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Transcript
GROUP COMMUNICATION
PURPOSE OF THE GROUP
Learning
 Growth
 Social
 Problem solving
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THE PROBLEM SOLVING GROUP
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Group Norms:
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Participate
Establish goals
Build an agenda
Hold routine meetings
Choose a leader
A group can be 3-15 in membership; but 5-8 is best.
Identify problems and solutions
GROUP ROLES
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Leadership
Authoritarian- the one ultimately in charge.
Controls all aspects of the group process, listening to
group ideas and making the final decision.
 Democratic Leader- elected; Uses the majority rule
system, possibly parliamentary procedure. Leads the
group in discussion and votes on issues.
 Laissez~Faire leader- Lets the group run itself, but
pulls it back on track when needed.
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LEADERSHIP
The chairman or moderator should emphasize these special techniques,
functions or responsibilities:
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Begin the discussion by introducing the participants, stating the topic and
opening the discussion (setting the “tone”)
Keep the group on the track of the discussion.
Keep the discussion moving and relevant.
Use leading questions and frequent and concise summaries.
Develop skill in using transition statements.
Regulate participation, fairly and good-humoredly, quieting the
“monopolizer” and drawing out the less active members. Practice the art
of “gate-keeping.”
Stimulate creative thinking in others by asking provocative questions.
Stimulate critical thinking in others by suggesting means of evaluation.
Present a final summary or report of the opinions or recommendations for
action accepted by the group in an accurate, impartial, concise and
effective manner.
GROUP ROLES
Task Function Roles
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Information Giver: Offers their knowledge or research on an
issue.
Information Seeker: Asks what others know on the subject.
Opinion Giver: Offers their personal view of the issue.
Opinion Seeker: Asks for other’s viewpoints.
Starter/Initiator: Encourages the group to begin the tasks on the
agenda
Summarizer: recaps what has been done and what needs to
happen next.
Energizer: the cheerleader of the group; keeps up the group’s
spirit.
Diagnoser: recognizes and identifies problems within the group
or within the decision making process.
Reality Tester: checks the solution for the ability to be
implemented.
GROUP ROLES
Maintenance Roles
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Gatekeeper: watches out for the process and ensures all
get involved.
Process Observer: Keeps the group on task by referring the
the problem solving process and any given instructions.
Harmonizer: Helps group members to get along; keeps the
peace.
Praise Giver: Compliments hard work and workers, thus
encouraging them to continue.
Tension Reliever: Tells a joke or calls for a break if the
group is getting stressed or overworked. However, the
tension reliever does not waste time or distract.
Interpersonal Problem Solver: Helps to settle disputes;
encourages communication.
Listener: allows others to express themselves or “vent”.
GROUP ROLES
Dysfunctional Roles
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Aggressor: The bully of the group, forces others to agree with
him/her. Discourages participation from others.
Dominator: Takes over using a majority of the talking time.
Destroys the concept of group process, which is to blend
several ideas.
Special Interest Pleader: Wants his/her view to become group
view because it meets their personal needs. Does not look out
for the good of the group.
Blocker/Critic: Criticizes most ideas without offering a new
idea. Discourages participation and morale in the group.
Playboy/Clown: Jokes and plays. Wastes time and distracts
others.
Complainer: always unhappy or finding fault. Wastes time.
Recognition Seeker: Looks for praise of individual work;
wastes time and not thinking of group goals.
GROUP MEMBERSHIP
A group member has the following functions, responsibilities, attitudes
and skills:
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Be well informed on the topic.
Know the steps in reflective thinking.
Maintain an open minded attitude.
Evaluate information and ideas objectively.
Listen attentively and objectively.
Think creatively.
Be an active participant.
Be cooperative, friendly and tactful.
Think and talk in terms of the group.
Stick to the subject.
Be willing to follow the leadership of the chairman.
Be prepared to exercise leadership of the group whenever necessary.
Be willing to change your opinion when such a change is justified.
SUGGESTIONS
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Be a catalyst to resolve conflicts; suggest alternatives, bring others into the
discussion, ask loaded questions.
Practice the kind of courtesy that will encourage positive feelings and
harmonious reactions in others.
Pay attention to oral communications, listening carefully when others speak
and limiting your own speaking both in frequency and length of comments.
Control your feelings.
Examine your motives. Are you trying to block action? Are you trying to
discredit a group member? Are you genuinely trying to solve a problem?
Avoid being stubborn, but hold fast to your convictions.
Come to the group prepared, if preparation is necessary to your group’s
discussion.
Stick to the topic under discussion, unless deviation will further some purpose
which is acceptable to the group.
Speak clearly and with sufficient volume to be heard.
Use language appropriate to the occasion and to the sensibilities of the rest of
the group.
Be constantly aware of the total process of group dynamics, and gauge your
actions to be in tune with that process.
THE PROBLEM SOLVING STEPS
 Define
and analyze the problem
 Establish criteria for solutions
 Propose possible solutions
 Test solutions
 Construct a final solution and show how it
will be implemented