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AP Art History Unit Sheet #5: Greek Art (Chapter 5) Mrs. Cook Greek Works of Art Style Geometric Orientalizing Archaic Early Classical or Severe Style Mature or High Classical Late Classical Hellenistic Page # 108 109 110 111 112/113 114 118 117 121 129 Name of Art Work 5‐2: Dipylon Vases (Ceramic) 5‐4: Bronze Mantiklos Apollo (figurine) 5‐5: Corinthian Amphora 5‐6: “Lady of Auxere” kore 5‐7: New York Kouros, 5‐9: Kroisos, from Anavysos 5‐10: Peplos Kore 5‐16: West Pediment from the Temple of Artemis at Corfu 5‐14: Temple of Hera I at Paestrum 5‐20 & 5‐21: Exekias, Achiles, and Ajax playing a dice game 5‐34: Kritios Boy Type of Art Work Vase/Sculpture Sculpture Vase/Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Architecture Architecture Vase/Sculpture Sculpture 129 131 132 134 135 137 138 139 141 142 145 146 147 148 151 151 155 157 158 158 160 161 162 5‐35: Riace Bronze warriors 5‐39: Diskobolos (Discus Thrower) 5‐40: Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) 5‐42 & 5‐43: Acropolis, Athens 5‐44: Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon 5‐48 & 5‐49: Parthenon pediment sculpture 5‐50: Parthenon Ionic frieze 5‐52: Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens 5‐55: Temple of Athena Nike, 5‐56: “Nike adjusting her sandal” 5‐57: Grave stele of Hegeso 5‐62: Aphrodite of Knidos 5‐63: Hermes and Infant Dionysos 5‐65: Apoxyomenos (Scraper) 5‐66: Farnese Herakles 5‐71: Theater of Epidauros 5‐72: Tholos, Epidauros 5‐78: Altar of Zeus 5‐80 & 5‐81: Dying Gaul/Dying Gaul and Wife 5‐82: Nike of Samothrace 5‐83: Venus of Milo 5‐86: Seated Boxer (bronze) 5‐87: Old Market Woman 5‐89: Laocoon (and his sons) Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Architecture Architecture Architecture Architecture Architecture Architecture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Architecture Architecture Architecture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Sculpture Preview: Ancient Greek culture forms the cornerstone of Western cultural tradition. Though the ancient Greeks inherited some practices and forms from Egypt and Mesopotamia, they developed a distinct artistic and architectural identity that had profound impact on every Western culture since their time. Ancient Greek culture spans from ca. 900 BCE to ca. 30 BCE, and is divided into periods—the Geometric and Orientalizing, the Archaic, the Early and High Classical, the Late Classical, and the Hellenistic—marked by the development and refinement of artistic styles and architectural form. The ancient Greeks excelled at vase painting and produced highly refined sculptures, but among the greatest Ancient Greek achievements is the perfection of the temple form, exemplified in the Parthenon, the High Classical‐
period temple dedicated to Athena on the Acropolis in Athens. The Hellenistic Period witnesses a transforming cultural sensibility in Greece, one marked by influence from Eastern cultures as well as an increased freedom of expression. The Roman Empire is in its ascendency by the end of the Hellenistic Period in 30 BCE, and its art and architecture reflect the profound influence of Greek culture. 1 AP Art History Unit Sheet #5: Greek Art (Chapter 5) Mrs. Cook Significant Historical Events •
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•
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Greeks win Second Persian War Peloponnesian Wars end Death of Alexander the Great Romans make Greece a colony 480 BCE 404 BCE 323 BCE c. 80 BCE Greek Sculpture Styles: Geometric Period Orientalizing Phase Black Figure Style Red Figure Styles White Figure Style (10th – 7th Centuries) (Early Archaic Period) (Late Archaic Period) th
rd
(6 – 3 Centuries) (5th Century > Hellenistic Period) Artists: Exekias Andokides Euphronios Euthmides Phiale Painter Vase Shapes with Names: Greek Drinking Vessels
A Hydria
D Amphora
B Lekythos
E Kylix
C Krater
F. Oinochoe
Techniques: Materials: Clay, slips, and glazes Types of Construction 1: Pottery wheel (‘throwing a pot”) 2: hand building (e.g coil or slab) 3. using a mold (or press) (including slip molds) Method of Construction: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: kneading clay to establish consistency and eliminate air pockets throwing pot on wheel or forming pot by coil, slab or molds applying a slip before clay of pot dries completely drying (slowing) to bring to “green ware” sage firing in kiln – called the bisque firing (can be the final firing if slip is painted on in step #3) glazing or applying slip to add color and shape (pattern) glaze firing to change chemical components of glaze/slips to colors 2 AP Art History Unit Sheet #5: Greek Art (Chapter 5) Mrs. Cook Greek Architecture Archaic Early Classical/Severe Mature/High Classical Late Classical Hellenistic 550 BCE 480 BCE 450 BCE 350 BCE 250 BCE c. 600‐500 BCE c. 400‐480 BCE c. 480‐404 BCE c. 404‐323 BCE c. 323‐80 BCE Orders of Architecture: Doric Order Abacus, echinus, necking, shaft (drum), fluting, metope, triglyph Ionic Order Abacus, volute, egg and dart, and base Corinthian Order Acanthus leaves Parts of temple façade Cornice, raking cornice, pediment, entablature, frieze, architrave, column (capital, shaft), stylobate, sterobate Temple Plan Cella/naos, peristyle Doric Proportions Ionic Proportions Corinthian Proportions Heights : diameter = 7:1 Column : entablature = 4:1 20 flutes/column Capital height = ½ column diameter Height : diameter = 9:1 Column : entablature = 5:1 24 flutes/column Capital height = ½ ‐ 1/3 column diameter Height : diameter = 10:1 Column : entablature = 5:1 24 flutes/column Capital height = column diameter 3 AP Art History Unit Sheet #5: Greek Art (Chapter 5) Mrs. Cook Greek Art Comparison Context History Context Ideas Sculpture in the Round Architecture Architectural Sculpture Descriptive Terms Classical Hellenistic •
Greeks und Athenian leadership conquer, • Alexander the Great builds on father’s (Phillip of invading Persian forces in 480 BCE Macedona) unification of the Greek peninsula • Athenians, under the leadership of Pericles • Sets out to conquer the known world – Greek political assume a dominant role in Delian League and cultural leadership established – but the empire and create animus with other city states also becomes more cosmopolitan • Peloponnesian war begins in 431 BCE and • Alexander dies 323 BCE – Hellenistic Period begins – last until 404 BCE for the defeat of Athenian
empire breaks up into separate kingdoms with Attilus I, by the Spartans – end of “golden Age” II, and II of Pergamon the strongest • Late Classical period ends with death of • Hellenistic period ends with Roman conquest in 31 BCE Alexander the Great in 323 BECE (or in 86 BCE with fall of Athens) Humanism Individualism
Idealism Realism Rationalism Empiricism Socrates/Plato/Aristotle Stoicism/Hedonism/Epicureanism Pythagoras Antiquarianism Pursuit of defining truth, beauty and goodness Practical and hedonistic approach to life Universal principles important Practical living standards important Rationalism – intellectual approach Emotions expressed Classical Late Classical Hellenistic
Polyclitus’ Canon Praxiteles’ Hermes and the Infant Epigonos’ Dying Gaul and Gaul and his wife Myron’s Athanadoros, Hagesandros Laocoon, Nike of Samothrace, Seated Dionysus Discobolos Boxer Lysippos’ Apoxymenos (Scaper) Parthenon Altar of Zeus Altar outside the temple Altar in enclosed space Columns of temple backdrop – stage Temple surrounds altar – depth Closed spacing of columns Open spacing of columns invite you into the space Traditional post and lintel (orders) respected Inversion of order of frieze and colonnade Colonnade is structure Colonnade is more decorative element Frieze variety to monotony of colonnade Colonnade provides regularity needed for complex Parthenon Friezes Altar of Zeus Frieze
Both have Athena as central figure and metaphorical battles depict to represent history Frieze – unity in regularity of metope/triglyphs
Unity in continuous motion of figures in frieze
Frieze of two figures in action on one place Many figures in action in several planes Melodrama (e.g. moments of death and pathos) Restrained drama – the heroic Variety (figures in variety of poses – many levels) Unity (e.g. isocephaly of continuous frieze Super humans – gigantomachy Human beings/Panathenaic Festival Man is engulfed in storms and stress of grim circumstances Relates to matters of fate – mythological stories beyond their control become metaphors for Athenian pride Self contained Unemotional
Emotions charged
Superhuman figures
Universal Ideal/idealism Exaggeration Realism Calm Canon on proportion Melodrama Histrionic Balance Vertical/horizontal Movement Diagonal Symmetry Order Asymmetry Chaos Shallow space Simple gestures Deeper space Theatrical gestures Ideal of beauty Grace individual Idiosyncratic/specie 4 AP Art History Unit Sheet #5: Greek Art (Chapter 5) Mrs. Cook Greek Philosophy Plato’s and Aristotle’s ideas regarding visual art’s relationship to the concept of THE IDEAL Plato: • Art is thrice removed from the ideal • Since art imitates reality (nature) • And reality (nature) is, in turn, an imitation of the idea • Then art is three times removed from the idea….. Aristotle: art should be a presentation of one of three possibilities: 1. Better than real life (idealism) 2. The same as real life (realism) 3. Worse than real life (caricature) For Pythagoras • The discovery of mathematical ratios of musical intervals is critical to the definition of Art and Beauty • The belief that the universe was founded on rational (harmonic) principles (“all things are numbers”) • The belief that beneath (beyond) the world of appearances there was an underlying permanent order of the universe based on logic and reason (and numbers/ratios) • The belief that through knowledge (investigation) one could unlock the logic of the universe • The belief that there was such a thing as perfection – the ideal and universal truths • The belief that the greatest error, then, was to lack knowledge – ignorance Realism vs. Abstraction Visual art seen as the imitation of nature – mimesis: “the imitation or representation of nature” – both internal human nature and the external environment Representation of Nature in Greek Art Realism (concretion) Abstraction Rendering actual, tangible objects with all their particular Elimination of all extraneous accessories and and peculiar characteristics concentrating on the essential qualities of things Objects as they appear to the mind’s eye Objects as they appear to the physical eye Emphasis on nature Emphasis on the imagination The world of appearance The world of essences What is real What is ideal 5