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The American Civil War
Acquisition of Federal Forts…
Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter Map
Lincoln’s Plan
Can’t abandon the fort
Lincoln showed political and tactical brilliance
Lincoln maneuvered the situation so that if fighting ensued,
the Confederates would have to fire the first shot.
Confederate Reaction
Push to surrender
On April 12 at 4:30am,
Confederate leader PT
Beauregard opened
Southern Secession
 The
remaining Southern states seceded
shortly after this
Virginia – April 1861
Arkansas & North Carolina – May 1861
Tennessee – June 1861
Stars and Bars: First Flag
of the Confederacy
Southern Reaction to War
Choosing Sides
Southern War-Time Production
Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Va
Lincoln’s Reaction to Ft. Sumter
Called for 75,000 troops ***
Anaconda Plan - naval blockade
Made efforts to secure the border states
Suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus ***
Mobilized the army
His goal is to preserve the Union
*** considered unconstitutional
by some
Constitutionality – How did Lincoln
pull this off?
Both increasing the size of the army (Article I,
Sec 8, Pgh 14-15) and suspension of Habeas
Corpus (Article I, Sec 9, Pgh 2) are powers
granted to Congress, not the President
Congress would not return to session until July
Lincoln cited gravity of situation
He had to make a call
When Congress returned they supported Lincoln
Military Action – Summer 1861
 Newspapers
called for an attack
 Lincoln put some heat on his
commanding general
Bull Run I – July 61
Picnic at the battlefield
 The Union had early
 Thomas “Stonewall”
 Reinforcements
 Rebel Yell
 The Great Skedaddle
 5,000 casualties
Limited War
McClellan Makes an Impact
Aug 1861 –
McClellan takes over
and found the army
in shambles
McClellan turning
them into an
organized army
called him “Young
Lincoln was pleased
with his initial results
He would prove to be
a timid and
ineffective leader
West in Early 1862
Union Victory at Shiloh (Apr) – cuts Tenn in half
1st of the bloody battles – 23,000 casualties
Grant just wins, baby!
Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans
 The Union was on the move in the West
 They had captured the Northern and Southern
portions of the Mississippi River, but the South
still controlled a stronghold at Vicksburg
Road to Emancipation
Several considerations were involved in the emancipation decision
Lincoln was convinced emancipation was …
• legitimate war power
• military necessity for preservation of Union
Difficult for European nations to recognize the Confederacy
He felt the border states would remain in the Union
Lincoln drafted the Emancipation Proclamation on July 13, 1862.
After considering that McClellan was making no progress in Virginia
and the armies in the west were encountering issues in
William Seward suggested that they wait for a Union victory
Antietam – Sept 1862
Lee advances into Union territory - Maryland
 Bloodiest day in American history
 Oct 1862 photographer Mathew Brady opened
an exhibit in NYC called “The Dead of Antietam”
Homefront got to see what war was like
Lee retreated, but both sides suffered
 McClellan did not pursue
Lincoln ordered him to pursue, McClellan did not
Lincoln relieved McClellan of command
Preliminary Emancipation
 Antietam
was a Union victory
Announced the Emancipation Proclamation
on September 22
Any slave in a state still in rebellion would be
free effective January 1, 1863
Reactions to the Emancipation
Abolitionists and freemen - did not go far enough
Southern Unionists - betrayed
Republicans - pleased
Democrats - a war to free the slaves now, a perversion
of the true war effort
South - outraged
Neither France nor England were interested in opposing
the Union now
Gettysburg, Pa – July 1863
Day 1 – Union holds the high ground
Day 2 – Lee fails to dislodge Union – Round Tops
Day 3 – Pickett’s Charge
51,000 men were lost
 23,000 Union
 28,000 Confederate
Lee retreated the next day and would never go north
Meade did not pursue
Every day since late May, Grant pounded the city with artillery as did
Adm. David Porter on his gunboats on the Mississippi
Civilians dug caves into the hillside
People ate dogs and horses
On July 4, after 48 days under siege, the Confederates surrendered
the city
31,000 rebels were captured
Mississippi was in the Union’s control
Texas and Arkansas were cut off from the Confederacy
Gettysburg and Vicksburg were decided within a day of eachother.
Turning Point Battles
First Federal Draft
In July 1863, Lincoln issued the first federal draft
20-45 yr olds
Lincoln claimed it was within Congresses power to institute a draft
Some judges allowed drafted men to avoid service, but Lincoln threatened
to arrest any judge that interfered with the draft
How to avoid getting drafted
Pay $300 or
Find a sub
It was a rich man’s bill.
In the end, 164,000 men were drafted – less than 10% of the army
Grant Takes Over in 1864
 Total
War is engaged
 Grant forces Lee toward Richmond
Grant takes tremendous losses
 Sherman
Held at Atlanta until Sept 1864
Election of 1864
Abe Lincoln is reelected by almost all states crushing McClellan and
confirming that the Union is behind the idea of victory.
Sherman’s and Sheridan’s victories changed the odds.
Lincoln won 55% of the popular vote.
Electoral college - 212-21
He carried all but 3 states, Del, NJ, Ky.
Virtually all of the Army of the Potomac (McClellan’s old command)
voted for Lincoln
This election was the last, best hope for the South
Death Blows
 Sherman’s
March to the Sea – late 64 –
early 65
 Siege at Petersburg broken – Grant hunts
Lee down
Appomattox – Apr 65
 Lincoln
shot a week later
John Wilkes Booth