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Exploration and Expansion
1400 – 1700
Voyages of Discovery
Conquest and Colonies
New Patterns of Trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade
•Between 1400’s and 1700’s, a new world opened up for
•Sailors set out on great voyages of discovery to lands
that the people of Europe had not previously known
•As news of the discoveries spread, countries scrambled
to claim new lands, setting up colonies in hopes of gaining
wealth and power.
1200 - 1800
1. Voyages of Discovery
Pre Columbian Map of the Known world
During the 1400’s and 1500’s, European explorers sailed to many
previously unknown lands
Inspired by greed, curiosity, and desire for glory
Aided by improvements in technologies
1200 - 1800
Drive for European Exploration
Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. Want
to trade spices, silks, perfume, and jade from China and
Renaissance  a spirit of discovery and innovation had
been awakened in Europe that led to a spirit led
Europeans to set sail on voyages of discovery to find new
lands or new routes to places already known
Reformation  refugees & missionaries. Want to spread
their religious beliefs to new lands and spread Christian
Nation –states – strong centralized governments -Monarchs, kings and queens, seeking new sources of
revenue and more power
Technological advances made in compasses, maps and
ships led to rediscovery.
Fame and Fortune – imagine discovery or being the first
on Mars, oh wait you already are aliens
1200 - 1800
New Maritime Technologies
•The Rediscovery of the New World (Vikings in AD
1000) in the 15th century would not have happened
without key advancements in technology.
►Hartman Astrolabe
(1532) – used to
determine precise location
and direction based on the
sun and the stars in
relation to the horizon
►Better Maps [Portulan] –
advances made in map
making allowed explorers to
track their explorations
►Mariner’s Compass –
let sailors know at any
time which direction was
►Sextant – used to
determine the
altitude of a celestial
object above the
1200 - 1800
New Weapons Technology
►Caravel – a light,
fast sailing ship that
was equipped with
weapons, including
►Based on its
maneuverability and
defensive ability, the
caravel quickly became
the most popular ship
for exploratory
►The invention of the
gun powder for the
Chinese allowed
Europeans to create
weapons to overpower
their opposition
1200 - 1800
2. Conquest and Colonies
Portugal and Spain share the Iberian Peninsula, the
westernmost extent of continental Europe and the
closest to the New World
Two countries that kicked off the age of exploration
1200 - 1800
T he Portuguese
Portugal was the first
country to launch large-scale
voyages of exploration
Prince Henry the Navigator –
son of King John I
School for Navigation, 1419 –
he established a small court
to which he brought sailors,
mapmakers, astronomers, and
others who were interested
in navigation
1200 - 1800
Museum of Navigation
in Lisbon, Portugal
•From this court, Henry
sent expeditions west
to the islands in the
Atlantic and south to
explore the western
coast of Africa
•Settled the Azores
and Madeira Islands in
the Atlantic Ocean
•Learned a great deal
about coast of Africa,
including gold and slave
1200 - 1800
Discoveries of Islands in the
The Canary Islands
These islands are located immediately off the
coast of Africa.
Portugal signed an agreement with Spain, known
as the Treaty of Alcacovas, in 1479, which
allowed Spain to use the Canary Islands.
The Azores Islands
These islands are located approximately 1200
miles from the Iberian Peninsula.
These nation-states are one-third of the way to
the New World.
1200 - 1800
Portuguese Maritime Empire
in A frica
Exploring the west coast of Africa.
Bartolomeo Dias, 1487 – first European to attempt to
sail around the southern tip of Africa, a point known
today as the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama, 1498 – set out and reached Calicut,
Pedro Cabral – he and his men discovered Brazil
5. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca,
1200 - 1800
The Spanish
Like Portugal, Spain was eager to seek out new routes to
the riches of the East
Once the Spanish drove out the African Muslims, the
Moors, they began their conquest of the New World and
quickly overpowered Portugal
1492 – King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, agreed to pay
for a voyage by an Italian sailor Christopher Columbus
1200 - 1800
Christofo Colon [1451-1506]
•He believed that he could sail
west from Spain to reach China
•He had no idea that the
Americas existed
•When he reached the Caribbean,
he thought he had reached India,
and as a result, he called the
natives, Indians
1200 - 1800
T he Admiral of T he Atlantic
•Each journey was on average was out to sea for about three
months. He kept two journals.
•First Voyage – the Caribbean
•He reached Watling Island (San Salvador). He left and went
to Hispaniola (Haiti) and set up the first Spanish colony called
•He called the natives, Indians.
•He found no gold and returned to Spain.
•Second Voyage
•He landed on Cuba, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico on his
second voyage.
•He found no gold and returned home.
•Third Voyage
•He landed on the mainland of South America. (the mouth of
the Orinoco River)
•He found no gold and returned home.
•Fourth Voyage
•He landed on Central America on his fourth trip. Once again,
he found no gold.
•He returned home and died in 1504.
1200 - 1800
’Four Voyages on Map
1200 - 1800
Americus Vespucci
He was an early accountant from the Italian Peninsula.
He represented rich Italian merchants who invested in
Spanish colonization.
He was sent to Spain to see how the money was being
He took a voyage to the New World, returned to Spain,
and wrote of his adventure.
In 1507, Martin Waldseemuller, a mapmaker from
modern day Germany, suggested that the area Vespucci
wrote about be called, Americ’s land, or America, in his
honor, and the designation was soon accepted all over
1200 - 1800
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
In 1513, Balboa crossed Central America and named
the sea, the Pacific Ocean.
The king and the queen named him Admiral of the
Ferdinand Magellan
• In1519, Magellan left Spain
with a fleet of five ships.
• Not being able to find any
transcontinental passage, he
was forced to sail through
the straits that now bear his
• There followed a long
journey across the Pacific
Ocean to the Philippines
Islands, where Magellan was
killed in a skirmish with the
• One of his ships did sail
westward around the Cape of
Good Hope and finally
returned to Spain in 1522.
The earth had been
1200 - 1800
1200 - 1800
Other Voyages of Exploration
1200 - 1800
The French
Giovanni da Verrazano (1524)
He was an Italian who sailed for France.
He sailed up and down the North America coast
somewhere near present-day Carolinas to what is
now Maine.
Jacques Cartier (1534-1542)
He explored the St. Lawrence River.
He made his way inland via the river.
Samuel de Champlain (1603-1615)
He explored the St Lawrence as well.
He founded Quebec.
1200 - 1800
The English
John and Sebastian Cabot (1497-1501)
In 1497, King Henry VII sponsored a westward voyage
to Asia by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto).
He failed to find a passageway to Asia from the west,
but he did reach the mainland of North America, in the
area of Newfoundland, which gave England its claim.
Sir Francis Drake – second man to circumnavigate the
Henry Hudson Tried to find a Northeast Passage, but
1200 - 1800
The Dutch
By the early years of the 1600’s, the Netherlands,
once a Spanish possession, had become a powerful
trading nation
Henry Hudson –In 1609, to explore the strait and
bay that bear his name.
For the Netherlands, he explored the Hudson River
and reached as far as Albany, New York
Atlantic Explorations
1200 - 1800
Conquest and Colonies
The countries of Europe
established colonies in the
lands they had discovered
but, in some cases, only after
violent conquering the native
people who lived there
The Portuguese and the
Spanish conquered South
The French, English and the
Dutch conquered North
Thus began the first wave of
immigration to America
What is the second? The
third?? The fourth???
The English, under Queen
Elizabeth, after defeating
the Spanish Armanda in 1588
became the dominating
European power in the
Western Hemisphere.
1200 - 1800
Spain Builds an Empire
• First areas –
Caribbean Islands
• Encomienda system – a
colonist was given a
certain amount of land
and a number of
Native Americans to
work the land for him.
• In exchange, teach
Natives about
Natives – overworked,
mistreated, diseases
spread throughout
1200 - 1800
Spanish Conquests: T he Aztecs Mexico
•Fernando Cortez – led an
•Montezuma II –
expedition to Mexico that
ended with conquest of the
Aztec Empire
Aztec emperor in capital –
Tenochtitlan – unpopular
with Natives around
•Conquistador – conqueror of
the Native Peoples
1200 - 1800
T he Death of Montezuma II
•Cortez advantages –
•Native American Allies
•Metal weapons and heavy armor and guns
•On November 8, 1519, battle erupted and Montezuma was
1200 - 1800
Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
•After months of
heavy fighting,
Cortez took the
city and the entire
Aztec Empire
•Next step –
Administration of
an Empire
1200 - 1800
Spanish Conquest: T he Incas Peru
•Francisco Pizarro
•10 years after the conquest of the
Aztecs, a conquistador led an
expedition to Peru
•Heard of the fabulous wealth of
the empire and hoped for some of
that wealth himself
•Just had taken control when the
Spanish arrived
•Inca empire was experiencing civil
•Pizarro demanded that Atahualpa
accept Christianity and hand over
the empire to Spain
1200 - 1800
Administration of the Spanish
Empire in the New World
With the Conquest of the South America, Spain gained control of a
huge empire.
To govern his colony, the Spanish king chose officials called
viceroys, each of whom ruled part of the empire in the king’s name
Encomienda or forced labor of Native Americans to mine gold and
silver and to farm
Result – disease and mistreatment led to 90% fatality rate – 50
million to 4 million
1200 - 1800
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
•Some Spaniards were
appalled at the
treatment of Native
•The most vocal –
Bartolome de Las Casas
– priest who sought to
reform and protect
those who remained.
•Replace Native
Americans with African
•Slave labor became a
common practice in the
New Laws  1542
1200 - 1800
T he Pope’s Line of Demarcation
•Pope Alexander VI
(Spaniard) divided up the
world for Portugal and
Spain to colonize by
creating a line of
demarcation, or an
imaginary line running
down the middle of the
Atlantic Ocean from the
North Pole to the South
•The Proclamation, known
as the Papal Bull of 1493,
draws a line 100 leagues
west of the Azores
Islands. East of the line
goes to Portugal. West
of the line goes to Spain.
Treaty of Tordesillas,
•This proclamation
upset Portugal. In
1494, the Treaty of
extended the line
of demarcation
farther west and
gave Portugal a
piece of mainland
South America
•This solved the
problem between
Spain and Portugal.
• However, France
and England will not
accept either
1200 - 1800
1200 - 1800
French, Dutch, and English
Colonies in the Americas
As silver and gold from Spain’s
and Portugal’s American colonies
began to circulate throughout
Europe, other European
countries paid close attention.
The Dutch
And perhaps the most
successful, the English
1200 - 1800
French Colonization
• French explorers had established several colonies
in the area known as New France, or Canada.
• Canada lacked gold and silver, but was rich in fish
and furs.
• French did not send many explorers, but rather
small trading groups
• Also did not enslave Native American (Noble
• Champlain – Quebec
• La Salle – entire Mississippi River to Gulf to
Mexico – named Louisiana in honor of King Louis
1200 - 1800
Dutch Exploration
Dutch, like the French, were mostly just interested in
Only large Dutch colony was New Netherland, located in
the Hudson River valley –New Amsterdam
Later taken over by the English and remained New York
1200 - 1800
English Colonization
No significant colonies were
established during the 1500’s.
There was relatively poor
They did not have enough money
to set up the colonies.
They did not find gold during
their early explorations.
By the 1600’s, the conditions in
England, under Queen Elizabeth,
Elizabethan Sea Dogs were
tremendous sea captains who
controlled the foreign seas.
They defeated the Spanish
Armada in 1588
England, as a result, started to
build the British Royal Navy.
Relationship with Natives-Devil
Theory -
1200 - 1800
The Founding of Virginia
• Jamestown-1607
• In 1607, three ships entered the Chesapeake Bay and
sailed up a river flowing into the bay. They named the
river the James and their new settlement Jamestown in
honor of King James.
1200 - 1800
Captain John Smith
• He got the people
through the first hard
• He was a soldier and
an explorer who
arrived in 1608.
• He ended communal
living and forced the
settlers to work for
their food and
managed to start
trading with the
T he Virginia Colony
•Although the Virginia colonists did not find any
gold or silver, they did discover another way to
make money. They started to grow tobacco.
•John Rolfe learned how to grow a mild tobacco, and
the first crop was sold in England in 1614.
•John Rolfe married Pocahontas, the daughter of
Chief Powatan.
The Failure of Jamestown
• The settlement was doomed to fail from the
1. no families
2. gentlemen
3. adventurers were only concerned with making money, not
4. no fresh water or food
5. surrounded by hostile Indians
6. practice communal living (not everyone works)
1200 - 1800
The French and Indian War in
North America
George Washington
• The English ran into conflict
with French settlers in the
• 1754 - 1763 –Seven Years
War – English colonists began
settling the French Ohio
River Valley and war broke
• English versus the French and
• In the end, the French lost
possessions in Canada and the
Ohio River Valley.
• The English gained control
over North America; however
the English king, in order to
pay for the war, heavily taxed
the citizens, which led to the
American Revolution
1200 - 1800
European Empires in the Americas
1200 - 1800
3. New Patterns of Trade
The creation of colonies in the Americas, and elsewhere led to the
exchange of a new type of goods, the establishment of new patterns
of trade, and new economic systems.
1200 - 1800
New Colonial Rivals
•Portugal, Spain, France, England and the Netherlands all
competed for lands in the Americas and to expand their
colonial empires.
1200 - 1800
The “Columbian Exchange
Columbian exchange – contact between the two
groups that led to the widespread exchange of
plants, animals, diseases
Western Hemisphere and the Eastern
Hemisphere, plants and animals had developed in
many different ways
The Effects
Exchange of food and animals had a dramatic
impact on later societies
1200 - 1800
T he “Columbian Exchange”
Sweet Potatoes
Citrus Fruits
Whooping Cough
1200 - 1800
The Introduction to New
• European diseases spread to the
Americas – small pox, measles, influenza,
and malaria
• Mexico – decreased by 30% in the first
ten years of contact with Europeans
• Inca empire decreased from about 13
million to 2 million people from 1492 to
• North America – 2 million to 500,000
from 1492 to 1600
1200 - 1800
• The founding of the colonies in the Americas and the
introduction of new goods to Europe led to
significant changes in the European economy
• Mercantilism - An economic system was based a
nation’s strength on its wealth
• Gold and silver
• Leads to intense competition between nations for
wealth during the 1500’s and 1600’s.
1200 - 1800
Balance of Trade
• A difference in value between how much a
nation imports versus how much a nation
• Two ways of getting money
• Extract gold and silver from mines at
home or in the colonies or sell more goods
that it bought from foreign countries
• Tariffs – tax on imported items to
encourage buying similar goods produced
within the nation
1200 - 1800
• The building of colonies were essential to
the mercantilist system
• Colonies only existed to benefit the mother
country – provide the mother with natural
resources and in turn colonies would buy
finished goods
1200 - 1800
The Rise of Capitalism
• New economic system emerged known as
capitalism – economic activity is carried on by
private individuals in order to seek a profit
• As many colonists started making great profits
through trading they sought other methods to
expand their fortunes
• Joint stock companies – investors bought shares
of stock in the company
• If the company received profits, so did the
investors or the shareholders
1200 - 1800
4. Trans-Atlantic Slave
•Between 1500s and the 1800s millions of Africans were
captured, shipped across the Atlantic Ocean, and sold as slaves
in the Americas
1200 - 1800
Origins of the Slave Trade
Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans
Sugar cane & sugar plantations in the Americas
were in need of labor
First boatload of African slaves brought by the
Spanish in 1518.
275,000 enslaved Africans exported
to other countries.
Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to
the Americas.
1200 - 1800
T he Middle Passage
•Triangular trade – first leg consisted of carrying European goods
to Africa to be exchanged for slaves
•Second leg, or Middle Passage, brought African to the Americas
to be sold as slaves
•The Third leg carried American products such as sugar, tobacco,
and rice to Europe
1200 - 1800
“Coffin” Position Below Deck
•A terrifying ordeal – Captive Africans were chained together and
forced into dark, cramped quarters below the ship’s decks.
•In many cases, the Africans were packed into such a small place
that they could neither sit nor stand
1200 - 1800
A frican Captives T hrown
•The Journey usually lasted three to six weeks
•Between 10 and 20 percent of all captives Africans did not survive
the voyage
•As a result, Africans were thrown overboard
•Sharks followed the slave ships
1200 - 1800
Slaves Working in a
Brazilian Sugar Mill
•Slave traders carried captive Africans to many parts of the Americas
•Spanish traders brought many to Caribbean sugar plantations
•Portuguese traders brought millions to Brazil
•The English took most of their captives to the West Indies, but also
many to the Americas
•By 1600s, England dominated the slave trade
1200 - 1800
Slavery in the Colonies
• Laws in the Americas considered Africans to
be property
• Slaves had no rights and no freedoms, and
slaveholders controlled most of the
conditions under which they lived
• Slaves had to meet their own basic needs in
the short hours at the end of the workday
• Their schedules revolved around the
1200 - 1800
Effects of the Slave Trade
• The Atlantic Slave Trade continued for 400
years and devastated societies in West Africa
• Estimated – 15 to 20 million Africans were
shipped to the Americas against their will
• African Diaspora – led to the diffusion of
African culture –including music, art, religion,
and food