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AP World Period 2
Study online at quizlet.com/_4fet1
1.
Achaemenids
the name for the Persian Kings
2.
Acropolis
a hilltop where citizens sought refuge,
3.
Agora
a gathering place where citizens came
together to ratify decisions of their leaders,
government buildings were here, also
centered into a market place.
4.
Ahuramazda
The chief deity of Zoroastrianism. Engaged in
struggle between with Angra Mainyu.
5.
Alexander
King of Macedonia in northern Greece.
Between 334 and 323 BCE he conquered the
Persian empire, reached the Indus valley,
founded many Greek style cities, and spread
Greek culture across the Middle East.
6.
7.
Alexandria
Aqueducts
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. It
became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom
of the Ptolemies. It contained the Library and
Museum.
A conduit, either elevated or underground,
that used gravity to carry water from a sources
to a location- usually a city- that needed it.
The Romans built many in a period of
substantial urbanization.
8.
Archilochus
a soldier and poet living in the first half of the
seventh century BCE. Made fun of that
dishonor is worse than death.
9.
Aristotle
studied at Academy, tutored Alexander (The
Great) at the Lyceum, lectured about vast
array of topics
10.
Armenia
One of earliest Christian kingdoms, situated
in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus
and occupied by speakers of the Armenian
language
11.
Ashoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India.
He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his
precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the
earliest surviving Indian writing.
12.
Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the
Roman Principate, the military dictatorship
that replaced the failing rule of the Roman
Senate. After defeating all rivals, between 31
BCE and 14 CE, he laid the groundwork for
several centuries of stability and prosperity
13.
Avataras
incarnations, ways that Vishnu could appear
on Earth
14.
Bantu
Collective name of large group of subSaharan African languages and of the people
speaking these languages
BhagavadGita
The most important work of Indian scared
literature that contains a dialogue between
the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna
on duty and the fare of the spirit.
15.
16.
Bodhisattvas
men and women who had achieved
enlightenment and were on the threshold of
nirvana but chose to be reborn into mortal
bodies to help others along the path to
salvation
17.
Bosporus
a strait connecting the Mediterranean and the
Black Sea
18.
Brahmin
Comprising of priests and scholars in India
19.
Cambyses
Cyrus's son that took over when he died. He
set his sights on Egypt.
20.
Chang'an
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It
became the capital of the Qin and early Han
Empires. Its main features were imitated in
the cities and town that sprang up throughout
the Han Empire.
21.
Constantine
Roman Emperor (312-337). After reuniting the
Roman Empire,he moved the capital to
Constantinople and made Christianity a
favored religion
22.
Cyrus
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.
Between 550-530 BCE he conquered Media,
Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions
of both Iran and the subject peoples, he
employed Persians and Medes in his
administration and respected the institutions
and beliefs of subject peoples.
23.
Darius I
Third ruler of the Persian Empire. He crushed
the widespread initial resistance to his rule
and gave all major government posts to
Persians rather than to Medes. He established
a system of provinces and tribute, began
construction of Persepolis, and expanded
Persian control in the east and west.
24.
Dark Age
After the destruction of the Mycenaean
palaces-states, the Greeks entered a period of
time in which there was no written materials,
conditions were poor, and needed reform
25.
Dasa
the slaves in India
26.
Democracy
System of government in which all "citizens"
have equal political and legal rights,
privileges, and protections, as in the Greek
City-State of Athens,
27.
Diocletian
came from one of the eastern European
provinces most vulnerable to invasion, pulled
the Roman empire out of the crisis by
changing many parts of the government
28.
Equites
In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second
in wealth and status to the senatorial
aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with
this group to counterbalance the influence of the
old aristocracy and used them to staff the
imperial civil service.
41.
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have
written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
42.
Hoplite
A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the
Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the
close packed phalanx formation. These militias
composed of middle and upper class citizens
supplying their own equipment were superior for
centuries.
43.
Jainism
Religion that emphasizes the holiness of the life
force animating all living creatures, practice
strict nonviolence, and wore masks to prevent
insect inhaling
29.
Eretria
a mainland Greek city-state that aided the Ionian
rebels, betrayed by the Persians, survivors exiled
30.
Ethiopia
East African high-land nation lying east of the
Nile River.
31.
Funan
An early complex society in Southeast Asia
between the first and sixth centuries CE. It was
centered in the rich rice-growing region of
souther Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of
trade across the malaysian isthmus.
44.
Jati
Gaius
Julius
Caesar
most brilliant Roman general, led the conquest
of Gaul and the Celts (the first territorial gain
into Europe's heartland)
make up different Varna. Regional groups of
people who have a common occupation sphere
and who marry, eat, and generally interact with
other members of their group.
45.
Jesus
33.
Gaozu
The throne name of Liu Bang, one of the rebel
leaders who brought down the Qin and founded
the Han dynasty in 202 BCE.
34.
Gentry
In China, the class of prosperous families, next
in wealth below the rural aristocrats, form which
the emperors drew their administrative
personnel. Respected for their education and
expertise, these officials became a privileged
group and made the government more efficient
and responsive than in the past.
A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who
sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices.
He was executed as a revolutionary by the
Romans. Hailed as the Messiah and son of God
by his followers, he became the central figure in
Christianity.
46.
Kshatriyas
warriors and officials in ancient India
47.
Latifundia
"broad estates" or ranches that took over small
self-sufficient farms that were the backbones of
the Roman legions.
48.
Li Si
the Legalist prime minister that persuaded Shi
Huangdi that the (Confucian) scholars were
subverting the goals of the regime. (Qin
Dynasty)
Mauryan
Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian
subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta
Maurya in 324 BCE and survived until 184 BCE.
From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges
Valley it grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture,
iron mining, and control of trade routes.
Middle
Path
in Buddhism, not torturing oneself or spoiling
oneself, moderation
51.
Moksha
The hindu concept of the spirit's "liberation"
from the endless cycle of rebirths. There are
various avenues by which the spirt can distance
itself from desire fro the things of this world and
be merged with the divine force that anti mates
the universe.
52.
Monsoon
Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by
the differences in temperature between the
rapidly heating and cooling land masses of
Africa Asia and the slowly changing ocean
waters. These strong and unpredictable winds
have long been ridden across the open sea by
sailors and the large amounts of rainfall allow
for the cultivation of several crops a year.
32.
35.
36.
37.
Great
Traditions
Historians term for a literate, wellinstitutionalized complex of religious and social
beliefs and practices adhered to by diverse
societies over a broad geographical area.
Gupta
Empire
A powerful Indian state, like its predecessor,
based on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges
Valley. It controlled most of the Indian
subcontinent through a combination of military
force.
Han
A term used to designate the ethnic Chinese
people who originated in the Yellow River Valley
and spread throughout regions of China suitable
for agriculture and they dynasty of emperors who
ruled from 202 BCE to 200 CE.
38.
Hellenes
term used to distinguish Greeks from barbaroi
(barbarians)
39.
Helots
Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly
destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.
40.
Herodotus
Heir to the technique of historia
(investigation/research) developed by Greeks in
the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek
community in Anatolia and traveled extensively,
collecting information in western Asia and the
Mediterranean lands.
49.
50.
53.
Parthians
Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 BCE
and 226 BCE
54.
Paul
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in
Anatolia, he initially persecuted the
followers of Jesus but, after receiving a
revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus,
he became a Christian. He traveled
throughout Syria-Palestine, Anatolia, and
Greece, preaching the new religion and
established churches.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
Pax Deorum
Pax Romana
Means peace of the gods, a covenant
between the gods and the Roman state,.
"Roman Peace", it connoted the stability and
prosperity that Roman rule brought to the
lands of the Roman Empire in the first two
centuries CE. The movement of people and
trade goods along Roman roads and safe
seas allowed for the spread of cultural
practices, technologies, and religious ideas.
Peloponnese
the southernmost part of the Greek
mainland
Peloponnesian
War
A protracted and costly conflict between the
Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that
convulsed most of the Greek world. The war
was largely a consequence of Athenian
imperialism. Sparta defeated Athens with
financial support from others.
Pericles
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian
state through the transformation to pull
participatory democracy for all male citizens
, supervised construction of the Acropolis,
and pursued a policy of imperial expansion
that led to the Peloponnesian War.
64.
Phoenicians
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the
coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the
first millennium BCE. From major cities such
as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants
and sailors explored the Mediterranean,
engaged i widespraed commerce, and
founded Carthage.
65.
Plato
One Socrates' student, founded the first
school (Academy), used "Socratic Method",
literate, wrote down thoughts but not the
advanced stages of the training
66.
Polis
The Greek term for a city-state, an urban
center and the agricultural territory under its
control. It was the characteristic form of
political organization in southern and
central Greece in the Archaic and Classical
periods.
67.
Principate
A term used to characterize Roman
government in the first three centuries CE,
based on the ambiguous title princeps
adopted by Augustus to conceal his military
dictatorship
68.
Ptolemies
The Macedonian dynasty, descended from
one of Alexander the Great's officers, that
ruled Egypt for three centuries. From their
magnificent capital at Alexandria on the
Mediterranean coast, they took over the
system created by Egyptian pharaohs to
extract the wealth of the land.
69.
Puja
a common form of worship, service to the
deity, which can take the form of bathing,
clothing, or feeding the statue
70.
Qin
A people and state in the Wei Valley of
eastern China that conquered rival states and
created the frist Chinse empire.Framework
used for future dynasties.
60.
Persepolis
A complex of palaces, reception halls, and
treasury buildings erected by Darius I and
Xerxes in the Persian Homeland.
61.
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the
Persian Empire. Three different battles were
fought.
71.
Republic
The period from 507 to 31 BCE, during which
Rome was largely governed by the
aristocratic Roman Senate
62.
Persians
Ethnic group that settled in what is now
Iran. They were rivals for control of
Mesopotamia with the Greeks, and later the
Arabs.
72.
Romanization
63.
Phillip II
transformed his previously backward
kingdom of Macedonia into the premier
military power in the Greek world, enhanced
hoplite army, assassinated, father of
Alexander the Great
The process by which the Latin language
and Roman culture became dominant in the
western provinces. Indigenous peoples in the
provinces often chose to do this because it
offered political and economical advantages.
73.
Sacrifice
A gift given to a deity, often with the aim of
creating a relationship, gaining favor, and
obligating the god to provide some benefit to
the community, sometimes in order to
sustain the deity and thereby guarantee the
continuing vitality of the natural world.
74.
Sahel
Belt south of the Sahara; literally "coastland"
in Arabic
75.
Sati
a form of ritual in which a widow was expected
to cremate herself on her husband's funeral pyre,
was seen as a way of keeping a women "pure".
76.
Satrap
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid
Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He
was responsible for protection of the province
and forwarding tribute to the central
administration.
77.
78.
Senate
Shi
Huangdi
A council whose members were the heads of
wealthy, landowning families. Originally an
advisory body to the early kings, in the Roman
Republic they effectively governed the Roman
State.
Founder of the short-lived Qin Dynasty and
creator of the Chinese EMpire. He is remembered
for his ruthless conquests of rival states,
standardization of practices, and forcible
organization of labor for military and
engineering tasks. His tomb, with its army of life
size terra-cotta soldiers has been partially
excavated.
Tamil
Kingdoms
The kingdoms of southern India, inhabited
primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages,
which developed in partial isolation, and
somewhat differently, from the Arya north. They
produced epics, poetry, and performance arts.
ThirdCentury
Crisis
Historian' term for the political, military, and
economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire
during much of the third century CE. Frequent
changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian
invasions, decline of urban centers, and neardestruction of long-distance commerce and the
monetary economy.
89.
Thucydides
ancient Greek historian remembered for his
history of the Peloponnesian War (460-395 BC)
90.
Tribunes
new officials created during the Republic that
were drawn from the non elite classes and who
could veto, or block,, actions of the Assembly or
officials that threatened the interest of the lower
class
91.
Trireme
Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and
fourth centuries BCE. It was sleek and light and
powered by 170 oars. Skilled sailors allowed
short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers.
87.
88.
79.
Shudra
labors and peasants in India.
80.
Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle
East across Central Asia and Iran
92.
Tuareg
Chief astrologer for the Han dynasty emperor
Wu. He composed a monumental history of
China from its legendary origins to his own time
and is regarded as the Chinese "father of history"
a member of a Berber people of the western and
central Sahara, living mainly in Algeria, Mali,
Niger, and western Libya, traditionally as
nomadic pastoralists.
93.
Tyrant
Historian's term for a localized, usually non
literate, set of customs and beliefs adhered to by a
single society, often in conjunction with a "great
tradition"
The term the Greeks used to describe someone
who seized and held power in violation of the
normal procedures and traditions of the
community.
94.
Vaishya
the merchants, artisans, and landowners in
India
95.
Varna
A category of social identity of great importance.
This contains four major social divisions: The
Brahmin (Priests), the Kshatriyas (Warrior),
the Vaishya (Merchant), and the Shudra
(Laborers).
96.
Vedas
Early Indian scared "knowledge" long preserved
and communicated orally by Brahmin priests
and eventually written down. These religious
texts are the main source information for this
age.
Wang
Mang
a official who broke the long sequence of Han
rulers by seizing power. He implemented major
reforms to address serious economic problem.
He was also besieged in his palace and killed
and replaced by someone of the Han family
81.
82.
83.
Sima Qian
Small
Traditions
Socrates
Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis
of philosophical investigation from questions of
natural science to ethics and human behavior.
He attracted young disciples from elite families
but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and
pretensions of others, culminating in his trial
and execution by the Athenian state.
84.
Steppes
Treeless plains, especially the high, flat
expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually
have little rain and are covered with coarse
grass. They are good lands for nomads and their
herds.
85.
Stirrup
Device for securing a horseman's feet, enabling
him to wield weapons more effectively. First
evidence of the use of stirrups was among the
Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in
approximately the first century CE.
86.
Stupas
large earthen mounds symbolizing the universe,
creating over relics of the cremated founder
97.
98.
Xenophanes
called into question the kind of gods that Homer had popularized, rejected the religious practices
99.
Xerxes
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in
480 B.C.
100.
Xiongnu
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a
variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these"barbarians".
101.
Zoroastrianism
A religion originating in ancient Iran that become the official religion of the Achaemenids. It centered on a single
benevolent deity, Ahuramazda, who engaged in a struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a
pristine world. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature.