those emotions at the right times, on the right occasions, and toward the right people in the right ways is the best course." Alexander and the Hellenistic Period Lesson 10 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6 Alexander the Great During Aristotle’s lifetime, a king named Alexander rose to great prominence. Some say he was the greatest general who ever lived. He certainly accomplished a great deal during his brief lifetime, and changed the Mediterranean world forever. Alexander the Great Reasons he was called Alexander the Great. He: ● Conquered more land than anyone else had ever done. ● Collected more wealth than anyone before him. ● Ruled more people than any previous king. ● ● ● ● ● A student of Aristotle Son of King Philip II, King of Macedonia Alexander became king at the age of 20 when his father was assassinated. He was strong, handsome, and extremely intelligent. *a triple threat!! Despite all those fine qualities his greatest attribute was his bravery. Alexander and the Persian Empire ● ● After King Philip's death Alexander decided to attack the Greek’s old enemies, the Persians. He wanted to have a few small victories to have supplies on hand and to prove his strength and bravery. 1. He then attacked Asia Minor with such a fierce battle the Persian king, Darius III fled which enabled Alexander to march south seizing towns along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Alexander and the Persian Empire ● ● ● ● The Persian emperor asked Alexander for peace. He saw no reason even with the emperor’s promises to accept the offer. Alexander wanted ALL of the Persian Empire. It took only 11 years to establish his empire. Alexander faces the Nobles ● ● ● ● ● ● The Persian nobles thought Darius III was weak and murdered him. They wanted to take on Alexander. The Persian Nobles thought they were just as brave and strong as Alexander. Battle upon battle they continued to fight him. In the end, Alexander won. He had now conquered the most powerful empire of its time. Alexander Wanted the World! ● ● ● ● Alexander’s army decided they had enough after winning a difficult battle in India. The Indian army had over 5,000 attack elephants that they would have to defeat… they would eventually learn to sidestep and kill, but Alexander’s army was tired. He eventually conquered what was then virtually known as the world in 327 B.C. In 323 B.C. Alexander caught a fever and died at the age of 33. The Hellenistic Period ● ● ● ● 323 B.C. o 30 B.C. is known as the Hellenistic Period. When Alexander died he left neither an heir nor directions as to how the empire should be governed. The empire was eventually divided among the 5 of his Greek generals who fought among themselves. They did, however, spread the Greek culture wherever they went. During the Hellenistic Period: ● Kings made coins that looked like Greek coins. ● Educators imitate the Greek style of education. ● Philosophers pored over the works of Plato and Aristotle. ● Artists copied Greek statues and architects built buildings in Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles. ● Learning science flourished. Alexandria ● ● ● ● ● One of the major cities of the Hellenistic Period. Located in Egypt, it was a model Greek town. King Ptolemy (TAHL uh mee) ruled Alexandria. This king began a library there that would be envied by people throughout the Mediterranean world. Eventually would house over 700,000 scrolls.