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AP World Period 2 Study online at quizlet.com/_4fet1 1. Achaemenids the name for the Persian Kings 2. Acropolis a hilltop where citizens sought refuge, 3. Agora a gathering place where citizens came together to ratify decisions of their leaders, government buildings were here, also centered into a market place. 4. Ahuramazda The chief deity of Zoroastrianism. Engaged in struggle between with Angra Mainyu. 5. Alexander King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 BCE he conquered the Persian empire, reached the Indus valley, founded many Greek style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. 6. 7. Alexandria Aqueducts City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the Library and Museum. A conduit, either elevated or underground, that used gravity to carry water from a sources to a location- usually a city- that needed it. The Romans built many in a period of substantial urbanization. 8. Archilochus a soldier and poet living in the first half of the seventh century BCE. Made fun of that dishonor is worse than death. 9. Aristotle studied at Academy, tutored Alexander (The Great) at the Lyceum, lectured about vast array of topics 10. Armenia One of earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language 11. Ashoka Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India. He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. 12. Augustus Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. After defeating all rivals, between 31 BCE and 14 CE, he laid the groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity 13. Avataras incarnations, ways that Vishnu could appear on Earth 14. Bantu Collective name of large group of subSaharan African languages and of the people speaking these languages BhagavadGita The most important work of Indian scared literature that contains a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fare of the spirit. 15. 16. Bodhisattvas men and women who had achieved enlightenment and were on the threshold of nirvana but chose to be reborn into mortal bodies to help others along the path to salvation 17. Bosporus a strait connecting the Mediterranean and the Black Sea 18. Brahmin Comprising of priests and scholars in India 19. Cambyses Cyrus's son that took over when he died. He set his sights on Egypt. 20. Chang'an City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and town that sprang up throughout the Han Empire. 21. Constantine Roman Emperor (312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire,he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion 22. Cyrus Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550-530 BCE he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beliefs of subject peoples. 23. Darius I Third ruler of the Persian Empire. He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes. He established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of Persepolis, and expanded Persian control in the east and west. 24. Dark Age After the destruction of the Mycenaean palaces-states, the Greeks entered a period of time in which there was no written materials, conditions were poor, and needed reform 25. Dasa the slaves in India 26. Democracy System of government in which all "citizens" have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek City-State of Athens, 27. Diocletian came from one of the eastern European provinces most vulnerable to invasion, pulled the Roman empire out of the crisis by changing many parts of the government 28. Equites In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counterbalance the influence of the old aristocracy and used them to staff the imperial civil service. 41. Homer ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC) 42. Hoplite A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close packed phalanx formation. These militias composed of middle and upper class citizens supplying their own equipment were superior for centuries. 43. Jainism Religion that emphasizes the holiness of the life force animating all living creatures, practice strict nonviolence, and wore masks to prevent insect inhaling 29. Eretria a mainland Greek city-state that aided the Ionian rebels, betrayed by the Persians, survivors exiled 30. Ethiopia East African high-land nation lying east of the Nile River. 31. Funan An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries CE. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of souther Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the malaysian isthmus. 44. Jati Gaius Julius Caesar most brilliant Roman general, led the conquest of Gaul and the Celts (the first territorial gain into Europe's heartland) make up different Varna. Regional groups of people who have a common occupation sphere and who marry, eat, and generally interact with other members of their group. 45. Jesus 33. Gaozu The throne name of Liu Bang, one of the rebel leaders who brought down the Qin and founded the Han dynasty in 202 BCE. 34. Gentry In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, form which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. Respected for their education and expertise, these officials became a privileged group and made the government more efficient and responsive than in the past. A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. Hailed as the Messiah and son of God by his followers, he became the central figure in Christianity. 46. Kshatriyas warriors and officials in ancient India 47. Latifundia "broad estates" or ranches that took over small self-sufficient farms that were the backbones of the Roman legions. 48. Li Si the Legalist prime minister that persuaded Shi Huangdi that the (Confucian) scholars were subverting the goals of the regime. (Qin Dynasty) Mauryan Empire The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 BCE and survived until 184 BCE. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining, and control of trade routes. Middle Path in Buddhism, not torturing oneself or spoiling oneself, moderation 51. Moksha The hindu concept of the spirit's "liberation" from the endless cycle of rebirths. There are various avenues by which the spirt can distance itself from desire fro the things of this world and be merged with the divine force that anti mates the universe. 52. Monsoon Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling land masses of Africa Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters. These strong and unpredictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors and the large amounts of rainfall allow for the cultivation of several crops a year. 32. 35. 36. 37. Great Traditions Historians term for a literate, wellinstitutionalized complex of religious and social beliefs and practices adhered to by diverse societies over a broad geographical area. Gupta Empire A powerful Indian state, like its predecessor, based on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force. Han A term used to designate the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and they dynasty of emperors who ruled from 202 BCE to 200 CE. 38. Hellenes term used to distinguish Greeks from barbaroi (barbarians) 39. Helots Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E. 40. Herodotus Heir to the technique of historia (investigation/research) developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. 49. 50. 53. Parthians Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 BCE and 226 BCE 54. Paul A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, he became a Christian. He traveled throughout Syria-Palestine, Anatolia, and Greece, preaching the new religion and established churches. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. Pax Deorum Pax Romana Means peace of the gods, a covenant between the gods and the Roman state,. "Roman Peace", it connoted the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries CE. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas. Peloponnese the southernmost part of the Greek mainland Peloponnesian War A protracted and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Sparta defeated Athens with financial support from others. Pericles Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to pull participatory democracy for all male citizens , supervised construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War. 64. Phoenicians Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium BCE. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, engaged i widespraed commerce, and founded Carthage. 65. Plato One Socrates' student, founded the first school (Academy), used "Socratic Method", literate, wrote down thoughts but not the advanced stages of the training 66. Polis The Greek term for a city-state, an urban center and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic form of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods. 67. Principate A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries CE, based on the ambiguous title princeps adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship 68. Ptolemies The Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great's officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries. From their magnificent capital at Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast, they took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land. 69. Puja a common form of worship, service to the deity, which can take the form of bathing, clothing, or feeding the statue 70. Qin A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the frist Chinse empire.Framework used for future dynasties. 60. Persepolis A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian Homeland. 61. Persian Wars Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire. Three different battles were fought. 71. Republic The period from 507 to 31 BCE, during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate 62. Persians Ethnic group that settled in what is now Iran. They were rivals for control of Mesopotamia with the Greeks, and later the Arabs. 72. Romanization 63. Phillip II transformed his previously backward kingdom of Macedonia into the premier military power in the Greek world, enhanced hoplite army, assassinated, father of Alexander the Great The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces. Indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose to do this because it offered political and economical advantages. 73. Sacrifice A gift given to a deity, often with the aim of creating a relationship, gaining favor, and obligating the god to provide some benefit to the community, sometimes in order to sustain the deity and thereby guarantee the continuing vitality of the natural world. 74. Sahel Belt south of the Sahara; literally "coastland" in Arabic 75. Sati a form of ritual in which a widow was expected to cremate herself on her husband's funeral pyre, was seen as a way of keeping a women "pure". 76. Satrap The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and forwarding tribute to the central administration. 77. 78. Senate Shi Huangdi A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the Roman Republic they effectively governed the Roman State. Founder of the short-lived Qin Dynasty and creator of the Chinese EMpire. He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices, and forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks. His tomb, with its army of life size terra-cotta soldiers has been partially excavated. Tamil Kingdoms The kingdoms of southern India, inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Arya north. They produced epics, poetry, and performance arts. ThirdCentury Crisis Historian' term for the political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century CE. Frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and neardestruction of long-distance commerce and the monetary economy. 89. Thucydides ancient Greek historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War (460-395 BC) 90. Tribunes new officials created during the Republic that were drawn from the non elite classes and who could veto, or block,, actions of the Assembly or officials that threatened the interest of the lower class 91. Trireme Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. It was sleek and light and powered by 170 oars. Skilled sailors allowed short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers. 87. 88. 79. Shudra labors and peasants in India. 80. Silk Road Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran 92. Tuareg Chief astrologer for the Han dynasty emperor Wu. He composed a monumental history of China from its legendary origins to his own time and is regarded as the Chinese "father of history" a member of a Berber people of the western and central Sahara, living mainly in Algeria, Mali, Niger, and western Libya, traditionally as nomadic pastoralists. 93. Tyrant Historian's term for a localized, usually non literate, set of customs and beliefs adhered to by a single society, often in conjunction with a "great tradition" The term the Greeks used to describe someone who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community. 94. Vaishya the merchants, artisans, and landowners in India 95. Varna A category of social identity of great importance. This contains four major social divisions: The Brahmin (Priests), the Kshatriyas (Warrior), the Vaishya (Merchant), and the Shudra (Laborers). 96. Vedas Early Indian scared "knowledge" long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. These religious texts are the main source information for this age. Wang Mang a official who broke the long sequence of Han rulers by seizing power. He implemented major reforms to address serious economic problem. He was also besieged in his palace and killed and replaced by someone of the Han family 81. 82. 83. Sima Qian Small Traditions Socrates Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian state. 84. Steppes Treeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. 85. Stirrup Device for securing a horseman's feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of stirrups was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century CE. 86. Stupas large earthen mounds symbolizing the universe, creating over relics of the cremated founder 97. 98. Xenophanes called into question the kind of gods that Homer had popularized, rejected the religious practices 99. Xerxes son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C. 100. Xiongnu A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these"barbarians". 101. Zoroastrianism A religion originating in ancient Iran that become the official religion of the Achaemenids. It centered on a single benevolent deity, Ahuramazda, who engaged in a struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature.