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Germanic Kingdoms Unite under Charlemagne The Middle Ages, or Medieval period ran from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance (roughly 500-1500 CE). The 1st half was called the Dark Ages To replace the institutions no longer operating due to the fall, new foundations were established to replace them Invasions trigger changes There were invasions from many different groups, mainly Germanic Constant warfare sparked new developments Disruption of Trade – business collapsed. Cities were no longer economic centers. Money became scarce. Downfall of Cities – Abandoned cities as administration centers Population Shifts – Cities didn’t have strong leadership, nobles moved away to rural areas, as did the common population. People had to grow their own food. So what’s the downside? Decline of Learning – The invaders were illiterate so consequently the level of learning declined. Soon the only people who could read & write were mainly within the church • Loss of a Common Language – Without Roman administration many people no longer used or understood Latin (mainly used in church and official documents). Local languages developed and some that had been Romanized developed by including Latin words. These would later be called Romance Languages Germanic Kingdoms Emerge Small Germanic kingdoms replaced the Roman provinces. There was constant warfare The only thing that provided order & security during the Dark Ages was the Church The whole perception of government changed. There were no longer countries to be proud of – people lived in clans and were personally loyal to the tribe or a chief To replace the institutions no longer operating due to the fall, new foundations were established to replace them The Franks In Gaul, the Franks were led by Clovis. In 496, afraid of defeat, he called upon his wife’s god who was a Christian, to help him After victory, he & 3,000 of his followers were baptized In 511, 15 years later he had united the Franks under one king. The church gave him their blessing By 600 missionaries spread Christianity to most Germanic peoples as well as through the Frankish rulers. Religious communities sprang up in the rural areas called monasteries. Their members were called monks (at convents women were called nuns) They were servants of God and gave up their possessions and joined the monastery. This is Tintern Abbey in England Tintern was the most important abbey in Wales during the Middle Ages St. Catherine's, Egypt Greek Monastery Israel St. Michael’s, Ukraine Austria Melk, Austria Mont St Michel, France • Unhappy with the lack of guidelines in monasteries, St. Benedict a strict but practical list of rules for the spiritual and administrative • This was the most famous monastery Benedict founded – Monte Cassino Built in 527 CE, the abbey would be sacked and destroyed twice, damaged by earthquake, and almost completely obliterated by the US Air Force towards the end of WWII • Pope Gregory I (also known as 1 of only 2 popes with the title “The Great”) expanded papal authority stating that his influence covered all of Western Europe • It was during his 14 years as Pope (590-604) that the papacy became involved in secular (worldly) affairs • He raised armies and acted as the mayor of Rome • After fall of Rome, Europe broke into many small kingdoms • Gaul would be controlled by the Franks • Clovis would begin the Merovingian dynasty. • By 700 the man that actually ruled France was the mayor, or major domo. In 719, the mayor, Charles Martel (the Hammer) had more power than the king. Martel extended France’s borders, and in 732 defeated the Moorish army at the Battle of Tours. Western Europe was essentially saved from Muslim occupation. • Charles Martel’s son, Pepin the Short, helped the church in a battle against the Lombardians and in return they supported him and anointed him King. • This began the dynasty called the Carolingians Dynasty which would last over 200 years. • Pepin’s son replaced him, but died 3 years later. • Pepin’s youngest son, Charles, became king. He would be better known as Charlemagne, or Charles the Great • Here he is with his eldest son, Pepin the Hunchback, who would later be caught in an attempt to overthrow his father. He was sent to a monastery for life. • Charlemagne was supposedly 6ft 4in (at a time the average height in Europe was 5’ 5” • Charlemagne was the defender of the Christian faith. He fought wars throughout Europe • In 800, after helping the Pope he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor which joined together most of Germany, France, and northern Italy. • Charlemagne micro-managed his empire by having either himself or agents check on the state of affairs in each county • A cultural resurgence began under his rule. Monasteries were ordered to open schools and cultural diffusion was encouraged by having scholars from England, German, Italian, and Spanish become part of his court. • Monasteries were also required to copy more and more books so there would be more available tools for learning • When Charlemagne died in 814 C.E. his kingdom was turned over to his only surviving son, Louis the Pious. He was more suited as a monk than a ruler. • His sons were worse. Louis split the empire into 3 parts for his 3 sons, who either spent their time attacking their father or fighting among themselves • Their names were Lothair, Louis the German, and Charles the Bald. As their names imply they weren’t very good rulers.