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Lesson 5 – The Excretory System It gets rid of wastes: solid waste from digestion (through the large intestine) carbon dioxide from cells (through the lungs) It gets rid of wastes: liquid waste from cells (through the kidneys, which filter wastes out of the blood and then produce urine) sweat (through the skin) Blood passes through the kidneys 60 times a day. The kidneys remove substances the body no longer needs and returns substances it does need. Nephron – part of the kidney where wastes are separated from useful materials Wastes can build up to dangerous levels. People with this problem need dialysis, a treatment where a machine does the job of the kidneys. Through the urinary system: Urine is released from the body. Through the skin: Sweat is released through tiny openings in the skin called pores.